post

Estrangement from people or being with them

Question 060: What is the Sheikh’s interpretation of the following Hadith and is it authentic? Should we try not to get too close to others in order to avoid estrangement? Should respectful boundaries be maintained? “Estrangement from people comes about as a result for knowing them too well.” ~ Imam al-‘Askari (AS).

Answer 060: Living far away from people or being gregarious in a way you enjoy being with them, estrangement or a formed coalition with people, is a subject our scholars have different opinions about. Some say: it is better to estrange from people than being with them instead, according to some traditions in which we are recommended to be so.

Others say, it is better to serve the society, keep company, cooperating and become familiar with people, according to some traditions like al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf wa-n-nahy ʿani-l-munkar (bid what is right and forbid what is wrong) and the following verses of the Holy Quran.

  1. “Hold fast, all together, to Allah’s cord, and do not be divided [into sects]”[1]
  2. “Cooperate in piety and God wariness”[2]

According to Ibin Maitham Bahrani (May His soul rest in peace), both reasons and arguments would be considered as Sahih. No one if preferable to the other at all. For instance, probably a Dr. prescribed a medicine for a person which is suitable for curing him and it’s not appropriate for another one with different symptom of illness.

It is said that living far away from people or being with them depends on each person’s piety, knowledge and faith. E.g. how many knowledgeable person who are considered as a scholar can guide people to the straight path, so one is supposed to cooperate in piety and Allahs (swt) wariness. On the other hand, there are many people who would commit sin if they join a company where committing sin is provided for him easily. So, one is strongly recommended to estrange from such people who encourage him to commit sin.

There are some traditions in which our Imams (AS) tell us to estrange from people in order to know Allah (SWT) better. First step, if we want Allah (swt) to love us, it is recommended to keep away from those people who encourage you to commit sin, as Imam Hasan Askari (as) says. If one wants to become familiar or get closer to Allah (swt), the Almighty, then one should estrange from people because, one of the signs of being a good believer is to do this.[3]

Preserving our faith in situations where people are committing sins can be really difficult. There is a Hadith of Imam Ali (AS) where he says, “If you detect the effects of others you wouldn’t like even to inter him.”[4]

Being aloof is required if we really want to know Allah (swt) better. We have to know Allah (SWT) and try to talk to Him all the time, instead of getting familiar with people whom we don’t know.

Sometimes estrangement from people is advisable, for some people to keep away themselves from those haram gatherings, where there is nothing but play and diversion, ignorance and senseless, backbiting and lying.[5]

Please, keep in mind that observing bonds of marriage and family are completely different. The hadith is not trying to include these kinds of relationships because, we are strongly recommended to be in touch with our close relationships.

[1] . Surah A’le Imran, verse 103. Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 3, Pg. 572.

[2] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 2. Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 5, Pg. 266.

[3] . Musnad of Imam Hasan al-Askari, Pg. 287; The Scale of Wisdom, A Compendium of Shia Hadith, Bilingual Edition, M Muhammadi Rayshahri, The Book of Solitude, hadith 4239, Page 738; Ghurar al-Hikam, no.10187.

[4] . Al-Amali (of Shaykh Saduq), al-Nass, Pg. 446.

[5] . Nahj al-sa’adah fi mustadrak Nahj al-balagha, Vol. 7, Pg. 106-109.

post

Proving the splitting of the moon Shaqq al-Qamar, the Miracle of The Holy Prophet (pbuh)

Question 550: Is there any historical record of any other civilizations witnessing the moon split (Shaqq al-Qamar) in Muhammedian Era? And,what does the Imami school believe in the event? As there are refutations that the event never occured and is fabricated,and the verse in the Quran simply indicates to locking of moon into two faces which God speaks would happen during end times.

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHUkrTSwkFQ

 

Answer 550: In order to answer this question precisely, we need to mention some points as follows:

1- The splitting of the moon is one of the great miracles of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).  In surah Inshiqaq, Allah (swt) speaks of this magnanimous incident in such a manner: “اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَ انْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ”[i].  In this verse, two important incidents have been mentioned; one being the nearness of the Day of Judgment which is the greatest change the universe is to undergo, and the other being the significant miracle of splitting the moon which is both a manifestation of Allah’s (swt) never-ending power and proof of Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) prophethood.[ii]

There is more than enough evidence that proves this was a miracle, namely: This matter has been mentioned in the Quran using a past tense verb, showing that the splitting of the moon has taken place, the same way the Day of Judgment has neared as a result of the coming of the final prophet (pbuh).

Add to that the many hadiths in Islamic references that narrate this incident as a miracle of the prophet (pbuh).  These hadiths are so high in number to the extent that they leave no doubt that the splitting of the moon was truly a miracle of the prophet (pbuh), a few of the ahadith narrated in Shia and Sunni sources are as follows:

 

Sheikh Sadouq: Sheikh Sadouq (ra) quoted: Muhammad bin Ebrahim bin Ishaq Taleqani (ra) told me that I heard from Abul Qasim Hussain bin Rooh that he narrated a saying of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) that He said the Shaqq al-Qamar (splitting the moon) is one of the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) miracles.[iii]

 

Sheikh Mufid: Sheikh Mufid narrated a hadith from Imam sadiq (as) that He said: The moon has been split into two parts by Allah, the Almighty.[iv]

 

Ahmad bin Muhammad: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Salt narrated from ibn Oqda Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed from Ali bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ali Hussaini from Ja’afar bin Muhammad bin Eisa from Obaidullah bin Ali from Imam Reza (as) from His father, grandfather, great grandfather from Imam Ali (pbuth) that the Moon has split into two parts in Mecca, then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: Be Witness, witness (this miracle)[v]

 

Anas bin Malik: Bukhari narrated a hadith from Abdullah bin Abdul Wahhab from Bashar bin Mofaddal from Saeed bin Abu Arooba from Qatada from Anas bin Malik: the people of Mecca wanted the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to bring a miracle, so the Prophet showed them the Moon has been split by Him in a way they saw the Hira mountain between the two parts.[vi]

 

Abdullah bin Muhammad narrated from Younes from Shayban from Qatadat from Anas bin Malik and Khalifa from Yazid bin Zaree from Saeed from Qatada from Anas bin Malik that the people of Mecca wanted the holy Prophet (pbuh) to bring a miracle to prove His Nubuwwat and the Prophet showed it to them.[vii]

The same tradition also narrated from Muslim from Zuhayr bin Harb from Abd bin Hamid from Younes bin Muhammad from Shayban from Qatada.[viii] It is also mentioned in Musnad Ahmad from Abudolla from his father from Younes bin Muhammad ….[ix]

 

Abdullah Bin Abbas: Bukhari narrated from Yahya bin Bokayr from Bakr from Ja’afar from Ark bin Malik from Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah from ibn Abbas that the Moon split at the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh).[x]

Muslim from Musa bin Quraish al-Tamimi from Ishaq bin Bakr bin Modher from his father from Jafar bin Rabiah from Arak bin Malik from Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah bin Masood from ibn Abbas that the Moon was split at the time of the holy Prophet (pbuh). [xi]Also, Tabara narrated it from ibn al-Muthanna from Abdul A’ala, from Dawood from Ali bin Abbas about the verse of the holy Quran “Iq­tarabatessâ’ato  wânshaqqal­qamar” that this issue has been done before the Hegira that people saw the Moon split into two parts. [xii]

 

Abdullah bin Masood:  bukhari narrated from Sadaqa bin Fadl from ibn Ayniyya from Abu Nujayh from Mujahid from Abu Mo’mar from Abdullah bin Masood that the Moon split into two parts at the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and then the Prophet (s) said: Witness, witness (this miracle)…. [xiii]

Muslim from Ubaidullah bin Ma’az Anbari from his father from Sho’bah from A’amash from Ebrahim from Abu Mo’amar from Abdullah bin Masood narrated the same, then the one part of the Moon was covered by mountain and the other was above the mountain, so the Prophet (pbuh) said: Witness….[xiv]

The same hadith also narrated from different chain of narraotros: … Ahmad from Abdullah from his father from Sofyan from ibn Abu Nojayh from Mujahid from Abu Mo’amar from ibn Masood. [xv]

 

What is more interesting is the reason why this miracle took place.  The disbelievers said that magic and sorcery only have an effect on the earth, so in order to be sure of the prophet (pbuh) being truthful in his claim and that his miracles aren’t plain magic, they proposed that he split the moon.[xvi]

 

Despite seeing such evident miracles, the disbelievers (of Quraish) accused the Holy Prophet (pbuh) of being magician, Soothsayer, Mad Man and Liar. In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “Therefore continue to remind, for by the Grace of your Lord, you are not a soothsayer, nor a mad man”.[xvii] Also, in the holy Quran Allah (SWT) describes such disbelievers “They impugned them though they were convinced in their hearts wrongfully and defiantly. So observe how was the fate of the agents of corruption!”.[xviii] Although, the disbelievers were sure about the miracles but they denied them. [xix]

The disbelievers had been saying that since the magic cannot be affective in the sky, so they told the holy Prophet (pbuh) that if you split the Moon into two parts we would certainly acknowledge your faith. Thus, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) split it in Mecca on the fourteenth night of Dhu al-Hijjah, but they did not have faith.[xx]

 

2- The splitting of the moon and contemporary science:  First off, not only isn’t the splitting and breaking of celestial bodies possible according to astrology and science, but takes place a lot too, although the causes of such phenomena may vary.

To put it another way, splitting, breakage and explosions frequently occur in space; for instance, scientists today say that the solar system came about through an explosion that involved the sun, breaking parts of it off, hence the different members of the “family” of the solar system.[xxi]

Anyway, the splitting of celestial bodies isn’t something that hasn’t happened before, and isn’t considered scientifically impossible, so it can’t be said that something impossible was the subject of a miracle.

As for the moon coming together again after splitting, it is because of the gravitational force between the two halves, although this fact isn’t correct according to the Ptolemaic system of astrology, because according to this system, our solar system is made up of nine spheres that are stuck together like the layers of an onion, making their splitting and coming together impossible, and it is because of this that the advocates of this system didn’t believe in bodily ascension to the skies and the splitting of the moon, because it necessitated the piercing of these spheres.  But today, this system isn’t followed anymore and is considered an incorrect and out-of-date one so its claims on the splitting of the moon being impossible are disregarded.[xxii]  According to NASA, our moon has indeed split before and come together again.  The official website of Al-Watan, an Arabic newspaper printed in the US, has quoted a Jordanian astronomer and space specialist saying: “After years of orbiting the moon and doing research, the space probe “Clementine” has reached the conclusion that the moon has split into two halves hundreds of years ago, and come together again.”  This astronomer has sent a report to NASA explaining that Muslims believe this phenomenon belongs to 1400 years ago and is a miracle of their prophet; a phenomenon that NASA still hasn’t been able to discover the true cause to, because it is a unique one that hasn’t taken place for other celestial bodies.[xxiii]

Two more points to consider:

1- Proving Islamic facts that are somewhat metaphysical, isn’t possible through normal science that is limited to this material world and is only physical, especially since it has developed in an environment that has had nothing to do with Islam.

2- If an issue is logically possible, without any reason for its impossibility, and is something that Islam firmly says has taken place, there is no longer any need to prove it scientifically; although it is sometimes better to do so, so that one becomes personally sure of the fact’s truth.

[i] Inshiqaq:1 “The Day of Judgment has drawn near and the moon split”

[ii] Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 23, pp. 7-8.

[iii] . Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’mat, Sadouq, Vol. 1, Pgs. 507-509, Muhammad bin Ali bin Hussain bin Babwyh Qummi, 381 A.H, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyya Publication, Qom, 1395 A.H;  Al-Ihtijaj, Tabarsi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 471-473, Abu Mansour, Ahmad bin Ali bin Abu Talib, Mortada Publication, The holy city of Mashad, 1403 A.H.

[iv] . Al-Irshad fee Marefat Hujajallah ala al-Ebad, Mufid, Vol. 2, Pg. 385, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Noman, 413 A.H, Hezareh Sheikh Mufid International Congress, Qom, 1413 A.H. (eleventh volume of the collection of Sheikh Mufid’s works).

[v] . Al-Amali Liltoosi, Toosi, Vol. 1, Pg. 341, Sheikh al-Taefat Abu Ja’afar Muhammad bin Hasan, 460 A.H, Dar al-Thiqafa, Qom, 1414 A.H.

[vi] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 3, Pg. 1404, N 3655, Bukhari al-Jofi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.H, Tahqiq Mostafa Dib al-Baqa, Dar ibn Kathir, al-Yamama, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[vii] . Ibid, Pg. 1331, N 3438.

[viii] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 2802, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul-Hasan Qushayri Nayshaboori, 261 A.H. Taliq wa Tahqiq Muhammad Foad Abdul Baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[ix] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, Pg. 207, N. 13177, Ahmad bin Hanbal Abu Abullah al-Shaybani, 241 A.H. Qortaba Institution, al-Qahirah (Cairo).

[x] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 4, Pg. 1843, N. 4585, Bukhari al-Jofi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.H. Tahqiq Mostafa Dib al-Baqa, Dar ibn Kathir, al-Yamama, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[xi] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 48- 2803, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul Hasan Nayshaboori, 261 A.h, Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xii] . Jame al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tabari, Vol. 27, Pg. 51, Abu Ja’afar Muhammad bin Jarir, 310 A.h. Dar al-Marefat, Beirut, 1412 A.h.

[xiii] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 3, Pg. 1330, N. 3437, Bukhari al-Jo’fi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.h. Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xiv] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 43- 2800, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul Hasan Nayshaboori, 261 A.h, Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xv] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ahmad bin Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Sheybani, Vol. 1, Pg. 377, N. 3583, 241 A.H. Qortaba Institution, Cairo;  Majma al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tabarsi, Vol. 9, Pg. 310, Amin al-Islam Abu Ali Fadl bin Hasan bin Fadl, 548 A.h. Naser Khosrow Publication, Tehrn.

[xvi] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 17, pg. 355 (hadith 10).

[xvii] . Surah al-Toor, verse 29.

[xviii] . Surah al-Naml, verse 14.

[xix] . Makarem Shirazi, Naser, tafsir Nemoonah, Vol. 15, Pgs. 413-414, Tehran, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, first edition.

[xx] . Atyab al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tayyib Sayyid Abdul-Hussain, Vol. 12, Pg. 346.

[xxi] Of course there is a debate between different scientists on this subject; some say the main cause was the sun’s centrifugal force, while others say it was the flux and reflux of the sun because of another star nearing the sun.

[xxii] With help from Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 23, pp. 12-19.

[xxiii] Jomhouriye Eslami (newspaper), issue no. 7608 (23rd of Mehr, 1384, pg.5).

post

First Children of Adam and Eve / Cain (Qabil) and Iqlima or Abel and Layouza

Question 551: When was the first person (Prophet Adam) born? Was the First Children of Adam and Eve Cain (Qabil) and Iqlima or Abel and Layouza?

Answer 551: There is no certain opinion about the number of children of the Prophet Adam (as). Because, there are many differences have been mentioned in authentic historical sources regarding this issue. Since the story of Adam and Eve and their children was for a long time ago the historians were unable to record such information exactly.

According to Tabarsi, when Adam and Eve left Paradise and began their life on earth, Allah (SWT) willed their generation be spread out across the earth. Eve was having twins every time she was giving birth. They named the first twins as follows: the son Cain (Qabil) and the girl Iqlima. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister Layouza.

The children grew up to be reached the age of puberty. In order to maintain and earn livelihood, Cain decided to be a farmer and Abel a rancher.

According to the order coming from Allah the Almighty, Adam told Cain and Abel to present a sacrifice to Allah (SWT). Cain offered a bunch of wheat and Abel presented a sheep as a sacrifice. A fire coming down from the sky took Abel’s sacrifice, but Cain’s sacrifice remained on the earth.

In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says:  “Relate to them truly the account of Adam’s two sons. When the two of them offered an offering, it was accepted from one of them and not accepted from the other. [One of them] said,” Surely I will kill you.” [The other one] said,” Allah accepts only from the God wary.  Even if you extend your hand toward me to kill me, I will not extend my hand toward you to kill you. Indeed I fear Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.  I desire that you earn [the burden of]   my sin and your sin, to become one of the inmates of the Fire, and such is the requital of the wrongdoers.”  So his soul prompted him to kill his brother, and he killed him, and thus became one of the losers.  Then Allah sent a crow, exploring in the ground, to show him how to bury the corpse of his brother. He said,” Woe to me! Am I unable to be [even] like this crow and bury my brother’s corpse?” Thus he became regretful.[1]

When Abel was murdered by Cain, Adam (A.S) mourned and lamented on the death of his son… And God, the Almighty granted him Seth (A.S) alone without a twin sister. Seth’s name is Hebatollah [A gift from God] and he is the first man to become the deputy and the successor to a prophet. After Seth (A.S) God granted Adam (A.S) with Japheth without a twin.

In his book Nizam al-Tawarikh, Qadhi Naser Baydawi said about the children of Adam and Eve: Eve gave one hundred and twenty birth. Cain was the fourth body child. According to this opinion, Adam and Eve had 239 children. [2]

In Tarikh Tabari it is mentioned three opinions about the number of children of Adam and Eve as follows:

  1. One hundred and twenty Children including girls and boys.
  2. Forty boys and girls.
  3. Twenty five boys and 4 girls[3]. [4]

[1] . Surah al-Maedah, verses 27-31.

[2] . Nizam al-Tawarikh, Baydhawi, Naser al-Din, and Mir Hashim, Mohaddith, Pgs. 5-6.

[3] . Tarikh Tabari, Tarikh al-Umam wal-Muluk, Vol. 1, Pg. 145.

[4] . Adopted from answer 681.

post

Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala

Question 057: Can I do the ziyarat for Imam Hussein (as) from home? How does one determine the direction of Karbala?

Answer 057: You can do the ziyarat for Imam Hussein (as) from home. You say, ‘Assalamo-Alaika Ya’ Aba Ab’dillah Al-Husain’. It does not matter where you are, because the ziyarat depends on your niyat (intention). Just do it with all your heart. Read More

post

Ways to Greet in Islam with Muslims and Non-Mahram

Question 369: Is it okay to greet those Muslims with “As Salam O Alaikum” who reply it with “Hi”? Ways to greet in Islam?

 Answer 369: Salman Farsi (ra) narrated: A man went to the holy Prophet and said: Peace (salaam) be upon you ‘O the messenger of Allah. The prophet replied: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you. Another man came and said: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you, ‘O the messenger of Allah. The Prophet replied: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you. Another one came and said: Peace, mercy and blessing of Allah be upon you, ‘O the messenger of Allah. The Prophet only replied: same to you! The man said: May my parents be ransom upon you, ‘O the messenger of Allah, when others came and saluted you, You added more in reply to them, but me!  The Prophet said: Because, you have said everything you should say.

He has also said: In the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “When you are greeted with a salute, greet with a better one than it, or return it; indeed Allah takes account of all things”.[1]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

الدرُّ المنثورُ عَن سَلمانِ الفارسيِّ : جاءَ رَجُلٌ إلى النبيِّ صلى الله عليه و آله فقالَ : السلامُ علَيكَ يا رسولَ اللّه ِ ، فقالَ : و علَيكَ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ ، ثُمّ أتى آخَرُ فقالَ : السلامُ علَيكَ يا رسولَ اللّه ِ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ ، فقالَ : و علَيكَ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ و بَرَكاتُهُ ، ثُمّ جاءَ آخَرُ فقالَ : السلامُ علَيكَ و رَحمَةُ اللّه ِ و بَركاتُهُ ، فقالَ لَهُ : و علَيكَ ، فقالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ : يا نَبِيَّ اللّه ِ ـ بِأبي أنتَ و اُمّي ـ أتاكَ فُلانٌ و فُلانٌ فَسَلَّما علَيكَ فَرَدَدتَ علَيهِما أكثَرَ مِمّا رَدَدتَ عَلَيَّ ! فقالَ : إنَّكَ لَم تَدَعْ لَنا شيئا ، قالَ اللّه ُ : و إذا حُيِّيتمُ بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأحسَنَ مِنها أو رُدُّوها فَرَدَدناها علَيكَ.

Imam Sadiq (as) says: If one says: Peace be upon you, he will be given ten rewards. If one says: Peace and blessing of Allah be upon you, he will be given twenty rewards and if one says Peace and blessing and mercy of Allah be upon you, he will be given thirty rewards.[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْمُنْذِرِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ‏ مَنْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَهِيَ عَشْرُ حَسَنَاتٍ وَ مَنْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ‏ فَهِيَ‏ عِشْرُونَ‏ حَسَنَةً وَ مَنْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ فَهِيَ ثَلَاثُونَ حَسَنَةً.

Therefore, if we are greeted with a salute (like Hi), we are supposed to greet with a better one than it, according to the holy Quran and sayings of the Infallibles (pbuth).

According to some scholars, it is makruh for a man or woman to greet a non-Mahram, though, according to others, there would be no problem in it if there is no fear of sin.[3]

Note: There are exceptions to this teaching though, greeting non-Muslims being one of them. In jurisprudential books, greeting non-Muslims has been deemed as makruh: “When responding to the greetings of a non-Muslim, keep it short [by saying ‘alayk’ or ‘alaykum’].”[4]

According to some scholars, greeting with Kafir is impermissible when it is not necessary.[5] But, if it helps you invite him to Islam there would be no problem in it.[6]

For further information, please read the following answers:

Index:  Greeting with Salam is mustahab responding to it is wajib, answer 062.

Index: Giving Salam or response to ones salam during Khutbah, answer 135.

[1] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 86; Tafsir al-Tabari, Tafsir Surah al-Nisa, Pgs. 586-590, Q 10044; Al-Durrul Manthur, Vol. 2, Pg. 605.

[2] . Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 1, Pg. 526; al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 645; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 12, Pg. 66.

[3] . Al-Hadaeq al-Nadhera, Vol. 9, Pg. 83; Mustand al-Shia, Vol. 7, Pg. 73; al-Urwatul Wuthqa, Vol. 3, Pg. 25; Majma al-Faeda, Vol. 3, Pg. 120; Ghanaem al-Ayyam, Vol. 3, Pg. 237.

[4] See: Fazel Lankarani, Muhammad, Ahkame Javanan, p. 182, Amir Qalam Press, Qum, 1427 AH; Tabatabai Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad Kadhim, Al-Urwat al-Wuthqa ma’a Ta’liqat al-Fazel, vol. 1, p. 536, Aimmah Athaar Jurisprudential Center, Qum, without date of publication.

[5] . Al-Hadaeq al-Nadhera, Vol. 9, Pgs. 84-85; Mustand al-Shia, Vol. 7, Pg. 74.

[6] . The official website of the office of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi.

post

Al-Ahkam Al-Khamsah / Wajib, Haram, Mustahab, Makru and Mubah

Question 341:  As Salam O Ale Kum. What is meaning of Mubah? What action of shariah is Mubah in Islam? Does following any Mubah is haram upon Ahlulbait AS? Does Mutah comes under category of Mubah?

Answer 341: When it comes to the practical laws of Islam or what is known as “Ahkaam al-Khamsah” in Arabic terminology, we must say that every act that a duty-bound (mukallaf) does is either wajib (obligatory), haram (prohibited), mustahab (recommended) makrooh (abominable) or mubah (allowable). Read More

post

Fixed Times of Daily Prayers / when they become Qaza

Question 297: Assalam o alaikum, How do I know when exactly does prescribed time for maghrib prayer passes away? I.e. the moment after which maghrib should be prayed qadha. What are the Fixed Times of Daily Prayers?

Answer 297: There are three time periods allocated to every one of the five daily prayers that are as follows:
1- The specific period: the period in which no other prayer can be performed.
2- The common period: the period in which you can perform Dhuhr and Asr or Maghrib and Isha prayers. It must be noted that their order must be observed (at noon, the Dhuhr prayer must be done before Asr, and at night, the Maghrib prayer must be done before Isha).
3- The time of merit: The period which praying in has more thawab or reward.[1]

The time of the significance of Maghrib is from sunset till the disappearance of the redness which usually appears in the West after the sunset. The time of the significance of Isha prayers is from the time when the said redness disappears till completion of one-third of the night.

The due time for the Maghrib and Ishã’ prayers in ordinary circumstances is from Maghrib (evening) till midnight, out of which the time for Maghrib prayer is reserved from its beginning to the extent it is required for offering it, and the Ishã’ prayer for the last according to the circumstances of the person offering the prayer, and the time between them is common to both.

If a person does not offer both the (Maghrib and Ishã’) prayers until midnight in case of emergency due to sleep, forgetfulness, menstruation, etc., or deliberately, it is more cautious for him to offer both the prayers upto the beginning of the morning with the intention of what he owes.

In case the time left for beginning of the morning is not sufficient for offering both the prayers, he should, by way of precaution, offer the Ishã’ prayers. It is more cautious to offer both the compensatory prayers in succession after the due time.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Allocated time for offering Obligatory Prayers, answer 534.

Index: Three time periods allocated to each of the five daily prayers, answer 199.

[1] . Adopted from answer 199 (Index: Three time periods allocated to each of the five daily prayers).

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Chapter on Preliminaries of Prayer, Pg. 138, Q 6.

post

Permissibility of getting Divorce when your partner has lied

Question 295: Salam, I am a shia- asnashari recently as per islamic gudielines I married a girl who claimed to be a syed, (had seen isteqara based on the name as given in profile but her name was different) after marriage I found that neither the girl is a syed, was married earlier and there is no compatablity and as this marriage is based on falsehood I want to divorce her, (dowry is not a issue as I have not demanded any thing before or after marriage I am financially well off and dont need any thing) I have paid the mehar at the time of marriage. what is the procedure of initiating a divorce. the marriage lasted less then a week and I have sent her home to her family. I had based this marriage on truth and had not hidden any facts with respect to my age, qualifications, family, income, etc. marriage from my side was based on facts and from her side was based on falsehood. please inform me how to get myself out of this mess.

Answer 295: The biggest capital in a couple’s life is truthfulness and honesty. If there is honesty in a family there would be no ground for any misunderstanding and misconception. The biggest problem can be ironed out through honesty and honest relationships.

On the other hand, wives and husbands must be kind to each other, have forgiveness and overlook the mistakes of one another in order to have a lovely and healthy living.

If the characteristics you’ve mentioned truly exist in their immoral sense in your wife, you should make her recognize such actions with soft, loving and kind words.

If she accepts her faults and truly ask forgiveness of Allah (SWT), then turn to Him you are recommended to forgive her, overlook [her ignorance] and live with each other, as in the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “So pardon them and turn away Surely Allah loves those who do good (to others)”.[1]

Also, we as Muslim are supposed to follow what has been stated by the holy Prophet (pbuh). He (s) says: “The best of you is the one who is best among his family and I am the best to my family among you”.[2] So, you can overlook her ignorance and live together.

If you think it is impossible to live together in any way you are able to divorce her, because divorce is despised when it is done without an acceptable excuse, but if there is a good excuse for divorce, it will no longer be hated, and that is what divorce is for; for when there is no other way out.

How to get divorce:

Divorce is a one-sided contract (which is one of the unilateral obligationsiqa’at“) and it is carried out by the husband unilaterally even though the woman may not consent to it.” Therefore, a man can divorce his wife one-sidedly in accordance with the rules prescribed by the religion.

Divorce contract must be recited with the correct Arabic words in a way such that two just men listen to it. If the man wants to recite it by himself and his wife’s name is Fatimah, he should say:
“زَوْجَتِى فٰاطِمَةُ طالِقٌ”

Which means, my wife Fatimah is freed. If he appoints someone to recite it, the attorney should say[3]:[4]
“زَوْجَةُ مُوكِّلى فٰاطِمَةُ طٰالِقٌ”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Living away from home for a long time is not considered as the reason for Divorce, answer 468.

Index: Conditions of divorce and Validity of getting divorce by SMS, answer 423.

[1] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 13.

[2] . Sheikh Saduq, Man la Yahduruhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, pg. 555, Jame’eh Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH.

[3] . Imam Khomeini, Tawzih al-Masaeil (al-mohasha), ibid, p 522, question 2508, compiler: Bani Hashemi Khomeini, Syed Muhammad Hussain, the office of Islamic propagation, Qom, eighth edition, 1424 AH.

[4] . Adopted from answer 468 (Index: Living away from home for a long time is not considered as the reason for Divorce).

post

Saying Ameen during prayer invalidate the prayer

Question 017: How do I explain to my Muslim brothers that responding loudly after the Sheikh, during prayers is not part of Islam?
Answer 017: As for the Islamic laws, such as prayer, khums, zakat and etc., can only be determined by the divine legislator (share’: i.e. the acts of worship in which the contents (of prayer and etc.) are determined by the Holy Quran and traditions from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and his household) which is called Ahkam Tauqifi, one who even has deep knowledge about Islam is unable to add anything other than what has been ordered by the divine legislator.

In prayer, one must not recite anything other than ‘ḏikr’; otherwise the prayer would become void. Just as the Shia have obtained all the rest of their teachings through the instructions and commandments of the Prophet and his household (pbuth), in this matter too they act in accordance to their instructions.

Based upon narrations, the Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) have told us that ‘saying ‘Ameen’ after reciting sūrah ‘al-Hamd’ is not part of the prayer, hence it is not permissible to say it’. It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (pbuh): ‘Whenever you are praying in congregation, and the leader of the congregation finishes reciting ‘Al-Hamd’, do not say ‘Ameen’, say instead ‘Alḥamdulillāh rabbi al-ʿālamīn’. [1]

The maraji’ have given the following fatwa based on the mentioned narration: ‘Of the acts which invalidate the prayer; is saying ‘Ameen’ after reciting ‘al-Hamd’, although if someone says it mistakenly or out of ‘taqīyah’ (dissimulation), the prayer is not void’. [2]

Finally, it is necessary to mention that according to Shīʿah Islamic law, it is not actually compulsory to say ‘Alḥamdulillāh rabbi al-ʿālamīn’ after ‘al-Hamd’; it is just mustahabb (recommended) . However, most Sunni schools of thought consider it an obligatory part of prayer, hence the onus is upon them to verify their claim through the Qur’ān and Prophetic Traditions.

Note: The traditions concerning the saying of Āmīn in prayer are of two types:

1) Traditions in which the chain of narrators includes Abu-Hurayrahh; e.g. “It is narrated from the Prophet (saws) that he said, ‘When the Congregation leader recites ‘walāḍ ḍāllīn’, you should say ‘Ameen’ because the angels [also] say ‘Āmīn’. Therefore every person who says Āmīn alongside with the angels will have all of his past sins forgiven.’”[3]

This group of traditions cannot be trusted due to the fact that the chain of narrators includes Abu Hurayrahh.[4]
Alī (as) says the following about Abu Hurayrah, “The most dishonest person in relation [to attributing lies] to the Prophet (saw) is Abu Hurayrah”[5] (i.e. he fabricated many traditions and attributed them to the Prophet (saw)).

2) Traditions in which the following people are included in the chain of narrators (of which none meet the criterion for being acceptable in terms of ‘hadīth’ narration): Ḥamīd ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Laylī, Ibn ‘adī, ‘Abd al-Jabbar bin wa’il, Suhayl ibn Abī Suhayl, ‘ala’ ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, and Talha ibn ‘Umar. Ḥamīd ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Lalī possessed a weak memory and is considered ‘weak’ (in terms of narrating Hadīth), Ibn ‘adī is an unknown figure (majhul), ‘Abd al-Jabbār bin Waa’il cannot narrate from his father since his father died six months before he was born (in this respect the tradition is weak). Regarding Suhayl ibn Abī Suhayl and ‘Ala’ ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, Abu Haatam says, “Their narrations are recorded (written down), however they bare no authority and Talha ibn ‘Umar is not usable (for narrating hadith), his traditions are extremely weak.”[6]

With the existence of such weak and unreliable narrators in the chain of narrations, these narrations have no credibility and cannot be trusted.

Some [scholars] have tried to justify saying Āmīn in prayer with the following explanation: “[We] say Āmīn because the phrase ‘Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm’ is a du‘a (supplication).”

In reply to this, it must be stated that this phrase only becomes a supplication if it is recited with the intention of supplicating, however those reciting it intend for it to be a part of the prayers and the Quran recited therein, not as a supplication.
Furthermore, if it were permissible to recite every supplicatory phrase for example ‘rabbanā aghfir lanā wa qinā ‘adhāba al-nār’ with the intention of supplicating, then it should also be permissible to recite Āmīn after every supplication, yet no one [of the scholars] holds this view.[7]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

[1] Tusi, Muhammad bin al-Hasan, al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, pg. 74.

[2] Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated by Imam Khomeini), vol. 1, pg. 617. This ruling is agreed upon by all the respected jurists.

[3] . Baydawi, Naasir al-Din Abu al-Khayr Abdullah ibn Umar, Anwaar al-Tanzil wa Asraar al-Ta’wil, vol. 1, p. 32, Ihyaa’ al-Turaath al-Arabi Press, Beirut, 1418 AH.

[4] . Abu Hurayrah Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Sakhr al-Azudi (22 BH-59 AH): eight hundred Sahaabis and Taabi’is have narrated from him. During his rule, Umar appointed him as governor of Bahrain, but due to his weakness in character and leniency, he was dismissed from this responsibility. He spent most of his life in Medinah. Taqiyuddin Sabki has a booklet entitled “Fataawaa Abi Hurayrah”, and Abd al-Husayn Sharafuddin has a book entitled “Abu Hurayrah” on him. (Al-A’laam 4/80, 81). Hujjati, Asbaab al-Nuzul, p. 216.

[5] . See: Ibn Abi al-Hadid Mu’tazili, ‘Izz al-Din Abu Hamed, Sharh Nahjul-Balaghah, vol. 4, p. 68, Library of Ayatullah Mar’ashi Najafi, 1956, first edition.

[6] . See: Sultani, Abd al-Amir, Hukm al-Ta’min fi al-Salah, Ahlul Bayt World Assembly, second edition.

[7] . See: Sabzawari, Ali Mu’min Qummi, Jaami’ al-Khilaaf wa al-Wifaaq bayn al-Imaamiyyah wa bayn A’immat al-Hijaaz wa al-Iraaq, Zamineh Saazane Zuhure Imam Zamaan Press, 1421 AH, first edition, Qum.

post

Number of things which invalidate the prayer

Question 547: Can you please tell us those things which invalidate the prayer?

Answer 547: There are a number of things which invalidate the prayer. They are called mubtilat, as follows:

1, The minor and major pollutions, (i.e., urine, feces, Janabat, etc.) They invalidate the prayer whenever they occur in the prayer, though at the time of reciting the letter “mim” which comes in the Salam (at the conclusion of the prayer), regardless whether it is done deliberately, erroneously or inadvertently, to the exclusion of one suffering from incontinence in urination, stool or a Mustahadah (a woman having undue menses), as has been mentioned earlier. Read More