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Estrangement from people or being with them

Question 060: What is the Sheikh’s interpretation of the following Hadith and is it authentic? Should we try not to get too close to others in order to avoid estrangement? Should respectful boundaries be maintained? “Estrangement from people comes about as a result for knowing them too well.” ~ Imam al-‘Askari (AS).

Answer 060: Living far away from people or being gregarious in a way you enjoy being with them, estrangement or a formed coalition with people, is a subject our scholars have different opinions about. Some say: it is better to estrange from people than being with them instead, according to some traditions in which we are recommended to be so.

Others say, it is better to serve the society, keep company, cooperating and become familiar with people, according to some traditions like al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf wa-n-nahy ʿani-l-munkar (bid what is right and forbid what is wrong) and the following verses of the Holy Quran.

  1. “Hold fast, all together, to Allah’s cord, and do not be divided [into sects]”[1]
  2. “Cooperate in piety and God wariness”[2]

According to Ibin Maitham Bahrani (May His soul rest in peace), both reasons and arguments would be considered as Sahih. No one if preferable to the other at all. For instance, probably a Dr. prescribed a medicine for a person which is suitable for curing him and it’s not appropriate for another one with different symptom of illness.

It is said that living far away from people or being with them depends on each person’s piety, knowledge and faith. E.g. how many knowledgeable person who are considered as a scholar can guide people to the straight path, so one is supposed to cooperate in piety and Allahs (swt) wariness. On the other hand, there are many people who would commit sin if they join a company where committing sin is provided for him easily. So, one is strongly recommended to estrange from such people who encourage him to commit sin.

There are some traditions in which our Imams (AS) tell us to estrange from people in order to know Allah (SWT) better. First step, if we want Allah (swt) to love us, it is recommended to keep away from those people who encourage you to commit sin, as Imam Hasan Askari (as) says. If one wants to become familiar or get closer to Allah (swt), the Almighty, then one should estrange from people because, one of the signs of being a good believer is to do this.[3]

Preserving our faith in situations where people are committing sins can be really difficult. There is a Hadith of Imam Ali (AS) where he says, “If you detect the effects of others you wouldn’t like even to inter him.”[4]

Being aloof is required if we really want to know Allah (swt) better. We have to know Allah (SWT) and try to talk to Him all the time, instead of getting familiar with people whom we don’t know.

Sometimes estrangement from people is advisable, for some people to keep away themselves from those haram gatherings, where there is nothing but play and diversion, ignorance and senseless, backbiting and lying.[5]

Please, keep in mind that observing bonds of marriage and family are completely different. The hadith is not trying to include these kinds of relationships because, we are strongly recommended to be in touch with our close relationships.

[1] . Surah A’le Imran, verse 103. Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 3, Pg. 572.

[2] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 2. Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 5, Pg. 266.

[3] . Musnad of Imam Hasan al-Askari, Pg. 287; The Scale of Wisdom, A Compendium of Shia Hadith, Bilingual Edition, M Muhammadi Rayshahri, The Book of Solitude, hadith 4239, Page 738; Ghurar al-Hikam, no.10187.

[4] . Al-Amali (of Shaykh Saduq), al-Nass, Pg. 446.

[5] . Nahj al-sa’adah fi mustadrak Nahj al-balagha, Vol. 7, Pg. 106-109.

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Proving the splitting of the moon Shaqq al-Qamar, the Miracle of The Holy Prophet (pbuh)

Question 550: Is there any historical record of any other civilizations witnessing the moon split (Shaqq al-Qamar) in Muhammedian Era? And,what does the Imami school believe in the event? As there are refutations that the event never occured and is fabricated,and the verse in the Quran simply indicates to locking of moon into two faces which God speaks would happen during end times.

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHUkrTSwkFQ

 

Answer 550: In order to answer this question precisely, we need to mention some points as follows:

1- The splitting of the moon is one of the great miracles of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).  In surah Inshiqaq, Allah (swt) speaks of this magnanimous incident in such a manner: “اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَ انْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ”[i].  In this verse, two important incidents have been mentioned; one being the nearness of the Day of Judgment which is the greatest change the universe is to undergo, and the other being the significant miracle of splitting the moon which is both a manifestation of Allah’s (swt) never-ending power and proof of Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) prophethood.[ii]

There is more than enough evidence that proves this was a miracle, namely: This matter has been mentioned in the Quran using a past tense verb, showing that the splitting of the moon has taken place, the same way the Day of Judgment has neared as a result of the coming of the final prophet (pbuh).

Add to that the many hadiths in Islamic references that narrate this incident as a miracle of the prophet (pbuh).  These hadiths are so high in number to the extent that they leave no doubt that the splitting of the moon was truly a miracle of the prophet (pbuh), a few of the ahadith narrated in Shia and Sunni sources are as follows:

 

Sheikh Sadouq: Sheikh Sadouq (ra) quoted: Muhammad bin Ebrahim bin Ishaq Taleqani (ra) told me that I heard from Abul Qasim Hussain bin Rooh that he narrated a saying of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) that He said the Shaqq al-Qamar (splitting the moon) is one of the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) miracles.[iii]

 

Sheikh Mufid: Sheikh Mufid narrated a hadith from Imam sadiq (as) that He said: The moon has been split into two parts by Allah, the Almighty.[iv]

 

Ahmad bin Muhammad: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Salt narrated from ibn Oqda Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed from Ali bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ali Hussaini from Ja’afar bin Muhammad bin Eisa from Obaidullah bin Ali from Imam Reza (as) from His father, grandfather, great grandfather from Imam Ali (pbuth) that the Moon has split into two parts in Mecca, then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: Be Witness, witness (this miracle)[v]

 

Anas bin Malik: Bukhari narrated a hadith from Abdullah bin Abdul Wahhab from Bashar bin Mofaddal from Saeed bin Abu Arooba from Qatada from Anas bin Malik: the people of Mecca wanted the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to bring a miracle, so the Prophet showed them the Moon has been split by Him in a way they saw the Hira mountain between the two parts.[vi]

 

Abdullah bin Muhammad narrated from Younes from Shayban from Qatadat from Anas bin Malik and Khalifa from Yazid bin Zaree from Saeed from Qatada from Anas bin Malik that the people of Mecca wanted the holy Prophet (pbuh) to bring a miracle to prove His Nubuwwat and the Prophet showed it to them.[vii]

The same tradition also narrated from Muslim from Zuhayr bin Harb from Abd bin Hamid from Younes bin Muhammad from Shayban from Qatada.[viii] It is also mentioned in Musnad Ahmad from Abudolla from his father from Younes bin Muhammad ….[ix]

 

Abdullah Bin Abbas: Bukhari narrated from Yahya bin Bokayr from Bakr from Ja’afar from Ark bin Malik from Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah from ibn Abbas that the Moon split at the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh).[x]

Muslim from Musa bin Quraish al-Tamimi from Ishaq bin Bakr bin Modher from his father from Jafar bin Rabiah from Arak bin Malik from Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah bin Masood from ibn Abbas that the Moon was split at the time of the holy Prophet (pbuh). [xi]Also, Tabara narrated it from ibn al-Muthanna from Abdul A’ala, from Dawood from Ali bin Abbas about the verse of the holy Quran “Iq­tarabatessâ’ato  wânshaqqal­qamar” that this issue has been done before the Hegira that people saw the Moon split into two parts. [xii]

 

Abdullah bin Masood:  bukhari narrated from Sadaqa bin Fadl from ibn Ayniyya from Abu Nujayh from Mujahid from Abu Mo’mar from Abdullah bin Masood that the Moon split into two parts at the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and then the Prophet (s) said: Witness, witness (this miracle)…. [xiii]

Muslim from Ubaidullah bin Ma’az Anbari from his father from Sho’bah from A’amash from Ebrahim from Abu Mo’amar from Abdullah bin Masood narrated the same, then the one part of the Moon was covered by mountain and the other was above the mountain, so the Prophet (pbuh) said: Witness….[xiv]

The same hadith also narrated from different chain of narraotros: … Ahmad from Abdullah from his father from Sofyan from ibn Abu Nojayh from Mujahid from Abu Mo’amar from ibn Masood. [xv]

 

What is more interesting is the reason why this miracle took place.  The disbelievers said that magic and sorcery only have an effect on the earth, so in order to be sure of the prophet (pbuh) being truthful in his claim and that his miracles aren’t plain magic, they proposed that he split the moon.[xvi]

 

Despite seeing such evident miracles, the disbelievers (of Quraish) accused the Holy Prophet (pbuh) of being magician, Soothsayer, Mad Man and Liar. In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “Therefore continue to remind, for by the Grace of your Lord, you are not a soothsayer, nor a mad man”.[xvii] Also, in the holy Quran Allah (SWT) describes such disbelievers “They impugned them though they were convinced in their hearts wrongfully and defiantly. So observe how was the fate of the agents of corruption!”.[xviii] Although, the disbelievers were sure about the miracles but they denied them. [xix]

The disbelievers had been saying that since the magic cannot be affective in the sky, so they told the holy Prophet (pbuh) that if you split the Moon into two parts we would certainly acknowledge your faith. Thus, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) split it in Mecca on the fourteenth night of Dhu al-Hijjah, but they did not have faith.[xx]

 

2- The splitting of the moon and contemporary science:  First off, not only isn’t the splitting and breaking of celestial bodies possible according to astrology and science, but takes place a lot too, although the causes of such phenomena may vary.

To put it another way, splitting, breakage and explosions frequently occur in space; for instance, scientists today say that the solar system came about through an explosion that involved the sun, breaking parts of it off, hence the different members of the “family” of the solar system.[xxi]

Anyway, the splitting of celestial bodies isn’t something that hasn’t happened before, and isn’t considered scientifically impossible, so it can’t be said that something impossible was the subject of a miracle.

As for the moon coming together again after splitting, it is because of the gravitational force between the two halves, although this fact isn’t correct according to the Ptolemaic system of astrology, because according to this system, our solar system is made up of nine spheres that are stuck together like the layers of an onion, making their splitting and coming together impossible, and it is because of this that the advocates of this system didn’t believe in bodily ascension to the skies and the splitting of the moon, because it necessitated the piercing of these spheres.  But today, this system isn’t followed anymore and is considered an incorrect and out-of-date one so its claims on the splitting of the moon being impossible are disregarded.[xxii]  According to NASA, our moon has indeed split before and come together again.  The official website of Al-Watan, an Arabic newspaper printed in the US, has quoted a Jordanian astronomer and space specialist saying: “After years of orbiting the moon and doing research, the space probe “Clementine” has reached the conclusion that the moon has split into two halves hundreds of years ago, and come together again.”  This astronomer has sent a report to NASA explaining that Muslims believe this phenomenon belongs to 1400 years ago and is a miracle of their prophet; a phenomenon that NASA still hasn’t been able to discover the true cause to, because it is a unique one that hasn’t taken place for other celestial bodies.[xxiii]

Two more points to consider:

1- Proving Islamic facts that are somewhat metaphysical, isn’t possible through normal science that is limited to this material world and is only physical, especially since it has developed in an environment that has had nothing to do with Islam.

2- If an issue is logically possible, without any reason for its impossibility, and is something that Islam firmly says has taken place, there is no longer any need to prove it scientifically; although it is sometimes better to do so, so that one becomes personally sure of the fact’s truth.

[i] Inshiqaq:1 “The Day of Judgment has drawn near and the moon split”

[ii] Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 23, pp. 7-8.

[iii] . Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’mat, Sadouq, Vol. 1, Pgs. 507-509, Muhammad bin Ali bin Hussain bin Babwyh Qummi, 381 A.H, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyya Publication, Qom, 1395 A.H;  Al-Ihtijaj, Tabarsi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 471-473, Abu Mansour, Ahmad bin Ali bin Abu Talib, Mortada Publication, The holy city of Mashad, 1403 A.H.

[iv] . Al-Irshad fee Marefat Hujajallah ala al-Ebad, Mufid, Vol. 2, Pg. 385, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Noman, 413 A.H, Hezareh Sheikh Mufid International Congress, Qom, 1413 A.H. (eleventh volume of the collection of Sheikh Mufid’s works).

[v] . Al-Amali Liltoosi, Toosi, Vol. 1, Pg. 341, Sheikh al-Taefat Abu Ja’afar Muhammad bin Hasan, 460 A.H, Dar al-Thiqafa, Qom, 1414 A.H.

[vi] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 3, Pg. 1404, N 3655, Bukhari al-Jofi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.H, Tahqiq Mostafa Dib al-Baqa, Dar ibn Kathir, al-Yamama, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[vii] . Ibid, Pg. 1331, N 3438.

[viii] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 2802, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul-Hasan Qushayri Nayshaboori, 261 A.H. Taliq wa Tahqiq Muhammad Foad Abdul Baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[ix] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, Pg. 207, N. 13177, Ahmad bin Hanbal Abu Abullah al-Shaybani, 241 A.H. Qortaba Institution, al-Qahirah (Cairo).

[x] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 4, Pg. 1843, N. 4585, Bukhari al-Jofi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.H. Tahqiq Mostafa Dib al-Baqa, Dar ibn Kathir, al-Yamama, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[xi] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 48- 2803, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul Hasan Nayshaboori, 261 A.h, Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xii] . Jame al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tabari, Vol. 27, Pg. 51, Abu Ja’afar Muhammad bin Jarir, 310 A.h. Dar al-Marefat, Beirut, 1412 A.h.

[xiii] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 3, Pg. 1330, N. 3437, Bukhari al-Jo’fi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.h. Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xiv] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 43- 2800, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul Hasan Nayshaboori, 261 A.h, Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xv] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ahmad bin Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Sheybani, Vol. 1, Pg. 377, N. 3583, 241 A.H. Qortaba Institution, Cairo;  Majma al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tabarsi, Vol. 9, Pg. 310, Amin al-Islam Abu Ali Fadl bin Hasan bin Fadl, 548 A.h. Naser Khosrow Publication, Tehrn.

[xvi] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 17, pg. 355 (hadith 10).

[xvii] . Surah al-Toor, verse 29.

[xviii] . Surah al-Naml, verse 14.

[xix] . Makarem Shirazi, Naser, tafsir Nemoonah, Vol. 15, Pgs. 413-414, Tehran, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, first edition.

[xx] . Atyab al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tayyib Sayyid Abdul-Hussain, Vol. 12, Pg. 346.

[xxi] Of course there is a debate between different scientists on this subject; some say the main cause was the sun’s centrifugal force, while others say it was the flux and reflux of the sun because of another star nearing the sun.

[xxii] With help from Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 23, pp. 12-19.

[xxiii] Jomhouriye Eslami (newspaper), issue no. 7608 (23rd of Mehr, 1384, pg.5).

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First Children of Adam and Eve / Cain (Qabil) and Iqlima or Abel and Layouza

Question 551: When was the first person (Prophet Adam) born? Was the First Children of Adam and Eve Cain (Qabil) and Iqlima or Abel and Layouza?

Answer 551: There is no certain opinion about the number of children of the Prophet Adam (as). Because, there are many differences have been mentioned in authentic historical sources regarding this issue. Since the story of Adam and Eve and their children was for a long time ago the historians were unable to record such information exactly.

According to Tabarsi, when Adam and Eve left Paradise and began their life on earth, Allah (SWT) willed their generation be spread out across the earth. Eve was having twins every time she was giving birth. They named the first twins as follows: the son Cain (Qabil) and the girl Iqlima. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister Layouza.

The children grew up to be reached the age of puberty. In order to maintain and earn livelihood, Cain decided to be a farmer and Abel a rancher.

According to the order coming from Allah the Almighty, Adam told Cain and Abel to present a sacrifice to Allah (SWT). Cain offered a bunch of wheat and Abel presented a sheep as a sacrifice. A fire coming down from the sky took Abel’s sacrifice, but Cain’s sacrifice remained on the earth.

In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says:  “Relate to them truly the account of Adam’s two sons. When the two of them offered an offering, it was accepted from one of them and not accepted from the other. [One of them] said,” Surely I will kill you.” [The other one] said,” Allah accepts only from the God wary.  Even if you extend your hand toward me to kill me, I will not extend my hand toward you to kill you. Indeed I fear Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.  I desire that you earn [the burden of]   my sin and your sin, to become one of the inmates of the Fire, and such is the requital of the wrongdoers.”  So his soul prompted him to kill his brother, and he killed him, and thus became one of the losers.  Then Allah sent a crow, exploring in the ground, to show him how to bury the corpse of his brother. He said,” Woe to me! Am I unable to be [even] like this crow and bury my brother’s corpse?” Thus he became regretful.[1]

When Abel was murdered by Cain, Adam (A.S) mourned and lamented on the death of his son… And God, the Almighty granted him Seth (A.S) alone without a twin sister. Seth’s name is Hebatollah [A gift from God] and he is the first man to become the deputy and the successor to a prophet. After Seth (A.S) God granted Adam (A.S) with Japheth without a twin.

In his book Nizam al-Tawarikh, Qadhi Naser Baydawi said about the children of Adam and Eve: Eve gave one hundred and twenty birth. Cain was the fourth body child. According to this opinion, Adam and Eve had 239 children. [2]

In Tarikh Tabari it is mentioned three opinions about the number of children of Adam and Eve as follows:

  1. One hundred and twenty Children including girls and boys.
  2. Forty boys and girls.
  3. Twenty five boys and 4 girls[3]. [4]

[1] . Surah al-Maedah, verses 27-31.

[2] . Nizam al-Tawarikh, Baydhawi, Naser al-Din, and Mir Hashim, Mohaddith, Pgs. 5-6.

[3] . Tarikh Tabari, Tarikh al-Umam wal-Muluk, Vol. 1, Pg. 145.

[4] . Adopted from answer 681.

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Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala

Question 057: Can I do the ziyarat for Imam Hussein (as) from home? How does one determine the direction of Karbala?

Answer 057: You can do the ziyarat for Imam Hussein (as) from home. You say, ‘Assalamo-Alaika Ya’ Aba Ab’dillah Al-Husain’. It does not matter where you are, because the ziyarat depends on your niyat (intention). Just do it with all your heart.
It is recommended to do Ziyarat in the direction of Karbala, however you are allowed to do it in the direction of the Qibla.

When Imam Baqir (as) explained to Alqama the rewards of Ziyarat Ashura, Alqama asked: May I be ransom for you! What reward is for those who are away from Karbala and it is impossible for them to come to visit the holy shrine of Imam Hussain (as) on the day of Ashura? The Imam replied: I divinely promise that if one does Ziyara of Imam Hussain from far away on this day he would be given all the rewards.

The Imam explained how to do Ziyarat as follows: One should be in an open place and in the direction of Imam Hussain (as), curse the Imam’s killers, offer two rak’at prayer before noon, mourn and cry for Him and invite his family to mourn and condole Shia Muslims when meet each other. If the one do so I would certainly promise that he gets all the rewards (i.e. the rewards have been determined for doing Ziyarat of Imam Hussain (as)).[1]

 

Ibn Abi Umayr quoted from Imam Sadiq (as) that He said: Certainly we are given the salaams of those of you who are far away from our shrines, but go to an open place offer two rak’ats prayer and say Salaam while pointing our graves.[2]

There is another tradition in which Sudayr, one of the followers of Imam sadiq (as) narrated it, saying that Ziyarat of Imam Hussain (as) has more rewards for those who are even far away from the holy shrine if they go to an  open place, look at their right and left sides, raise their head toward the sky and be in the direction of the holy shrine of Imam Hussain (as) and then say: Assalamo-Alaika Ya’ Aba Ab’dillah, Assalamo-Alaika wa Rahmatullhi wa Barakatuhu.[3]

A narrator asked Imam Sadiq (as): May I be ransom for you! What should I say whenever I remember Imam Hussain (as)? The Imam (as) replied: Say thrice: “Sallallahu Alaika Ya Aba Abdillah”, as He is received the Salaam from near and far.[4]

Note: If you want to find the direction of Qibla and other holy places you would be able to head over Google Map and choose Karbala (the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (as)), use some other means related to this issue or download some useful apps such as: حقیبة المؤمن and “Bad e Saba.” via internet, and mobile app stores.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Ziyarat Ashura, Arabaeen, Ameenullah and Warith, answer 253.

Index: Going for Hajj or Ziyarat / Ziyarat of Imam Hussain (as) is better or Imam Reza (as), answer 124.

[1] . Kamel al-Ziyarat, chapter 71, Pg. 175, H. 8;  Biharul Anwar, Vol. 98, Pg. 290, H. 1.

[2] . Ibid, chapter 96, Pg. 286, H. 1.

[3] . Ibid, Pg. 287, H. 2

[4] . Kafi, Vol. 4, Pg. 575, H. 2.

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Ways to Greet in Islam with Muslims and Non-Mahram

Question 369: Is it okay to greet those Muslims with “As Salam O Alaikum” who reply it with “Hi”? Ways to greet in Islam?

 Answer 369: Salman Farsi (ra) narrated: A man went to the holy Prophet and said: Peace (salaam) be upon you ‘O the messenger of Allah. The prophet replied: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you. Another man came and said: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you, ‘O the messenger of Allah. The Prophet replied: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you. Another one came and said: Peace, mercy and blessing of Allah be upon you, ‘O the messenger of Allah. The Prophet only replied: same to you! The man said: May my parents be ransom upon you, ‘O the messenger of Allah, when others came and saluted you, You added more in reply to them, but me!  The Prophet said: Because, you have said everything you should say.

He has also said: In the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “When you are greeted with a salute, greet with a better one than it, or return it; indeed Allah takes account of all things”.[1]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

الدرُّ المنثورُ عَن سَلمانِ الفارسيِّ : جاءَ رَجُلٌ إلى النبيِّ صلى الله عليه و آله فقالَ : السلامُ علَيكَ يا رسولَ اللّه ِ ، فقالَ : و علَيكَ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ ، ثُمّ أتى آخَرُ فقالَ : السلامُ علَيكَ يا رسولَ اللّه ِ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ ، فقالَ : و علَيكَ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ و بَرَكاتُهُ ، ثُمّ جاءَ آخَرُ فقالَ : السلامُ علَيكَ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ و بَركاتُهُ ، فقالَ لَهُ : و علَيكَ ، فقالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ : يا نَبِيَّ اللّه ِ ـ بِأبي أنتَ و اُمّي ـ أتاكَ فُلانٌ و فُلانٌ فَسَلَّما علَيكَ فَرَدَدتَ علَيهِما أكثَرَ مِمّا رَدَدتَ عَلَيَّ ! فقالَ : إنَّكَ لَم تَدَعْ لَنا شيئا ، قالَ اللّه ُ : و إذا حُيِّيتمُ بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأحسَنَ مِنها أو رُدُّوها فَرَدَدناها علَيكَ.

Imam Sadiq (as) says: If one says: Peace be upon you, he will be given ten rewards. If one says: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you, he will be given twenty rewards and if one says Peace and blessing and mercy of Allah be upon you, he will be given thirty rewards.[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْمُنْذِرِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ‏ مَنْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَهِيَ عَشْرُ حَسَنَاتٍ وَ مَنْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ‏ فَهِيَ‏ عِشْرُونَ‏ حَسَنَةً وَ مَنْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ فَهِيَ ثَلَاثُونَ حَسَنَةً.

Therefore, if we are greeted with a salute (like Hi), we are supposed to greet with a better one than it, according to the holy Quran and sayings of the Infallibles (pbuth).

According to some scholars, it is makruh for a man or woman to greet a non-Mahram, though, according to others, there would be no problem in it if there is no fear of sin.[3]

Note: There are exceptions to this teaching though, greeting non-Muslims being one of them. In jurisprudential books, greeting non-Muslims has been deemed as makruh: “When responding to the greetings of a non-Muslim, keep it short [by saying ‘alayk’ or ‘alaykum’].”[4]

According to some scholars, greeting with Kafir is impermissible when it is not necessary.[5] But, if it helps you invite him to Islam there would be no problem in it.[6]

For further information, please read the following answers:

Index:  Greeting with Salam is mustahab responding to it is wajib, answer 062.

Index: Giving Salam or response to ones salam during Khutbah, answer 135.

[1] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 86; Tafsir al-Tabari, Tafsir Surah al-Nisa, Pgs. 586-590, Q 10044; Al-Durrul Manthur, Vol. 2, Pg. 605.

[2] . Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 1, Pg. 526; al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 645; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 12, Pg. 66.

[3] . Al-Hadaeq al-Nadhera, Vol. 9, Pg. 83; Mustand al-Shia, Vol. 7, Pg. 73; al-Urwatul Wuthqa, Vol. 3, Pg. 25; Majma al-Faeda, Vol. 3, Pg. 120; Ghanaem al-Ayyam, Vol. 3, Pg. 237.

[4] See: Fazel Lankarani, Muhammad, Ahkame Javanan, p. 182, Amir Qalam Press, Qum, 1427 AH; Tabatabai Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad Kadhim, Al-Urwat al-Wuthqa ma’a Ta’liqat al-Fazel, vol. 1, p. 536, Aimmah Athaar Jurisprudential Center, Qum, without date of publication.

[5] . Al-Hadaeq al-Nadhera, Vol. 9, Pgs. 84-85; Mustand al-Shia, Vol. 7, Pg. 74.

[6] . The official website of the office of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi.

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Al-Ahkam Al-Khamsah / Wajib, Haram, Mustahab, Makru and Mubah

Question 341:  As Salam O Ale Kum. What is meaning of Mubah? What action of shariah is Mubah in Islam? Does following any Mubah is haram upon Ahlulbait AS? Does Mutah comes under category of Mubah?

 Answer 341: When it comes to the practical laws of Islam or what is known as “Ahkaam al-Khamsah” in Arabic terminology, we must say that every act that a duty-bound (mukallaf) does is either wajib (obligatory), haram (prohibited), mustahab (recommended) makrooh (abominable) or mubah (allowable).

If any action that has no specific ruling (i.e. it is not wajib, haram, mustahab or makruh) is considered as Mubah (allowable, permissible), so doing or avoiding it is equal and it has no Divine Reward and Punishment.[1]

In hadiths and sources, mubah also is used in a more general meaning of “ja’iz” (unprohibited) and “halal” (allowed). But, there is difference between Mubah and Halal. Halal is the opposite of haram and includes everything that is not haram. Based on this, halal is more general than mubah, meaning that every mubah is halal, but not every halal is mubah, like makruh which is halal but not mubah.

According to some ahadith, mutah is mubah and halal but not mustahab. In this regards, Imam Kadhim (as) said: Mutah is Halal, Mubah and Ja’iz for one whose wife is away. [2]

Arabic version of this hadith:

هي حلال مباح مطلق لمن لم يغنه الله بالتزويج فليستعفف بالمتعة فإن استغنى عنها بالتزويج فهي مباح له إذا غاب عنها

According to others, it is considered as a mustahab act.[3]

Imam Sadiq (as) said: It is mustahab for men to do mutah.[4]

Arabic version:

أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَال‏: يُسْتَحَبُ‏ لِلرَّجُلِ‏ أَنْ‏ يَتَزَوَّجَ‏ الْمُتْعَةَ وَ مَا أُحِبُّ لِلرَّجُلِ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا حَتَّى يَتَزَوَّجَ الْمُتْعَةَ وَ لَوْ مَرَّة

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index:  Rules of Mutah (temporary marriage), answer 079.

[1] . Adopted from answer 223

[2] . Sheikh Hurr Ameli, Wasael al-Shia, Beirut, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1104 A.H. Vol. 14, Pgs. 449-450.

[3] . Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 30, Pgs. 139 & 151; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 21, Pg. 13;  The official website of Ayatollah Bahjat (ra), rules of temporary marriage, Q 527.

[4] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 21, Pg. 15; Biharul Anwar, Vol. 100, Pg. 305.

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Fixed Times of Daily Prayers / when they become Qaza

Question 297: Assalam o alaikum, How do I know when exactly does prescribed time for maghrib prayer passes away? I.e. the moment after which maghrib should be prayed qadha. What are the Fixed Times of Daily Prayers?

Answer 297: There are three time periods allocated to every one of the five daily prayers that are as follows:
1- The specific period: the period in which no other prayer can be performed.
2- The common period: the period in which you can perform Dhuhr and Asr or Maghrib and Isha prayers. It must be noted that their order must be observed (at noon, the Dhuhr prayer must be done before Asr, and at night, the Maghrib prayer must be done before Isha).
3- The time of merit: The period which praying in has more thawab or reward.[1]

The time of the significance of Maghrib is from sunset till the disappearance of the redness which usually appears in the West after the sunset. The time of the significance of Isha prayers is from the time when the said redness disappears till completion of one-third of the night.

The due time for the Maghrib and Ishã’ prayers in ordinary circumstances is from Maghrib (evening) till midnight, out of which the time for Maghrib prayer is reserved from its beginning to the extent it is required for offering it, and the Ishã’ prayer for the last according to the circumstances of the person offering the prayer, and the time between them is common to both.

If a person does not offer both the (Maghrib and Ishã’) prayers until midnight in case of emergency due to sleep, forgetfulness, menstruation, etc., or deliberately, it is more cautious for him to offer both the prayers upto the beginning of the morning with the intention of what he owes.

In case the time left for beginning of the morning is not sufficient for offering both the prayers, he should, by way of precaution, offer the Ishã’ prayers. It is more cautious to offer both the compensatory prayers in succession after the due time.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Allocated time for offering Obligatory Prayers, answer 534.

Index: Three time periods allocated to each of the five daily prayers, answer 199.

[1] . Adopted from answer 199 (Index: Three time periods allocated to each of the five daily prayers).

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Chapter on Preliminaries of Prayer, Pg. 138, Q 6.

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Permissibility of getting Divorce when your partner has lied

Question 295: Salam, I am a shia- asnashari recently as per islamic gudielines I married a girl who claimed to be a syed, (had seen isteqara based on the name as given in profile but her name was different) after marriage I found that neither the girl is a syed, was married earlier and there is no compatablity and as this marriage is based on falsehood I want to divorce her, (dowry is not a issue as I have not demanded any thing before or after marriage I am financially well off and dont need any thing) I have paid the mehar at the time of marriage. what is the procedure of initiating a divorce. the marriage lasted less then a week and I have sent her home to her family. I had based this marriage on truth and had not hidden any facts with respect to my age, qualifications, family, income, etc. marriage from my side was based on facts and from her side was based on falsehood. please inform me how to get myself out of this mess.

Answer 295: The biggest capital in a couple’s life is truthfulness and honesty. If there is honesty in a family there would be no ground for any misunderstanding and misconception. The biggest problem can be ironed out through honesty and honest relationships.

On the other hand, wives and husbands must be kind to each other, have forgiveness and overlook the mistakes of one another in order to have a lovely and healthy living.

If the characteristics you’ve mentioned truly exist in their immoral sense in your wife, you should make her recognize such actions with soft, loving and kind words.

If she accepts her faults and truly ask forgiveness of Allah (SWT), then turn to Him you are recommended to forgive her, overlook [her ignorance] and live with each other, as in the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “So pardon them and turn away Surely Allah loves those who do good (to others)”.[1]

Also, we as Muslim are supposed to follow what has been stated by the holy Prophet (pbuh). He (s) says: “The best of you is the one who is best among his family and I am the best to my family among you”.[2] So, you can overlook her ignorance and live together.

If you think it is impossible to live together in any way you are able to divorce her, because divorce is despised when it is done without an acceptable excuse, but if there is a good excuse for divorce, it will no longer be hated, and that is what divorce is for; for when there is no other way out.

How to get divorce:

Divorce is a one-sided contract (which is one of the unilateral obligationsiqa’at“) and it is carried out by the husband unilaterally even though the woman may not consent to it.” Therefore, a man can divorce his wife one-sidedly in accordance with the rules prescribed by the religion.

Divorce contract must be recited with the correct Arabic words in a way such that two just men listen to it. If the man wants to recite it by himself and his wife’s name is Fatimah, he should say:
“زَوْجَتِى فٰاطِمَةُ طالِقٌ”

Which means, my wife Fatimah is freed. If he appoints someone to recite it, the attorney should say[3]:[4]
“زَوْجَةُ مُوكِّلى فٰاطِمَةُ طٰالِقٌ”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Living away from home for a long time is not considered as the reason for Divorce, answer 468.

Index: Conditions of divorce and Validity of getting divorce by SMS, answer 423.

[1] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 13.

[2] . Sheikh Saduq, Man la Yahduruhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, pg. 555, Jame’eh Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH.

[3] . Imam Khomeini, Tawzih al-Masaeil (al-mohasha), ibid, p 522, question 2508, compiler: Bani Hashemi Khomeini, Syed Muhammad Hussain, the office of Islamic propagation, Qom, eighth edition, 1424 AH.

[4] . Adopted from answer 468 (Index: Living away from home for a long time is not considered as the reason for Divorce).

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Saying Ameen during prayer invalidate the prayer

Question 017: How do I explain to my Muslim brothers that responding loudly after the Sheikh, during prayers is not part of Islam?
Answer 017: As for the Islamic laws, such as prayer, khums, zakat and etc., can only be determined by the divine legislator (share’: i.e. the acts of worship in which the contents (of prayer and etc.) are determined by the Holy Quran and traditions from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and his household) which is called Ahkam Tauqifi, one who even has deep knowledge about Islam is unable to add anything other than what has been ordered by the divine legislator.

In prayer, one must not recite anything other than ‘ḏikr’; otherwise the prayer would become void. Just as the Shia have obtained all the rest of their teachings through the instructions and commandments of the Prophet and his household (pbuth), in this matter too they act in accordance to their instructions.

Based upon narrations, the Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) have told us that ‘saying ‘Ameen’ after reciting sūrah ‘al-Hamd’ is not part of the prayer, hence it is not permissible to say it’. It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (pbuh): ‘Whenever you are praying in congregation, and the leader of the congregation finishes reciting ‘Al-Hamd’, do not say ‘Ameen’, say instead ‘Alḥamdulillāh rabbi al-ʿālamīn’. [1]

The maraji’ have given the following fatwa based on the mentioned narration: ‘Of the acts which invalidate the prayer; is saying ‘Ameen’ after reciting ‘al-Hamd’, although if someone says it mistakenly or out of ‘taqīyah’ (dissimulation), the prayer is not void’. [2]

Finally, it is necessary to mention that according to Shīʿah Islamic law, it is not actually compulsory to say ‘Alḥamdulillāh rabbi al-ʿālamīn’ after ‘al-Hamd’; it is just mustahabb (recommended) . However, most Sunni schools of thought consider it an obligatory part of prayer, hence the onus is upon them to verify their claim through the Qur’ān and Prophetic Traditions.

Note: The traditions concerning the saying of Āmīn in prayer are of two types:

1) Traditions in which the chain of narrators includes Abu-Hurayrahh; e.g. “It is narrated from the Prophet (saws) that he said, ‘When the Congregation leader recites ‘walāḍ ḍāllīn’, you should say ‘Ameen’ because the angels [also] say ‘Āmīn’. Therefore every person who says Āmīn alongside with the angels will have all of his past sins forgiven.’”[3]

This group of traditions cannot be trusted due to the fact that the chain of narrators includes Abu Hurayrahh.[4]
Alī (as) says the following about Abu Hurayrah, “The most dishonest person in relation [to attributing lies] to the Prophet (saw) is Abu Hurayrah”[5] (i.e. he fabricated many traditions and attributed them to the Prophet (saw)).

2) Traditions in which the following people are included in the chain of narrators (of which none meet the criterion for being acceptable in terms of ‘hadīth’ narration): Ḥamīd ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Laylī, Ibn ‘adī, ‘Abd al-Jabbar bin wa’il, Suhayl ibn Abī Suhayl, ‘ala’ ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, and Talha ibn ‘Umar. Ḥamīd ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Lalī possessed a weak memory and is considered ‘weak’ (in terms of narrating Hadīth), Ibn ‘adī is an unknown figure (majhul), ‘Abd al-Jabbār bin Waa’il cannot narrate from his father since his father died six months before he was born (in this respect the tradition is weak). Regarding Suhayl ibn Abī Suhayl and ‘Ala’ ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, Abu Haatam says, “Their narrations are recorded (written down), however they bare no authority and Talha ibn ‘Umar is not usable (for narrating hadith), his traditions are extremely weak.”[6]

With the existence of such weak and unreliable narrators in the chain of narrations, these narrations have no credibility and cannot be trusted.

Some [scholars] have tried to justify saying Āmīn in prayer with the following explanation: “[We] say Āmīn because the phrase ‘Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm’ is a du‘a (supplication).”

In reply to this, it must be stated that this phrase only becomes a supplication if it is recited with the intention of supplicating, however those reciting it intend for it to be a part of the prayers and the Quran recited therein, not as a supplication.
Furthermore, if it were permissible to recite every supplicatory phrase for example ‘rabbanā aghfir lanā wa qinā ‘adhāba al-nār’ with the intention of supplicating, then it should also be permissible to recite Āmīn after every supplication, yet no one [of the scholars] holds this view.[7]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

[1] Tusi, Muhammad bin al-Hasan, al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, pg. 74.

[2] Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated by Imam Khomeini), vol. 1, pg. 617. This ruling is agreed upon by all the respected jurists.

[3] . Baydawi, Naasir al-Din Abu al-Khayr Abdullah ibn Umar, Anwaar al-Tanzil wa Asraar al-Ta’wil, vol. 1, p. 32, Ihyaa’ al-Turaath al-Arabi Press, Beirut, 1418 AH.

[4] . Abu Hurayrah Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Sakhr al-Azudi (22 BH-59 AH): eight hundred Sahaabis and Taabi’is have narrated from him. During his rule, Umar appointed him as governor of Bahrain, but due to his weakness in character and leniency, he was dismissed from this responsibility. He spent most of his life in Medinah. Taqiyuddin Sabki has a booklet entitled “Fataawaa Abi Hurayrah”, and Abd al-Husayn Sharafuddin has a book entitled “Abu Hurayrah” on him. (Al-A’laam 4/80, 81). Hujjati, Asbaab al-Nuzul, p. 216.

[5] . See: Ibn Abi al-Hadid Mu’tazili, ‘Izz al-Din Abu Hamed, Sharh Nahjul-Balaghah, vol. 4, p. 68, Library of Ayatullah Mar’ashi Najafi, 1956, first edition.

[6] . See: Sultani, Abd al-Amir, Hukm al-Ta’min fi al-Salah, Ahlul Bayt World Assembly, second edition.

[7] . See: Sabzawari, Ali Mu’min Qummi, Jaami’ al-Khilaaf wa al-Wifaaq bayn al-Imaamiyyah wa bayn A’immat al-Hijaaz wa al-Iraaq, Zamineh Saazane Zuhure Imam Zamaan Press, 1421 AH, first edition, Qum.

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Number of things which invalidate the prayer

Question 547: Can you please tell us those things which invalidate the prayer?

Answer 547: There are a number of things which invalidate the prayer. They are called mubtilat, as follows:

1, The minor and major pollutions, (i.e., urine, feces, Janabat, etc.) They invalidate the prayer whenever they occur in the prayer, though at the time of reciting the letter “mim” which comes in the Salam (at the conclusion of the prayer), regardless whether it is done deliberately, erroneously or inadvertently, to the exclusion of one suffering from incontinence in urination, stool or a Mustahadah (a woman having undue menses), as has been mentioned earlier.

 2, Takfir or Takattuf, which means putting one hand over the other in the way it is done by others than ourselves (i.e. the non-Shi’ahs). It invalidates the prayers, according to the stronger opinion, if done deliberately, but not if done inadvertently, though it is more cautious to offer the prayer again. There is, however, no objection if it is done by way of Taqiyyah.

3, Turning the whole body backwards or towards the right or left or between them, in a way that the person offering the prayer would cease to be facing the Qiblah. If it is done deliberately, it would invalidate the prayer in all circumstances. Rather even if a person turns his body in a way that it ceases to be between the east and west, even if it is done inadvertently or forcibly or the like. Of course, the prayer would not be invalidated if a person turns to the right or left in a way that he continues facing the Qiblah as soon as he becomes easy; otherwise, it would be rendered disapproved. If, however, the turning is so serious that the face of the person offering prayers turns to the right or left of the Qiblah, then, according to the stronger opinion, the prayer shall be rendered void.

4, Speaking deliberately, even if the word spoken contains two meaningless letters, i.e., the person offering the prayer uses a meaningless word consisting of two letters in its kind or type, which, according to the stronger opinion, would invalidate the prayer, and even in case otherwise it would invalidate the prayer, according to the more cautious opinion.

  1. 5. Laughter even if forcibly. Of course, there is no objection if done inadvertently, as there is no objection in smiling even if intentionally

Laughter means laughing loudly when the sound revolves in the throat According to the more cautious opinion, to this is added as a rule laughing which consists of only sound, and even if it consists of the sound as well as the sound revolving in the throat supposing the person to have controlled himself from laughing when, for example, his mouth becomes full of laughter and his face turns red and he start trembling. In such case his prayer is not rendered void except when its very appearance is changed.

6, Weeping deliberately and loudly on some mundane loss, except when one starts weeping for an error in prayer, or some matter relating to Hereafter, or while asking for some mundane thing from Allah, the Exalted, particularly when the thing asked for is preferable from the point of view of Shari’at, in which the prayer shall not be rendered void. If, however, the weeping does not consist of sound, it is more cautious to offer the prayer again, though its not being rendered void is not devoid of force. If a person is overwhelmed with weeping causing invalidation of the prayer under compulsion, it is more cautious for him to offer the prayer again; rather its being obligatory is not devoid of force.

As regards permissibility of weeping on the leader of all martyrs (i.e. Imam Hussain), May our lives be sacrificed for him, there is hesitation and difficulty (in accepting it), and so caution must not be given up.

7, Every act which changes the appearance of prayers in a way that it would deprive the prayer of its name as prayer, though a little, renders the prayer void deliberately or inadvertently.

As regards an act which does not change the appearance of the prayer, if it causes failure to observe uninterrupted succession in the prayer in the usual sense, according to the more cautious opinion, it would invalidate the prayer in case it were deliberate, but not when it were unintentional.

In case the act does not cause failure to observe the uninterrupted succession, then if it were deliberate, it would not render the prayer void, not to speak of the case when it was unintentional, even if it is a great deal like moving the fingers, sign by hand or the like to call someone, or killing a snake or scorpion, carrying a baby, placing it on the ground, taking it in one’s lap, nursing it or the like which does not cause interruption in succession nor does it change the appearance of the prayer.

8, Eating and drinking, even if were in a small quantity, according to the more cautious opinion.

Of course, there is no objection in swallowing the particles of food which have remained in the mouth or between the teeth, though it is more cautious to refrain from it.

Caution must not be given up by avoiding to keep sugar in the mouth, even if in a small quantity, so that it may dissolve and may slip down the throat bit by bit, even if does not cause any change in the appearance of the prayer nor does it cause failure in the uninterrupted sequence.

There is no difference in the application of the rules mentioned whether the prayer is obligatory or supererogatory, except in turning the face from the Qiblah in offering a supererogatory prayer while walking. In case it were a non-supererogatory prayer, according to the more cautious opinion, the prayer shall be rendered void.

This is to the exclusion of the case of a thirsty person who is busy in Du’ã in a Vitr prayer who intends to keep fast the same day, if he is afraid that the day may dawn, while the water is before him and requires to take only two or three steps, it would be permissible for him to walk and drink water to his fill, even if it takes a long time, provided that he has not done anything else invalidating the prayer, though when he intends to return to his former place, he must return backward so that his back may not be towards the Qiblah.

9, Uttering the word Ameen after completing the Sürat al-Fatihah (Chapter 1 of the Quran) except by way of Taqiyyah (Dissimulation), in which case there is no objection, as is the case who does it inadvertently.

10, Doubting the number (of Rak’ats) in prayers other than those having four Rak’ats from among the daily obligatory prayers, and doubting in the first two Rak’ats (in prayers having four Rak’ats) due to the reasons to be explained, God willing, in their relevant place.

11, Reducing or adding a part in all circumstances when it were a pillar (of the prayer), and doing so deliberately in case it were other than a pillar (of the prayer).[1]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pgs. 614-634;  Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pgs. 212-217.

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The curriculum of Hawzah / the first Shia Marja

Question 543: Salam. Sea of knowledge. Please, give me great information about DAR’s e kharijh or most hank rank class in hawza. Tell me the name of first marjhe in shiat history, who delivered this class firstly. In past whose marjhe great famous of DAR’s e kharijh in hawza?

What is the specific duration of that great class? Becase, this class grown of shait? Why in ahle sunnat not existing this type of class. Plz make a brief article on that topic

Answer 543: This is the current curriculum that the Hawzah follows:

1- The introductory level or Level 1 of the Hawzah (Islamic Seminary) which takes about six years to be completed.  The first three years are usually spent for studying Arabic literature and other lessons, Islamic rules, Principles of faith, and the next three years are spent  for studying general fiqh (Islamic Law) using the book Sharhul-Lum’ah and the principles of fiqh using the book usulul-fiqh of Mudhaffar.

2- Level 2 of the Hawzah (Bachelors): In this level, in addition to studying fiqh and usul in a more detailed way using the books Rasael and Makasib, Hawzah students can also major in other subjects such as theology, tafsir, philosophy, propagation etc.

3- Level 3 of the Hawzah (Masters): In this period, one must complete the level using the books Kifayat al-Ususl, Makasib, Nihayat al-Hikmat, Rijal, etc. and must also write a thesis too.

  1. Level 4 of the Hawzah (Ph.D): One must complete the level and have at least two years of kharij experience and must also write a thesis too.

In short, these stages take ten years altogether in which can also be completed in shorter periods.

After these ten years, which are called the sat’h period, the kharij period of study begins. This period doesn’t have a specific amount of years and its time differs with each of the maraji’ and teachers. Some of the Ulema might end their usul class in five years while others might take fifteen years to finish.  Fiqh usually takes a long time too, because there are more than forty fiqh subjects that need to be covered which naturally takes a long time.  A faqih needs to spend a lifetime to be able to cover all of these different subjects.

Becoming a mujtahid also depends on one’s potential and skills.  One individual might be able to become a mujtahid in only five years of kharij studies through hard work and effort, while another might not be able to accomplish this goal for fifty years!

It should be noted that Ijtihad is the power and ability of being able to derive Islamic law from its sources and that one who studies his introductory courses in the first ten years or the sat’h period better, is better off in the kharij period which is in reality a course of getting familiar with the method of ijtihad.  The rest all depends on the student’s effort and Allah’s help in gaining the ability of ijtihad.

Mujtahid is a jurist competent enough to deduce precise inferences[1] regarding the commandments from the holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the holy Prophet by the process of Ijtihad. Ijtihad literally means striving and exerting. Technically as a term of jurisprudence it signifies the application by a jurist of all his faculties to the consideration of the authorities of law with a view to finding out what in all probability is the law. The laws derived from the sources are normally gathered in a book called “Tawzih al-Masail” (Islamic Laws). The religious authority who is a source of emulation must meet other conditions also such as piety, continence and awareness of the issues of the Islamic world and Shi’ism.

As stated earlier, taqlid in Shia religion began from the time of the Imams (AS) who referred their followers to the narrators of traditions as well as to their close companions.  Sometimes they even encouraged their companions to sit in the mosques and public places to give verdicts and guide people[2] which was due, mainly, to the fact that the people did not have access to the infallibles as they lived in other cities or in faraway places. During the period of minor occultation, there was a greater need for religious laws and, as per the narration which was related from Imam Mahdi (AS), during this time, people are supposed to know Islamic rules through the jurists who meet certain requirements. Thus, they should follow them and following such jurists is not confined to a particular time or era.

In the fourth Islamic century, taqlid was introduced as a technical term in the books concerning the principles of jurisprudence.[3] The first person to be known as a religious authority for elites and common people was Sheikh Tusi in the fifth Islamic century. That was why he was then called Sheikh al-Taefah (the scholar of the people). His juridical views drew attention from all other scholars.  There were some other prominent scholars before him in the fourth hegira century like his teacher Sheikh Mufid to whom people turned for advice in religious and spiritual matters. Also people like Ibn Abi Aqil Ummani, Ibn Wali and Sheikh Saduq wrote verdict –based books with reliance on narrations. They wrote fatwa books by mentioning the text of the traditions.  Sheikh Saduq wrote a book emulating a book titled “The Doctor of One Who Does not Have Access to any Doctor”.  His book was titled “Faqih man La Yahzuruhu al-Faqih” which means “A Jurisprudent of Someone Who Does not Have Access to any Jurisprudent”.

Shiite scholars always considered themselves responsible and committed to deal with questions raised by Shia Muslims and even people from other Islamic sects. This practice never stopped at any period of time but it culminated in the time of Sheikh Tusi (ra). Because although answering people’s questions was something routine and normal, the governments generally subscribed to Sunni beliefs and religion. Their books not only touched on general devotional practices and deeds but also they also dealt with particular and new issues until the opponents accused Shia of not having anything to say about particular and specific issues which caused Sheikh Tusi to write ‘al-Mabsut’.[4] To respond to the blames and objections, he himself embarked on writing ‘al-Mabsut’ which deals with secondary jurisprudential issues. Given the prominence and greatness of Sheikh Tusi, for many centuries, the Shiite scholars benefited from his thoughts and views and no one ever wrote anything in opposition to him until Ibn Idris Hilli (ra) emerged in the scholarly circle.  He and the scholars after him showed the guts to challenged Sheikh Tusi’s juridical notions.

Nevertheless, at the same time a book titled Sharaye’ al-Islam was written and which is unique in its beauty and how it has separated secondary issues from main general topics. After him, the First and Second Martyrs (Shahidayn) emerged in the Shiite world. They wrote books like “The Gleam” (Lum’ah) and its “Annotation” in which they mixed the demonstrative jurisprudence with verdicts and made them available for the laity. In every period of time, there have been prominent jurisprudents who undertook the leadership of the Shiite community.  There haven’t been any time in which people may not have had access to general religious authority ranging from Sheikh Saduq, Sheikh Mufid, Sheikh Tusi and Ibn Idris to Allamah Hilli, Shahidayn (Two Martyrs), Muqaddas Ardabili, Sheikh Bahai, Mjlisi, the First, and Majlisi, the Second to the scholars in the last few centuries such as Sheikh Ansari, Muhammad Hasan (the author of Jawaher al-Kalam) and many other scholars who like strong and formidable mountains served as refuge and shelter for Shiites across.

Indeed, during the Safavid period, there were some migrant scholars in the Safavid court. These scholars including Sheikh Bahai’s father, Hussein bin Abdus Samad Amili (918 – 985), were from Jabil Amil[5] and who helped form a centrality in the clerical institution. Thus, scholars emerged whose reputation surpassed their region. It is not true to say that the Shiite marja’eyyah started in the Safavid era because, as stated, this is something rejected both textually and rationally.

Indeed, in the same way that the harmony and close ties of Sunni scholars with the governments of their time helped strengthen their position, the same is true with Shiite scholars who enjoyed an opportunity to strengthen themselves in the Safavid era. There was no such opportunity before this time and it does not mean that the scholars were affiliated to the government.[6] A look at what history tells us in this regard will make clear everything. A proof of that is the flourishing and emergence of Shiite scholars in every era especially during the stay of Ayatollah Boroujardi in the Islamic seminary of Qom.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index:  Conditions for non-Iranian ladies who want to study in Hawzah (Islamic seminary), answer 152.

Index: The First Shia Mujtahid, answer 503.

[1] . Vide: The Principles for Issuing Verdicts.

[2] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwar, vol.101, p.268, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, second edition, 1403 A.H.

«وَ اجْلِسْ لَهُمُ الْعَصْرَيْنِ‏ فَأَفْتِ لِلْمُسْتَفْتِي وَ عَلِّمِ الْجَاهِلَ وَ ذَاكِرِ الْعَالِمَ»؛

[3] . Gurji, Abul Qasim, The Periods of Usul al-Fiqh, p.38, Mizan Publications, Tehran, first edition, 1385 (solar calendar).

[4] . Vide: Sheikh Tusi, Abu Ja’far bin Hasan, al-Mabsut fi Fiqh al-Imamiyah, researcher and editor, Kashfi, Sayyid Muhammad Taqi, vol.1, p.2, al-Maktabah al-Murtazawiyah Le- Ihya al-Turath al-Ja’fariyah, Tehran, third edition, 1387 A.H.

[5] . Husseini Jalali, Sayed Muhammad Hussein, Fehres al-Turath, vol.1, p. 811, Dalil Maa Publications, Qom, 1422 A.H.

[6] . Vide: Allamah Majlisi, The Eulogist of the Safavid Government or the Preacher of Religious Teachings, Answer 13396.

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Zoroaster The prophet of the Zoroastrian faith, Magus the followers of Zoroastrianism

Question 489: Salaamun Alaikum.  I read from Allamah tabatabai that Mazdeists are classified as Ahl Al Kitab, is it lawful to say that their messenger (Zarathustra), in the case he existed, he’s a legitimate prophet?

Thanks in advance.

Answer 489: Allama Tabatabaee (ra) said: the term ‘Magoosh’ are called “Magus”, which refers to the followers of Zoroastrianism.[1] It has only been mentioned once in the holy Quran[2], and considering the fact that it has been used in a way that shows it is in contrast with shirk and the mushriks and is next to other divine religions like the Jews and the Nazarenes, it can be concluded that it has been a substantial religion with a prophet and holy book.

Some of our hadiths also confirm this matter.  One day, Ash’ath ibn Qays asked Imam Ali (as): “How come you collect the jizya [tax collected from non-Muslims who are People of the Book by the Islamic government] from the Magi [if the jizya is only to be collected from the People of the Book] while they don’t even have a divine book?  The imam answered: “It isn’t as you perceive!  They had a holy book and Allah (swt) sent them a messenger…”[3]

Imam Zayn al-A’bedin (as) says: Behave with the Magoosh as Ahl al-Kitab.[4]

According to most, Zoroaster (prophet of the Zoroastrian faith) was born in 660 BC and was chosen prophet in 630 BC at the age of thirty.  He is said to have been murdered at the altar by the Turanians in the storming of Balkh (Afghanistan).

Zoroastrianism, which is the religion of the Magi, is related to the Torah and Bible.  In the Bible, there is no sign of this religion, but in eight books of the Torah, it has been mentioned.  In the Gospel of Matthew, we read: Some of the first to visit the newly born Messiah were people from the East called the “Magi”.

Over the past several years, Zoroastrians have been advocates of a religion that is based on ethnicity and in other words, a religion that doesn’t allow others to convert to it; in order to be Zoroastrian, you have to be born of two Zoroastrian parents.  Today, Zoroastrianism is the smallest religion amongst the eleven most important religions of the world.   150,000 of them live in India, and another 150,000 live in Yazd, Kerman and Tehran of Iran.

The book of Zoroastrians

Avesta is the book of Zoroastrians which literally means foundation, basis and scripture.  This book has been written in the Avestan language which belongs to ancient Persia and shares the same roots as the Pahlavi and Sanskrit.  In addition to the Avesta, Zoroastrians have a tafsir by the name of “Zand-Avesta” and another holy book written in the Pahlavi language.

Conclusion: The religion of Zoroaster was a divine one at birth, but the current book of Zoroastrians, Avesta, implies polytheism[5]. It is because of this that when we refer to Zoroastrianism, we say it is a distorted faith far from its original teachings.

[1] . Tafsir al-Mizan, Farsi translation, Vol. 14, Pgs. 532-537, Daftar Intisharat Islami Jamia Modarreseen, Qom.

[2] Hajj:17 “إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ الَّذِينَ هادُوا وَ الصَّابِئِينَ وَ النَّصارى‏ وَ الْمَجُوسَ وَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلى‏ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ شَهِيدٌ”

[3] Abd Ali ibn Jumah Arusi Huwayzi, Tafsir Nurul-Thaqalain, vol. 3, pg. 457.

[4] . Naser Makarem Shirazi and other authors, afsir Nemooneh, Vol. 14, Pgs. 45-46, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran.

[5] See: Din Shenasiye Tatbiqi,pg. 107.  Despite this fact, Zoroastrian thinkers try to somehow interpret implicative Zoroastrian teachings with a philosophical and gnostic perspective in order to justify them and prove that their religion is a pure monotheistic one.

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Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa)

Question 486: Asallamu alaikum. My questiön is: Who was behind the death of hazrat fatima zahra (sa)?

Answer 486: This historical truth (i.e. the intrusion of Lady Fatimah’s (sa) home and her martyrdom) has been preserved in historical and hadith sources. Great Sunni scholars, such as Ibn Abi Sheybah, Baladhari, Ibn Qutaybah, Ibn Abd Rabbih, Tabari, Tabarani, Nadham, Mas’udi, Ibn Abi Darem and Abdul-Fattah Abdul-Maqsud, have revealed this fact as Umar and Abu Bakr were actually behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa).

There are many Sunni sources in which clearly mentioned that Abu Bakr and Umar’s threats had actually taken place and they violated the respect of Fatimah’s home which caused her to become martyred. One of the sources is as follows:

Abul-Qasem Suleyman bin Ahmad Tabarani (260-360), whom Dhahabi in Mizan al-I’tidal describes as a reliable individual[1], says in his Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir‌ (which has been printed many times) when speaking of Abu Bakr and his sermons and death: “Upon death, Abu Bakr wished several things. (He said) I wish I had not done three things (that I did) in my life, had done three things (that I never did) in my life, and had asked the prophet three things (that I never did). Regarding the three things he had done and wished he hadn’t, he said: “The three things I wish I had never done; I wish I had never violated the respect of Fatimah’s home and had left it as it was![2] This shows that Umar’s threats had actually taken place and had been carried out.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

[1] Mizan al-I’tidal, vol. 2, pg. 195.

[2] Mu’jam Kabir Tabarani, vol. 1, pg. 62, hadith 34, research of Hamdi Abdul-Majid Salafi. “أمّا الثلاث اللائی وددت أنی لم أفعلهنّ، فوددت انّی لم أكن أكشف بیت فاطمة و تركته.”

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Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa)

Question 492: Did Lady Fatemeh (peace be upon her) covering her face and hands? Please, explain in detail about Hijab of Sayeda Fatima (sa).

Answer 492: Qena was prevalent among women by which some of them covered their face at the advent of Islam. According to some traditions narrated from our Infallibles (PBUTH), Lady Fatimah al-Zahra has used such coverage in front of non-Mahram. Qena means something by which women covers their face.[1]

Imam Baqir (AS) has said that Jaber bin Abdullah Ansari was with the Holy Prophet (PBUH). They went out of house in order to meet Fatimah al-Zahra (SA). “When we reached there, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) pushed the door and said: Assalamu Alaikum. Lady Fatimah (SA) replied: Wa Alaika assalaam ‘O the messenger of Allah (PBUH). The Prophet said: Could I come in? She (SA) replied: Yes, come in. The Prophet said: there is one person whom come along with me. Is he also allowed to come in? No, I don’t have a proper cover. Meaning that she didn’t have Qena on her face.[2]

Arabic version: لیس علی قناع

It is said that during the Fadak event, when Fatimah (SA) wants to go out of house she always covered her face with Borgha’.[3]

The Arabic version of this narration: فَتَجَلْبَبَتْ بِجِلْبَابِهَا وَ تَبَرْقَعَتْ بِبُرْقِعِهَا

When it is proved that Abu Bakr forcefully took Fadak and didn’t want to give it back to Lady Fatimah (SA), she covered her head with a veil and was going toward the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) mosque. While she was among some religious women and her relatives, her clothes were long in a way that all of her body and feet were covered. She walked like the Holy Prophet (PBUH). When she reached the mosque, the people of Muhajir and Ansar created a place for her that men were unable to see her.[4]

Arabic version:

لما بلغ فاطمه علیهاالسلام اجماع ابی بکر علی منعها فدک، لاثت خمارها، و اقبلت فی لمه من حفدتها و نسا قومها، تطا فی ذیولها، ماتخرم مشیتها مشیه رسول اللَّه صلی اللَّه علیه و آله حتی دخلت علی ابی بکر و قد حشد الناس من المهاجرین و الانصار، فضرب بینها و بینهم ریطه بیضا

It is understood from historical sources that women were observing hijab in the time of the Holy Prophet (s) (PHUTH), but not complete hijab because the Arab women would wear a scarf, but they would place the ends behind their head so that their earrings, neck and chest would show since their dresses were most often v-necked. They used to wear dresses with open collars leaving their necks and part of their chests visible.[5]

Lady Fatimah (SA) is the best example for all women from all around the world to follow her. She (SA) observed hijab completely, even when a blind man entered her house with the Holy Prophet (PBUH), she went out of the house in order that the man cannot even smell her. Also, she made a will to Imam Ali (AS) that when I die, shroud and bury me at night. O Ali, (AS) make a coffin for me that could hide my body.[6]

Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (SA) preferred to stay at home, however she went out (when necessary) while observing hijab completely in a way that nobody could see her as she was among some of her relatives and women of Muhajir and Ansar. Also, when she attend the mosque there was a place where she (SA) stood that nobody could see her.

[1] . Mojam al-Wasit, word of Qena.

[2] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 528, al-Nikah Book.

[3] . Sheikh Sadouq, Elal al-Sharae’, Vol. 1, Pg. 163, Qom, Davari bookshop.

[4] . Sharh e ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 16, Pg. 211 & 249; Ihtiyajat Tabarsi, Vol. 1, Pg. 131, Najaf publication.

[5] . Mutahhari, Murteza, Works Collections, vol.19, pg. 484 – 485.

[6] . Rawzatul Waedhing, Vol. 1, Pg. 151; Biharul Anwar, Vol. 43, Pg. 214.

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Moon Sighting: Finding First of Ramadãn and Shawwãl

Question 544: Salam alaykum, I’m Galih from Jakarta, Indonesia. If government announce day of Eid which different day with Moon sighting from Shia Observers and Methods from our Religious Authority or Marja. an I perform taqiyya when I get back to my birthplace Hometown because it will make quarrel with my family or I should travel outside my town first to break my fast? Thanks and regards, Galih P

Answer 544: The first of every month is established by ocular vision (of the moon), even if the moon is seen by a single person (whether he is Shia or Sunni or other sect you make sure of his opinion), though it is more useful if it is confirmed by several persons and general opinion, or by passage of thirty days from the preceding month, or through legal evidence which consists of the testimony of two morally sound persons, or the decision of a judge when it is not known to be mistaken or to have an erroneous basis, but no regard is to be paid to the statement of the astrologers, or the encirclement of the moon, or its disappearance after the evening glow in proving that the moon belongs to the last night, though it may help in such assumption.   If you only become sure about the saying of Shia authorities that (for example) tomorrow is Eid al-Fitr, you have to follow their opinion in this regards. Otherwise, you can follow every other person or any organization and government you become sure about their opinion.

Considering that you follow Shia authorities, you are not allowed to eat, drink or do those things which invalidate your fast, unless you travelled 22.5 Km away from your home before the noon prayer and eat or drink there.

Note: The point that traveling begins (in order to count 22.5 Km from) should be considered at a place where you cannot see the walls of city and hear the sound of Adhan. It is the limit of Tarakhkhus. [i]     Related Answers:

Index: Things invalidate fast and its Kaffarah, answer 372.

Index: Meaning of Tarakhkhus and Qasr and Complete Prayers, answer 466.

 

[i] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Procedure of Finding First of Ramadãn and Shawwãl;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol.1, issue. 1312.

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Importance of Marifat Imam / Definition of Marifat

Question 283: What is marifat? I would like to know about the importance of Marifat Imam? If someone have deep marifat about Ayema do have he authorized to perform extra things in worship. Like some people accurse on enemies of ayema in namaz?

Answer 283: Philosophers define Marifat as the True Justified Belief. But, John Locke explains it as Understanding. As for the latter, marifat includes Tasavor (Perception) and Tasdiq (assertion), though it doesn’t include tasavor according to the philosophers definition. Some say it describes the mystical intuitive knowledge of spiritual truth reached through ecstatic experiences, rather than revealed or rationally acquired.

Marifat or understanding can be gained through the following ways: 1. Experiential (physical senses). 2. Rational (intellect). 3. The heart.

The external senses merely deal with the appearances and the accidents of things without being able to delve any deeper, and despite the variety and abundance of knowledge they provide to the human being, they are limited by time and space.

The intellect is a special faculty, the major role of which is the comprehension of universal concepts and in this sense possesses many aspects – among them reasoning. But the media of understanding are not restricted to these two.

The human being can reach great degrees of knowledge through the medium of the heart. By this way, the human being can spiritually witness [the reality of] what others understand [only theoretically] through reasoning. The gnostics’ endeavour is to comprehend Allah (awj) in this way.[1]

From another perspective, knowledge can be divided into two general categories: conceptual knowledge and presential or immediate knowledge.

Conceptual knowledge is obtained through mental concepts and the implementation of rational and philosophic reasoning. Presential knowledge is the knowledge arrived at without the mediation of concepts and mental pictures; that is, the reality of the known object is present within the knower. Presential knowledge is a type of gnostic and intuitive knowledge, in which the external reality [and not the mental concept] of an object is witnessed.

Of course, in the obtainment of rational conceptual knowledge, sensory and empirical premises can be employed. For instance, by reflecting on the signs of Allah (awj) and the existing order in the cosmos, one can achieve an understanding of Allah (awj) that is rendered by a simple reasoning. But in cases where one desires to achieve a greater understanding, purely rational premises are required.

There is a hadith narrated from the holy Prophet (pbuh) regarding the importance of marifat of our Infallibles Imam (pbuth). “One who dies without gaining the recognition of the Imam of his time dies the death of a jahilyat (ignorant), kafir (disbeliever), and nafaq (hypocrite) [2]

As for unknowing our Imam of the time is equal to die the death of Jahiliyah, this hadith doesn’t try to suppose us know the apparent characteristic of our Imams. It says we need to comprehend the status and divine position of our Imams (as) and believe in their Imamat and divine Wilayat.

As for the Islamic laws, such as prayer, khums, zakat and etc., can only be determined by the divine legislator (share’) which is called Ahkam Tauqifi, one who even has deep knowledge about the Infallibles (pbuth) is unable to add anything other than what has been ordered by the divine legislator.

The knowledge can only help him do the righteous deeds better. It is only beneficial when followed by good deeds and actions we have been ordered by Allah, the Almighty and the Infallibles (pbuth).

Because, we see that some scholars come short in regard to acting upon their knowledge. This can be a result of different reasons some of which are as follows:

– Not possessing true knowledge

– Preferring the life of this world over the next

– Not using religious insight

– Deeming one’s deeds to be sufficient

– Negligence of the fact that Allah and His chosen ones are watching

In closing, it is necessary that this point be made, that scholars, like everyone else, despite their many qualities, may sometimes slip and make slight mistakes[3], but this won’t harm their faith. Therefore, we must be careful not to be pessimistic about all of them or the other believers and not to consider most of them devoid of good character and qualities.

The reason being that action isn’t limited to the things that are tangible and that draw others’ praise and attention. We have to doubt about the religiosity of those who try to show their religiosity to others and make themselves known as worshippers and people of action[4] and must always remember that there may be many cases in which an act that doesn’t stand out in our eyes will bring about many rewards, much more than normal worship will ever be able to. This makes it unacceptable for us to judge about others, because it might happen that those whom we think are at a low level of spirituality, are actually at a very high one compared to others![5]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord, answer 274.

[1] Though it is possible to reach understanding and certainty based on traditions and authority as well; but in this case it is necessary to have previously proved both the fact that the traditions in question were in fact quoted correctly from the holders of authority, such as the ImmaculatesE, and the fact that such traditions have cognitive value. It is only then that they can be used as the standards by which to judge the findings of either the intellect or the heart.

[2] . Muhammad bin Yaqoub Kuleini, Usul Kafi, Sayyid Javad Mostafavi, Masjid Chahardah Masoom publication, Vol. 2, Pgs. 208-209, H. 3.

[3] Tawbah:102.

[4] Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 1, pg. 79, hadith 179.

[5] Ibid, vol. 16, pg. 248, hadith 21478.