Barzakh / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth) in His Grave

Question 564: Salam. Tell me about great explanation Alam e burzkh? And Ali a. S arrival in our grave? Bcz MOLA a. S said from kumail Ibne zayadh. I will come in grave of every, momin, munafik and kafir? Please explain?

Answer 564: Rational arguments, the Quranic verses and prophetic traditions clearly indicate that man is not perished with death.  In fact, man’s spirit which is an independent entity constitutes his identity. The Quran ascribes accidents and flaws to the body only not to the spirit. The interesting thing is that in the Holy Qur’an “dying” is mentioned fourteen times with the word tawaffa which means “entrusting”. That is to say after death one will not be perished but that Allah will take His thing back without increase or decrease and Who will entrust it to His appointed workers.[1] There are also other proofs in this regard in the Quran and traditions of which one is the Holy Prophet’s address to the people of the graves.[2]

As for the question about the situation of the spirit after death, it is also a question whose answer should be found from the Quranic verses as well as traditions. In this regard the Holy Quran says: “And behind them is a barrier [partition] until the day [of resurrection] when they are raised.”[3] The Intermediate World refers to the realm of grave; it is a realm in which man lives a special kind of life until the Day of Resurrection. This fact is affirmed by many verses of the Holy Quran as well as traditions which have been narrated through both Shia and Sunni sources.[4]

The literal meaning of Barzakh is obstruction or barrier intervening between two things. However in Islamic eschatology, Barzakh is the intermediate state between this world and the Hereafter. It is very different from the material world. The existents in the intermediate realm are not material, yet they have some features which are characteristic of matter[5] such as forms, time and place. Thus, they can perceive different conditions like hardship, tranquility, happiness and sadness etc.

It is very important to note that when it is said that the intermediate world is devoid of matter, we should not think that the pleasures of the intermediate realm is imaginary and unreal or visionary because it has some of the material concomitants, though it is not material by itself. [6]

In order to understand this point more clearly, it would be beneficial to note that man is a composite of two bodies: 1. The ideal (mithali) or light body; 2. The weighty body. The weighty body is the very body which we have now and which needs food, clothing, care etc. The light body (corpus) is the body we have in the realm of sleep with which we travel sometimes for hundreds of kilometers in an instant. It is for the same reason that it is also called “the light body”.  That is because if we were supposed to tread a long distance in the state of wakefulness, it would take us many hours and require us to use a lot of energy. We will live with this light body in the intermediate world until the Day of Judgment when the scattered particles of human body would be gathered together and resurrected in the form of a weighty body.[7]

Although the ideal body is not weighty, it can perceive various conditions in the same way as it feels things with their external appearance in the state of sleep.  In the intermediate world, our body possesses the same characteristics as it does in the state of sleep in this world. According to some traditions, man lives in the intermediate world with the form and skeleton like those of the worldly form and worldly skeleton.[8]

Finally, it is important to note two points in this regard:

  1. The intermediate world is much bigger and wider than this world because the ideal world is more extensive and bigger than the material world; the former does not have limitations and constraints of the latter.
  2. According to many traditions, the earth has been appointed as a place for punishment or rewards of the intermediate world and for meeting of the spirits with their families. For example, it has been reported in some traditions that the Paradise of Barzakh is Wadi al-Salam and its fire is the Barahut Valley whereas the Beit al-Moqaddas Rock is the place of the congregation of the spirits. Definitely, these traditions imply that the material relation of the spirits with the world is not severed completely. These possible incidents indicate the fact that the spirits are into some communications with the world because of the excellence of the place or time or situation.[9]

Second: Characteristics of the Intermediate Life

As we mentioned above, Barzakh is an intervening stage between this world and the Hereafter. It is considered to be a realm between the material and the abstract realm. In philosophical terms, this world is called the ideal (mithali) world. Therefore, the existents of the intermediate realm are not material but they do feature some of the material concomitants because they are not completely devoid of matter.[10] Therefore, Barzakh is not timeless and placeless; rather, it is possible that time may elapse very faster than it does in this world. Similarly, the “place” in the intermediate realm may also be characterized by less limitations as compared to this world. This point can be substantiated through the verses of the Quran also. It says:

“On the Day that the Hour (of Reckoning) will be established, the transgressors will swear that they tarried not but an hour.”[11]

This verse clearly states that people live a short period of time in this place, the intermediate realm.[12] It can be inferred from this verse and other similar verses that there are time and place in Barzakh but with less constraints. The intermediate world is, for the good doers, a kind of emancipation from the material world which to them looks like a cage but it is very horrible and fearsome for the sinners. Depending on the deeds which a person may have done in this world, he lives there either in agony or in comfort.[13]

When it comes to the nature of Bazakh, there are different interpretations in our traditions. A few examples can be read below. Imam Ali (a.s) said in a letter to his son:

“Be mindful that a grave is either a garden from the gardens of Paradise or a pit from among the pit-holes of Hell Fire.”[14]

It is deduced from the above verse that bounties in Barzakh are paradigms or instances of the bounties given in the hereafter and its punishments are also instances of the punishments in the afterworld.[15]

It has been stated in some traditions that a heavenly position is shown to a believer in the hereafter. So he is made happy.[16]

Third: Conditions of the People of Barzakh

The people of Barzakh live either in agony or in comfort in the same way as the people of this world are tormented by a nightmare or become happy when they see a happy dream. Some deeds like taking prayer lightly or not helping the oppressed etc. entail punishments for a person in Barzakh. Likewise, some other actions like martyrdom in the way of God, religious propagation and giving religious awareness bring about comfort and happiness in the intermediate world.[17]

The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his holy family) is reported to have said that the squeezing of the grave is the expiation of the sin of wasting and not appreciating the bounties granted by God.[18] Some of the other reasons for this punishment include laziness in purifying oneself after urinating, creating mischief amongst the people, backbiting, bad behavior towards one’s family members, and making false allegations.

The people of Barzakh are divided into three groups each dwelling in a particular place: 1. The true perfect believers; 2. The confirmed unbelievers; 3. Mustaz’afeen or those who are neither perfect believers nor confirmed unbelievers.[19]

In another traditions narrated from Imam Sadiq (a.s), he has been quoted as having said: “The spirits of the believers are lodged in Paradise and the spirits of the unbelievers are lodged in Hell Fire.”[20]

It has also been reported from the Imam that the spirits of Mustaz’afeen (the third group) are stored in their graves where the sweet fragrance of Paradise reach them.[21]

Of course, it has been said in other traditions also that the spirits of believers go to Wadi al-Salam[22] or they go on the night of Friday to a rock in Beit al-Moqaddas.[23] These traditions are not contradicting the previous tradition because it is possible that all of these may happen to be at one place or it is possible that the spirits of the believers may sometimes be at one place and other times at another place.[24] The spirits of the unbelievers are also, as mentioned in narrations, in rooms of fire or at a place named “Hadramout” in Yemen or at Barahut Valley.[25]

As for the spirits of the Mustaz’afeen, they remain in the grave until the Day of Judgment and if they have done any good deeds, a window will be opened in their grave to Paradise and they will benefit from it.[26]

Based on the above, it can be said that the conditions of the spirits depends on their degrees and ranks after death. One who is strongly attached to this world, it will take him a long time to believe death and forget the world and its attractions. And he who is from the middle group, goes to a deep sleep never seeing any dream to be either tormented or pleased with it.  He will not have any special feeling of the intermediate life. As for the perfect believers, since they have strengthened their spirits and prepared themselves for the hereafter, they can also establish relations with the spirits of other believers in that abode. Thus, they can get news  of their friends and ask after their health in the material world. They become happy when they see that their friends are in good health. They pray for those who live in the world. Therefore, only those who are perfect believers can have the opportunity to meet other believers and ask after their health.

Imam Sadiq (a.s) says: When a human being enters the grave and Barzakh, the people of Barzakh rush to see him. They console him for a while until he comes to his senses because he has just passed the horrors, the tiring moments of the grave, its questioning and squeezing etc. Then they approach him and ask him about the lives and conditions of the friends.  If he says that they are still in the world, they become hopeful that they might see him later. And if he says that they had died long time ago, they will say “He has fallen.” That is to say, he is suffering from divine punishment, otherwise he would have been brought to us.”[27]

Imam Ali (as) will come in the grave of believers:

According to the following verse of the holy Quran in which Allah, the Almighty says: “And there is not one of the followers of the Book but most certainly believes in this before his death And on the Day of Resurrection he (Prophet lsa) shall be a witness against them”[28], all the human beings such as Muslims, Christians, Jewish and other religions see the holy Prophet (pbuh) and the Infallibles Imams especially Imam Ali (pbuth) at the time of death. They all believe in the Infallibles (pbuth) but this belief will not be accepted as Pharaoh believed when he was disappointed. [29] In this regards, there is a hadith in which Imam Ali (as) said to Harith al-Hamdani: “O Harith of Hamadan, whoever dies shall see me, Be he a believer or a hypocrite, a clear sight before him. His eyes shall recognize me, and I will know him, By his attributes, his name, and by his deeds. I shall quench his thirst with cold water, The sweetness of which will seem to you like that of honey. And when you will stand before hell fire, I shall say, Leave him, and do not be near him, Leave him, and be away from him, for indeed, He has a rope bound with the rope of the Prophet’s successor.”[30]

The Arabic version of this hadith:

يَا حَارِ هَمْدَانَ مَنْ يَمُتْ يَرَنِي. مِنْ مُؤْمِنٍ أَوْ مُنَافِقٍ قُبُلًا. يَعْرِفُنِي طَرْفُهُ وَ أَعْرِفُهُ. بِنَعْتِهِ وَ اسْمِهِ وَ مَا فَعَلَا. وَ أَنْتَ عِنْدَ الصِّرَاطِ مُعْتَرِضِي. فَلَا تَخَفْ عَثْرَةً وَ لَا زَلَلًا. أَقُولُ لِلنَّارِ حِينَ تُوقَفُ. لِلْعَرْضِ ذَرِيهِ لَا تَقْرَبِي الرَّجُلَا. ذَرِيهِ لَا تَقْرَبِيهِ إِنَّ لَهُ. حبْلًا بِحَبْلِ الْوَصِيِّ مُتَّصِلًا. أَسْقِيكَ مِنْ بَارِدٍ عَلَى ظَمَإٍ. تَخَالُهُ فِي الْحَلَاوَةِ الْعَسَلَا. قَوْلُ عَلِيٍّ لِحَارِثٍ عَجَبٌ. كَمْ ثَمَّ أُعْجُوبَةٍ لَهُ حَمَلا.


Also, when a believer dies the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Imam Ali, Lady Fatimah Zahra, Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth) along with the archangels will come in the grave of a believer to help him answer the questions asked by the angels Nakir and Munkar. If he is able to answer their questions the Infallibles (pbuth) will testify for him, if not they will testify that he keeps still at the moment, but he believes in each question you asked.[31]

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:


كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ مَا يَقُولُ النَّاسُ فِي أَرْوَاحِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِمْ قُلْتُ يَقُولُونَ فِي حَوَاصِلِ طُيُورٍ خُضْرٍ فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْمُؤْمِنُ أَكْرَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ أَتَاهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ ع وَ مَعَهُمْ مَلَائِكَةُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ فَإِنْ أَنْطَقَ اللَّهُ لِسَانَهُ بِالشَّهَادَةِ لَهُ بِالتَّوْحِيدِ وَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ بِالنُّبُوَّةِ وَ الْوَلَايَةِ لِأَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ شَهِدَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ ع وَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَ إِنِ اعْتُقِلَ لِسَانُهُ خَصَّ اللَّهُ نَبِيَّهُ ص بِعِلْمِ مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَشَهِدَ بِهِ وَ شَهِدَ عَلَى شَهَادَةِ النَّبِيِّ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ عَلَى جَمَاعَتِهِمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ أَفْضَلُ السَّلَامِ وَ مَنْ حَضَرَ مَعَهُمْ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَإِذَا قَبَضَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ صَيَّرَ تِلْكَ الرُّوحَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ فِي صُورَةٍ كَصُورَتِهِ فَيَأْكُلُونَ وَ يَشْرَبُونَ فَإِذَا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَادِمُ عَرَفَهُمْ بِتِلْكَ الصُّورَةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ فِي الدُّنْيَا.

Imam sadiq (as) said: whoever choose Imam Ali (as) as his wali (“supporter”, “guardian” or “protector”) he will see the Imam at three times: at the time of death, at the Sirat (the bridge which every person must pass on), at the Hawz (The Cistern of al-Kawthar).[32]

For further information, please read the following answer:

Index: Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell, answer 326.

[1] – “Say: The angel of death who is given charge of you shall cause you to die, then to your Lord you shall be brought back.” [As-Sajdah, 11]

[2] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 169.

[3] – Al-Mumenoon, 100

[4] – Tabatabai, Muhammad Hussein, Tafsir al-Mizan, translation, Muhammad Baqir Musavi Hamedani, vol.15, pg. 97, Islamic Publications Office.

[5] – Tabatabai, Muhammad Hussein, Mankind from the Beginning until the End, translated and annotated by Sadiq Larijani, pg. 77- 78, Al-Zahra Publications.

[6] – Qasimi, Ali Mhammad, Bazakh, A Quranic and Narrative Research, pg. 16, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute Publications Center, 1st edition.

[7] – Qira’ati, Mohsen, Roots of Religion, pg.584.

[8] – Allamah Majlisi, Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 244 – 345, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, 1362 (1983).

[9] – The Life after Death, pg.48

[10] – Tabatabai, Muhammad Hussein, Mankind from the Beginning until the End, translated and annotated by Sadiq Larijani, pg. 77- 78, Al-Zahra Publications.

[11] – Room, 55.

[12] – Tafsir al-Mizan, translation, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Hamedani, vol.16, pg. 308.

[13] – Roots of Religion, pg. 582.

[14] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 218.

[15] – Mankind from the Beginning until the End, pg. 79

[16] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 237

[17] – For further information about the sins which entail punishments and the good deeds which entail reward for the doer in the intermediate world, vide: Qira’ati, Mohsen, Roots of Religion, pg. 590 – 596.

[18] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 169

[19] – The word Mustaz’afeen refers to those who at times tried to understand and act but they did not have the intellectual capacity, such as the made and insane people. See: Mazaheri, Muhammad, Man and the Intermediate World, pg. 58 – 64, Nabawi Publications Institute.

[20] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 234.

[21] – Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.3, pg. 246.

[22] – Ibid, vol.3, pg. 243

[23] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 286.

[24] – Man and the Intermediate World, pg. 55, Nabawi Publications Institute, Tehran, 1375 (1996).

[25] – Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.3, pg. 246

[26] – ibid

[27] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 249 – 250, 269.

[28] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 159.

[29] . Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 1, Pgs. 572-573; Tafsir Kanz al-Daqaeq wa Bahr al-Gharaeb, Vol. 3, Pg. 584; Tafsir Forat al-Kufi, Pg. 116.

[30] . Tafsir al-Safi, Vol. 1, Pg. 519; Sharh e Nahjul Balaghah Li ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 1, Pg. 299; Divan Amir al-Momenin (as), Pg. 352; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 6, Pg. 180; al-Amali (Tusi), al-Nass, Pg. 627; al-Amali (Mufid), al-Nass, Pg. 7; Tafsi al-Qummi, Vol. 2, Pg. 266.

[31] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 6, Pg. 229.

[32] . Man La Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 1, Pg. 137, chapter of Ghusl, Pg. 131.


Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell

Question 326: Do believers go to hell? Or they suffer only Barzakh?

Answer 326: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: And there is not one of you but shall come to it, This is an unavoidable decree of your Lord. And We will deliver those who guarded (against evil), and We will leave the unjust therein on their knees. [1]

The interpreters of the holy Quran have different opinions about this previous mentioned verse of the holy Quran as follows:

First Interpretation: According to some of interpreters of the holy Quran, the meaning of the word ‘Waredoha’ that mentioned in this verse is to go near or approach. This means that all the human beings such as good and bad people, without exception, will go near the Hell in order to see how the wrongdoers and sinners will be judged and what final destination they will have on the Day of Resurrection, but Allah (SWT) will save the believers.

The following is a verse of the holy Quran that the interpreters give it as a reason to support their idea. In Surah Qasas verse 23 Allah (SWT) says: “And when he arrived at the watering (place) in Madyan”.[2]

Arabic version:

وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ

Second Interpretation: According to most of interpreters of the holy Quran, the word ‘Waredoha’ means Entrance. Therefore, all the human beings, without exception, enter the Hell, however it would be cold and comfort for the believers as Nimrod’s fire had been cooled and comforted upon Abraham. In this regards, Allah (SWT) says: “We said: O fire! be a comfort and peace to Ibrahim.”[3]

It seems that the second interpretation is in harmony with the apparent of the verse. Because, the main meaning of the word ‘Waredoha’ is entrance and the next verse of this Surah ‘ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّنَذَرُ الظَّالِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيًّا’ also support this meaning. Furthermore, the following are some traditions by which we can come to the conclusion that the second interpretation is correct.

A man asked Jaber bin Abdullah Ansari about this verse and Jaber pointed to his ears saying that I heard an issue from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) by my own ears that if I lie my ears would become deaf. The Prophet said: Al-Worood al-Dokhool. Meaning that the word ‘Worood’ is entrance. And there is not one of you good and bad people but will enter the Hell. But, the fire will be cooled and comforted for the believers ….[4]

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: The Hellfire will say to the believers ‘pass me soon, as your light (noor) is turning my flame off.’[5]

What the philosophy of entering Hell for the believers, according to the second interpretation, that is actually Alla’s (SWT) wisdom is that after seeing the chastisement of Hell they (the believers) shall be the Dwellers of the Garden and well pleased with and abide in that which their souls long for.[6]

Barzakh: There is a verse in the holy Quran which explicitly states that there is an intermediate world (Barzakh) between death and resurrection.[7] There are other examples in the Quran in which it speaks of or describe people who have passed away from the world and who have not yet reached the Day of Resurrection.[8] These verses indicate that there is an intermediate world called “Barzakh”.

There are many narrations in Shiite and Sunni sources which describe the intermediate world with more precise details.[9]

Based on the above, the existence of an intermediate world is unquestionable but there is a difference of opinion as to the specific features of this world; different Muslim scholars have provided varying details in their analysis.

Avael ul Maqalat is also a book authored by Shaykh Mufid, one of the prominent Shiite scholars of the fourth and fifth century of the Islamic calendar. He wrote the book in response to various questions and queries on ideological subjects including the intermediate world. Naturally, the inferences made by him with reliance on the verses and traditions are those of him, not of the entire Shiite community.

In this book, Shaykh Mufid accepts the intermediate world in a general way and describes the situation of people therein. He says: We can study the situation of people in the intermediate world under one of the following four groups:[10]

The first group of people is those who are alive enjoying divine bounties and living in close proximity to the imams. The second group of people is those who are alive and are being chastised. There is a third group of people also about whom we have no precise information nor have we come to a certain conclusion about the way they are living. Basically, we are not sure if they are having an intermediate life. Finally, the fourth group of people includes those people who do not have an intermediate life and that they are numb and dead in the period between this world and the hereafter.

Shaykh Mufid (r.a) then goes on analyzing the above four groups one after another:

  1. Those people who have complete inner vision of themselves in the world and are fulfilling their divine obligations in proper manner shall be alive and shall benefit from the bounties bestowed upon by them by the Lord.
  2. There are some people in this world who do not embrace the true religion on account of grudge and stubbornness. Such people who have the ability to know the truth or know it and still oppose it for the sake of material worldly benefits and continue to commit major sins are alive in the intermediate world. Unlike the first group, they have a life fraught with anguish, agony and punishment.
  3. There are also some people who despite believing in the right religion commit great sins. In fact, they do not commit sins owing to grudge and stubbornness or because they consider them as permissible; rather they commit sins on account of their being overpowered and overcome by their whims and carnal desires. What would be their situation like in the intermediate world, if they fail to repent before death?

Thereupon, Shaykh Mufid (r.a) says: We do not know as to how their situation in the intermediate world is as we maintain doubt about the destiny Almighty Allah has set for them. It is likely that:

1 – 3. God, the Exalted, may keep them alive in the intermediate world and subject them to punishment so that they may, after getting the punishment in the grave and in the intermediate world, be purified and go to Paradise.

2 – 3. This group of people has no intermediate life and that they will be held responsible for their deeds on the Day of Judgment. God, the Exalted, will deal with them and consider some of them to be liable to punishment in Hell and some others as worthy of forgiveness and mercy.

Finally, Shaykh Mufid (may Allah bless him) concludes that in spite of having access to the Quranic verses and also traditions, he could not have verified the situation of the third group. He says that God, the Glorified, may have wanted to conceal their situation from us.

  1. There are two other groups of people one of which includes apparently faithful people who do not have the least understanding and insight about religion, and the other includes unbelievers whose disbelief in the right religion is not because of grudge and stubbornness but because of lacking access to a proper cultural atmosphere and to the means of understanding. In other words, they are suffering from cultural poverty and weakness. According to Shaykh Mufid (r.a), these two groups of people do not have an intermediate life and that they are numb and dead in the period between this world and the hereafter.
    Meanwhile, we should reiterate that the above classification and the inferences made by Shaykh Mufid with reliance on the verses and traditions are those of him, not of the entire Shiite community. Therefore, other Shiite scholars may have other juridical views in this regard.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Barzakh is the intermediate state between this world and the Hereafter / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth), answer 564.

[1] . Surah Marym, verses 71-72.

[2] . Surah Qasas, verse 23.

[3] . Surah Anbiya, verse 69.

[4] .  Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 3, Pg. 353.

[5] . Ibid.

[6] . Surah Anbiya, verse 102.

[7] . Al-Momenoon, 100, “و من ورائهم برزخ إلی یوم یبعثون”.

[8] . Aal-e Imran: 169 – 171; Yasin, 26-27.

[9] . See: Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwra, vol.6, pg.202 onward, Al-Vafa Insititute, Beirut, 1401 A.H; Qurtubi, Al-Jame’ le-Ahkaam al-Quran, vol.13, pg. 150, Intisharat Naser Khosro, Tehran, 1985.

[10] . Shaykh Mufid, Avael ul Maqalat, p.g75 – 76, Congress on Shaykh Mufid (r.a), Qom 1413 A.H.


The night prayer or Salatul Layl (Tahajjud)

Question 234:  Please let me know about tahajad namaz (The night prayer or Salatul Layl (Tahajjud)) time and tarika??

Brief answer 234: There are eleven Rak’ats of supererogatory for the night, of which eight Rak’ats are called (mid) night (Tahajjud) then two Rak’ats are called Shaf’ (or couple) and one Rak’at called Vitr (single) prayer which along with the Shaf’ prayer is the preferable prayer, while the two Rak’ats of Morning Prayer are even more preferable than both. It is permissible to confine oneself to Shaf’ and Vitr only; rather particularly to Vitr in case the time is too short, while in case otherwise, it may be offered with the hope (of being desirable to Allah).

The due time for the (mid) night (Tahajjud) prayer is from the mid-night to the actual dawn (Subh-I Sãdiq), while morning (Sahar) is preferable than any other time, the last one-third of the night being entirely morning (Sahar), while its preferable time is one close to the dawn (Fajr), and even more preferable than that is the early morning (Tafriq) as was the practice of the holy Prophet, Allah’s Blessing be on him and his Progeny.[1]

Detailed answer 234: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl is one of the acts of worship and prayers which have been greatly stressed upon and recommended. With this prayer in the middle of the night close to dawn when there is utter silence and the daily uproar and commotion have seized, one gets a very special state of concentration and excitement which is unique and indescribable. That is, the friends of God always choose the pre-dawn moment for invocation and supplication for they are composed and at rest at this time and there is no intention of showing off. At this time, one gets the best of concentration which extraordinarily helps build and revive the spiritual self. That is why the Holy Quran has promised those who offer the night prayer to grant them a position of great glory (maqam mahmood):
“وَمِنَ اللَّیْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّکَ عَسَىٰ أَن یَبْعَثَکَ رَبُّکَ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُودًا”

“And during a part of the night, pray Tahajjud beyond what is incumbent on you; maybe your Lord will raise you to a position of great glory.”[2]

How to offer the Night Prayer: The night prayer consists of eleven rak’ats. Out of the 11 Rak’ats of the night Nafilah, 8 Rak’ats should be offered with the niyyat of the Nafilah, 2 Rak’ats with the niyyat of Shaf’a, and 1 Rak’at with the intention of Witr. All of these eleven rak’ats can be offered in short and long forms.

Short form:  In the short form of the night prayer, one can suffice to reciting only Hamd, the opening chapter (without Surah) in the prayers.

Long form: In this method, in the first initial rak’ats one should recite Hamd followed by a Surah (like Surah al-Kafiroon, Tawhid etc. which have been recommended). Indeed, according to some traditions, the Surah of Tawhid has been recommended to be recited up to ten times.

When it comes to the rak’ats of Shaf’a prayer, it is better to recite Surah Falaq after Surah Hamd in the first rak’at and to recite Surah Naas after Surah Hamd in the second rak’at. There remains one rak’at of witr prayer in which it is better to recite Surah Tawhid thrice after Surah Hamd along with Surah Falaq and Surah Naas. One can suffice to reciting only Surah Tawhid and then perform Qunut.
Qunut: The qunut of witr prayer is one of the highly rewarded mustahab acts and stress has been laid on prolonging it. It has been narrated from the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, that he said: “Whoever prolongs the qunut of his witr prayer in the world, will be at ease at the station of judgment.”[3] In Qunut, first pray for forgiveness of forty or more Mu’mineen who are either dead or living in the following manner. For example, you should say:
“اللهم اغفر لفلان

“Allahumma ighfir li-fulan”.

Instead of ‘fulan’, you should mention the name of the individual whom you want to pray for. Or recite:
اللهم اغفر للمؤمنین و المؤمنات

Allahumma ighfir lil-mo’meneen wal-momeenat.
“استغفر الله ربی و اتوب الیه‌”

Then recite seventy times “astaghfirullah rabbi wa atubu elayh.” Then recite:

“هذا مقام العائذ بک من النار”

Haza maqamul a’eze bika minan nar.

Then say three hundred times:


Al-Afw. Then the following dhikr is recited:

“رب‌ّ اغفرلی و ارحمنی و تب علی‌ّ انک انت التواب الغفور الرحیم‌”

Rabbi ighfirli wa irhamni wa tub ‘alayya innka antat tawwab al-ghafoor al-rahim.

Then you should bend for ruku and go down for prostration (sajda) and salam.

Indeed, there are many mustahab dhikr and supplications which one can recite in all the rak’ats of the night prayer. Should you like to learn more about those recommended dhikr.

Every Nafilahs and all mustahabb prayers in general are two rak’ats. if you dont have enough time to offer all eleven rak’ats, there would be no problem to offer 2 rak’ahs of the shaf’ prayer and 1 rak’ah of the watr prayer. if not you can offer the one rak’ah of the watr prayer, only.

[1] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, rules concerning Preliminaries of Prayer.

[2] . Al-Isra (17): 79.

[3] . Tabatai Yazdi, Muhammad Kazem, Urwat al-Wuthqa, vol.1, p. 544 – 545, Dar al-Tafsir.


Can an illegitimate child lead congregational prayer

Question 271: A man has been a student at Hawza for 2 years. He reverted in 2011. He has just found out that there might be a problem because his mother never married his father. I have heard, and so has he during his studies, that people cannot pray behind an Imam that is illegitimately born. He’s wondering if there is any point in continuing as a seminary student if people cannot pray behind him? Is it the position of Khamenei and the other Grand Marja that he cannot be an Mola/Sheikh because of this reason? Does his illegitimate birth not count against him because he’s a revert? What is your advice on his continuance in seminary. Can an illegitimate child lead congregational prayer?


Answer 271: Each country has its own special nikah. Islam has respected the law obtained in each country regarding marriage and never considered a child born by such nikah as illegitimate.[1]

If his parents did, according to the rights that were obtained in their country in this regards, their marriage would be considered as valid and he is not illegitimate.

If they didn’t know the rules concerning marriage rights, their child is not considered illegitimate too. It is said to be a child of doubtful nature.[2]

According to common law, if his parents’ relationship is not considered as adultery but, instead it is considered as nikah, their relationship would be valid and the man is not illegitimate as well.

In these previous cases the man can lead congregation prayer.[3]

Otherwise, if they didn’t respect their religious rights (such as Christian, Islam, etc.) and the child was born in this situation and they had committed adultery according to common law he is not able to lead congregation prayer, however he would be able to continue learning and studying Islamic sciences and other acts, which he is allowed to do.

For further information in this regarding, please read the following answer:

Index: Qualification of an Imam of congregational prayers, answer 021.

[1] . Tahzibul Ahkam, Vol. 8, Pg. 29; Al-Tahzib, Vol. 7, Pg. 472, H 99, Wasael al-Shia, Pg. 588, H. 2.

[2] . Ameli, Baha al-Din Muhammad bin Hussain & Sawoji, Nidham bin Hussain, Jame’ Abbai  wa Takmil e an (its completion), annotated, researcher and editior: Mahallati Haeri, Sheikh Ali, Vol. 2, Pg. 280, Manshoorat al-Farahani Institution, Tehran, first edition.

[3] . Ale Usfoor al-Bahrani, al-Hussain bin Muhammad,  Sidad al-Ebad wa Rishad al-Ebad, Pg. 142, al-Mallati, Qom, first edition, 1421 A.H; Jawad, Miftah al-Kiramah fee Sharh e Qawaed al-Allamah, Vol. 10, Pg. 14, al-Nashr al-Islami al-Tabeah Lijama’at al-Modarresin Institution, Qom, first edition, 1419 A.H.


killing rabid and biting dogs in order to receive Wahy (revelation)

Question 491: Did the Prophet ordered that killing rabid and biting dogs is allowed (in any situation)?

Answer 491: It is quoted a story in some tafasir in which mentioned that Gabriel (as) went to the holy Prophet (pbuh) and asked if He gives him permission to come in? The Prophet gave him permission, but Gabriel didn’t come in. After a while, the holy Prophet said: We gave you permission! So, why don’t you come in? Gabriel replied: we don’t come in a house where a dog is in. According to Abu Rafe’, the narrator of this hadith, quoted that after this event, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) ordered to kill dogs existed in the city. The companions of the holy Prophet asked if keeping any dogs are forbidden? The Prophet kept silence until the verse four of the surah Maedah has sent down in which keeping hunting dogs have been permitted.[1]

It is generally mentioned in Shia traditions that the Angels will not enter a house in which a dog is keeping.[2]

It is noteworthy that there hasn’t mentioned in any Shia traditions that this dog was kept in the house of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). It is said that this event happened at the time when the holy Prophet were presented in an area where a puppy dog was kept inside a house.[3]

There is a tradition narrated from Imam Ali (as) that the holy Prophet (pbuh) sent me to Medina and ordered: …destroy graves and kill dogs. Damiri narrated from Abdullah bin Ma’qal the he narrated a Hadith in which the Holy Prophet (pbuh) ordered to kill dogs then He (pbuh) said: You are allowed to keep hunting and herding dogs. So, His companions interpreted the holy Prophet’s order that rabid and biting dogs have to be killed.[4]

According to Imam Sadiq (as), black dogs are Jin.[5]

Conclusion: It is narrated in Shia and Sunni[6] sources that the holy Prophet (pbuh) ordered to kill dogs, however He later said that keeping hunting and herding dogs are permitted.

Dogs are of some species. Those rabid and biting dogs need to be killed if they harm us, but hunting and herding dogs have been permitted to be kept.[7]

[1] . Tabari, Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Jarir, Jame al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 6, Pg. 57, Dar al-Ma’rifat, Beirut, 1412 A.H.

[2] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Kafi, Vol. 3, Pg. 393, H 26, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran;  Majlesi, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 80, Pg. 288;  Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasael al-Shia, Aalul Bayt Institution, Qom, 1409 A.H. Vol. 5, Pg. 275, H 6260.

[3] . Wahedi, Ali bin Ahmad, Asbab al-Nozul, Pg. 194, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, 1411 A.H.

[4] . al-Kafi, Vol. 6, Pgs. 552-553.

[5] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 6, Pg. 287.

[6] . Muslim, 1572-1573-280; Abu Dawood, 2845.

[7] . Surah Maedah, verse 4;  Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasael al-Shia, Aalul Bayt Institution, Qom, 1409 A.H. Vol. 5, Pg. 275, H 6260;  Golpayegani, Sayyid Muhammad Reza Moosavi, Majma al-Masael, Dar al-Quran al-Karim, Qom, Iran, second edition. 1409 A.H, Q 181;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (annotated), Vol. 2, Pg. 198;  Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 67.


Permanent or Temporary marriage of a married man without the permission of his wife

Question 565: Salamun alaykum. I shall appreciate help with regards to the following questions please.

1) Can a married man engage in temporary marriage with or without his wife’s permission?

2) Can a married man marry a second wife without his first wife’s permission?


Answer 565: Islam recognizes the permissibility of a man having four permanent and concurrent wives.  The man’s second marriage while he has a permanent wife, except in the case of marriage with the wife’s niece (her brother’s daughter, or sister’s daughter)[1], is not conditional upon consent of the first wife. But, if the wife [stipulates], as a condition of the marriage, that her husband cannot marry another woman, then, according to some jurists (Fuqahā), this condition is valid and the husband should not violate it.

The following are some opinions of our maraja concerning whether the first wife can stipulate the condition or not:

Imam Khomeini, Ayatollah Bahjat, Khamenei, Fadhil Lankarani, Makarim Shirazi and Noori Hamedani: No, this condition is not valid or binding, unless there is a condition that: “the wife has power of attorney from the husband, that if the husband remarries, she can carry out divorce”, this is valid.[2]

Ayatollahs Tabrizi, Sistani and Safi Golpayegani: Yes, this condition is valid and binding, and if after the marriage, the husband does not act upon this condition and remarries, then he has committed a sin.[3]

Ayatollah Wahid: according to obligatory precaution (Ihtīyāt Wājib), this condition is not valid and binding, unless there is a condition that: ” the wife has power of attorney from the husband, that if the husband remarries, she can carry out divorce”, this is valid.[4]

Justice in dealing with polygamy: The justice that is required [in dealing with polygamy] is related to the division [of time between them] in the sense that when he spends a night with one of them then, he must spend one night each with the rest of them in every four nights.The justice that is required as a recommendation is equality in spending money, giving attention, cheerfulness, and fulfillment of their sexual needs, etc.[5]

Getting married with People of the Book: Some jurisprudential scholars are of the opinion that if a Muslim man wishes to temporarily marry a ‘Ahlul Kitab’ (People of the Book) wife, while he has a permanent Muslim wife, then the permission of that first Muslim wife is a condition upon the second marriage.[6]

For a Muslim man to marry a woman from Ahlul Kitab permanently is against the compulsory precaution in any circumstance. And his temporary marriage to a Jewish or a Christian woman is allowed, only if he is not already married to a Muslim wife. If he has a Muslim wife, temporary marriage with an Ahlul Kitab woman is not permissible without her consent; nay, even with her consent, it is not permissible, based on compulsory precaution.

Conclusion: The man’s second permanent marriage or temporary marriage while he has a permanent wife, is not conditional upon the consent of his first wife. Unless, 1) he wants to marry his wife’s niece, 2) the woman stipulates a condition that her husband cannot marry another woman (but not according to all maraja’), 3) he wants to permanently marry a woman from Ahlul Kitab and his first wife is Muslimah.[7]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael (annotated by Imām Khomeini), Vol. 2, p. 466.

[2] . Imam Khomeini, Istafta’at, Vol. 3, Section on rules of marriage, Q. 55. Ayatollah Makarim Shirazi, Istafta’at, Vol. 2, p. 907. Ayatollah Khamenei, Istaftā’, Q. 7.  Ayatollah Fazel, Jama‘ al-Masā’il, Vol. 1, p. 1533.  Ayatollah Noori, Istafta’at, Vol. 2, p. 637 and Ayatollah Bahjat, Tūḍīḥ al-Masā’il, Q. 2534.

[3] . Ayatollah Sistani, Minhāj al-Sālehīn, Vol. 2, Q. 333.  Ayatollah Tabrizi, Minhāj al-Sālehīn, Vol. 2, Q. 1395.  Ayatollah Safi, Jama‘ al-Ahkām, Vol. 2, Q. 5521.

[4] . Ayatollah Wahid, Minhāj al-Ṣālehīn, Vol. 3, Q. 9531. By using the Porsemān software

[5] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Marriage, q&a.

[6] See: Siratul-Nijat, Sheikh Jawad Tabrizi, vol. 2, pg. 270. Related Question: Temporary marriage with women of the People of the Book, Question 1209.

[7] . For further information in this regards, please refer to answer 080 (Index:  Rules regarding temporary or permanent marriage with people of the book).


Rules regarding temporary or permanent marriage with people of the book

Question 080: Salaams dear Shaykh. What is the ruling of the Maraji’ regarding temporary or permanent marriage with people of the book?

Answer 080: Our maraja have different opinions regarding permanent marriage with People of the Book as follows:

Imam Khomeini: As an obligatory precaution, it is impermissible to get married to People of the Book. Of course, Imam Khumayni (rah) has said in this issue (the issue of permanent marriage with non-Muslim women who are of the People of the Book) that it is an obligatory precaution, which means those who follow him can refer to the verdict of another jurist who says such a marriage is permissible and follow him instead.

Ayatollahs Golpaygani and Safi: The permissibility of marriage with People of the Book isn’t devoid of strength [this is a jurisprudential term meaning that it is permissible], but in the case of one being able to marry a Muslim woman, it is greatly makruh (abominable), as a matter of fact, in such a case, precaution should be observed.

Ayatollahs Khoei and Tabrizi: As a recommended precaution one shouldn’t permanently get married to them and some sects such as the Khawarij, Ghulat and Nawasib who consider themselves Muslims have the same ruling as kafirs and can’t be married to by Muslim women and men, neither permanently nor temporarily.

Ayatollah Noori Hamedani: Marrying them permanently is permissible according to the stronger fatwa, but precaution should be observed in not getting married to them permanently in the case of them being able to get married to a Muslim woman.

Ayatullah Zanjani: The Muslim man cannot get married to the Magi or a non-Muslim who is not of the People of the Book, neither permanently nor temporarily, and apparently, permanent or temporary marriage with Jewish or Christian women isn’t void, but it is makruh and against recommended precaution, especially if the marriage is permanent.[1]

Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani: The Muslim man cannot be permanently married to kafir women, even if they are Jewish or Christian as an obligatory precaution, nevertheless temporary marriage is permissible with Jewish and Christian women.

Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi: The Muslim man cannot get permanently married to kafir women as an obligatory precaution, but temporary marriage with People of the Book such as Christians and Jews is permissible.

Ayatollah Bahjat: The Muslim man cannot get married to other than People of the Book and Magi [from the kafirs], neither permanently, nor temporarily, and apparently, temporary marriage with Jewish and Christian women, both temporary and permanent, isn’t void although it is makruh and against recommended precaution, especially in permanent marriage.

Ayatollah Sistani: The Muslim man cannot get married to kafir women who aren’t of the People of the Book, but temporary marriage with Jewish and Christian women is permissible, and according to obligatory precaution, permanent marriage with them isn’t.[2]

He also says: For a Muslim man to marry a woman from Ahlul Kitab permanently is against the compulsory precaution in any circumstance. And his temporary marriage to a Jewish or a Christian woman is allowed, only if he is not already married to a Muslim wife. If he has a Muslim wife, temporary marriage with an Ahlul Kitab woman is not permissible without her consent; nay, even with her consent, it is not permissible, based on compulsory precaution.[3]

[1] . Tawdih al-Masa’il of the maraji’ (annotated), vol. 3, p. 468.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of the maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), vol. 2, pg. 468; Ibid, pg. 469; Hakim, Muhammad Saeed, Minhajul-Salehin, vol. 3, pg. 33.

[3] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Marriage, q&a.


Four Women Chosen as the Best above the Women of the World

Question 542: Assalam o alaikum, Who is Khair Un Nissa in Quran? Which 6 respected ladies have been mentioned in Quran? Explain about them according to their status in eyes of Allah with reference of Quran


Answer 542: Lady Mary (sa) is the only woman has clearly mentioned in the Holy Quran by name. “And when the angels said: O Mary! Surely Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the world”. But, in other verses of the holy Quran Allah (SWT) narrated some behaviors and conditions of a few women that show scope of the human beings actions. As a result, Quran has more emphasized on the actions rather the name of individuals.

The Story of some Unique Women mentioned in the Holy Quran:

A: Lady Fatima Zahra (sa): There are verses of the holy Quran have been sent down about Lady Fatima Zahra (sa), some have only been sent down about her and others about Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) that Lady Fatima (sa) is one of them. These verses are as follows:

  1. All verses of Surah al-Kauthar have been sent down about Lady Fatima (sa), according to interpreters of the Holy Quran. They said: the word Kauthar means Lady Fatima Zahra (sa).[1]
  2. The Verse of Tathir (The verse of purification): “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House!”[2]
  3. The Verse of Mawadda: “That is of which Allah gives the good news to His servants, (to) those who believe and do good deeds Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives”[3]
  4. The verse of Mubahilah: “But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars”[4]
  5. Verses related to sending down the holy Quran on the Night of Power: Verse 3 of Surah Dukhan and Surah al-Qadr have been sent down about Ahlul Bayt (pbuth). [5]
  6. There are other verses of the holy Quran have been sent down about Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) especially Lady Fatima (sa) that you can refer to these Books: Sharh e Ehqaq al-Haq, al-Ghadir, Aqabat al-Anwar, Ghayat al-Maram.

B: The Mother and Sister of Prophet Musa (as) and The Wife of Pharaoh: In surah al-Qasas and Taha Allah, the Most High points the story of Mother and Sister of the Prophet Musa (His mother’s name: Historians have different opinions about her name. Some of her names are: Youkhabed, Youkabed, Nakhib, Afahiyeh, Youkhbid, Youkhabil[6]), His sister and Asiya, the Wife of Pharaoh.

Surah Qasas: “And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: Suckle him and, when thou fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not nor grieve. Lo! We shall bring him back unto thee and shall make him (one) of Our messengers. And the family of Pharaoh took him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a sorrow, Lo! Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts were ever sinning. And the wife of Pharaoh said: (He will be) a consolation for me and for thee. Kill him not. Peradventure he may be of use to us, or we may choose him for a son. And they perceived not. And the heart of the mother of Moses became void, and she would have betrayed him if We had not fortified her heart, that she might be of the believers. And she said unto his sister: Trace him. So she observed him from afar, and they perceived not. And We had before forbidden foster-mothers for him, so she said: Shall I show you a household who will rear him for you and take care of him? So, We restored him to his mother that she might be comforted and not grieve, and that she might know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of them know not. [7]

Surah Taha: “When We revealed to your mother what was revealed. ” Saying: Put him into a chest, then cast it down into the river, then the river shall throw him on the shore; there shall take him up one who is an enemy to Me and enemy to him” And I cast down upon you love from Me, and that you might be brought up before My eyes. When your sister went and said: Shall I direct you to one who will take charge of him? So We brought you back to your mother, that her eye might be cooled and she should not grieve And you killed a man

And I have chosen you for Myself”[8]

In Surah Tahrim there is a verse in which Allah (SWT), for the believers, talks about Asiya, the Wife of the Pharaoh. “And Allah sets forth an example to those who believe: the wife of Firon when she said: My Lord! build for me a house with Thee in the garden and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doing, and deliver me from the unjust people”.[9]

C: Two Daughters of Jethro’s (The Father in Law of the Prophet Moses): In the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty also talk about two daughters of Shoaib (Jethro) as follows.

“And he went into the city at a time of unvigilance on the part of its people, so he found therein two men fighting, one being of his party and the other of his foes And he who was of his party cried out to him for help against him who was of his enemies, so Musa struck him with his fist and killed him He said: This is on account of the Shaitan’s doing Surely he is an enemy, openly leading astray. He said: My Lord! Surely I have done harm to myself, so do Thou protect me. So He protected him. He said: My Lord! Because, Thou hast bestowed a favor on me, I shall never be a backer of the guilty. And he was in the city, fearing, awaiting, when lo! he who had asked his assistance the day before was crying out to him for aid Musa said to him: You are most surely one erring manifestly. So, when he desired to seize him who was an enemy to them both, he said: O Musa! do you intend to kill me as you killed a person yesterday? You desire nothing but that you should be a tyrant in the land, and you do not desire to be of those who act aright. “And a man came running from the remotest part of the city. He said: O Musa! surely the chiefs are consulting together to slay you, therefore depart (at once); surely I am of those who wish well to you”. So he went forth therefrom, fearing, awaiting (And) he said: My Lord! deliver me from the unjust people. And when he turned his face towards Madyan, he said: Maybe my Lord will guide me in the right path. And when he came to the water of Madyan, he found on it a group of men watering) their flocks (, and he found besides them two women keeping back (their flocks). So, he watered (their sheep) for them, then went back to the shade and said: My Lord! surely I stand in need of whatever good Thou mayest send down to me. Then one of the two women came to him walking bashfully. She said: My father invites you that he may give you the reward of your having watered for us So when he came to him and gave to him the account, he said: Fear not You are secure from the unjust people. Said one of them: O my father! employ him Surely the best of those that you can employ is the strong man, the faithful one. He said: I desire to marry one of these two daughters of mine to you on condition that you should serve me for eight years But if you complete ten, it will be of your own free will And I do not wish to be hard to you If Allah please, you will find me one of the good. He said: This shall be (an agreement) between me and you Whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there shall be no wrong doing to me And Allah is a witness of what we say. So, when Musa had fulfilled the term, and he journeyed with his family, he perceived on this side of the mountain a fire. He said to his family: Wait, I have seen a fire, maybe I will bring to you from it some news or a brand of fire, so that you may warm yourselves”.[10]

Note: In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty sets forth an example to those who disbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot, as follows: “They were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the Fire with those who enter”[11]

Other names of women in the holy Quran: There are other names of women in the holy Quran that some of them are portrayed in a positive light, while others are condemned for their actions. Briefly, these women are as follows:

Eve (Hawwa)[12], Wives of Prophets Noah and Lot (as)[13], Daughters of Lot[14], Sarah, the Wife of Prophet Abraham (as)[15], Aziz’s wife (Zulaykha) and the ladies at that time of the Prophet Yousef (as)[16], Mother and Sister of Prophet Moses (as)[17], Wife of Prophet Moses (as), the Daughter of Shoiab (Jethro), (i.e. Safura)[18], Asiyah, the Wife of the Pharaoh[19], the Queen of Sheba (Bilqis)[20], Wife of Imran[21], Lady Mary (sa)[22], Wives of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)[23], Daughters of the Prophet[24], Khawla bint Tha’labah[25] and Wife of Abu Lahab[26].


Who are the best Woman according to the holy Quran and Traditions?

Lady Mary (sa): The Holy Quran has stated two choiceness for Lady Mary (sa). Absolut choiceness and being chosen above the women of the world.[27] In this verse of the holy Quran, her purification has also been emphasized. Also, Lady Mary is a sign of Allah. “And We made the son of Marium and his mother a sign, and We gave them a shelter on a lofty ground having meadows and springs (Baitul Moqaddas)”[28]

The reason why she has been considered as the sign of Allah is that she become pregnant without husband and having any relation with a man.[29]

Another reason is that she was of the obedient ones.[30] She was also Mother of Prophet Jesus (as). “and his mother was a truthful woman”[31]

Along with Asiyah, she was example to those who believe. “And Marium, the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our inspiration and she accepted the truth of the Words of her Lord and His books, and she was of the obedient ones”[32]

What is the meaning of the word ‘Nisaa al-Alameen’ (Women of the World)? Does it mean that she has chosen above the women of the world such as women of her time or all women from the time of Adam to the present? The holy Prophet (pbuh) said to Imam Ali (as): O Ali there are four women chosen as the best above the women of the world: 1. Asiyah (the Wife of Pharaoh) bint Muzahim. 2. Mary, the daughter of Emran. 3. Khadijah bint Khuwailad. 4. Fatimah, My Daughter. But, Lady Fatimah is superior to the others. [33]

Conclusion: although, the Holy Quran does not directly name any woman except for Lady Mary (sa) who is the only woman mentioned in the Qur’an by name and chosen above the women of the world, but others’ names come from traditions and tafasir of the holy Quran. Some of the women are portrayed in a positive light, while others are condemned for their actions. There are four women, among those who are portrayed in a positive light, that have chosen above all women of the world. Three of them were above the women of their own time, while Lady Fatimah (sa) has chosen above all the women of the world for all times, according to the Holy Prophet (pbuh).

[1] . Surah al-Kauthar; Tafsir Al-Mizan, Vol. 20, Pgs. 638-643.

[2] . Surah al-Ahzab, verse 33.

[3] . Surah Shura, verse 23.

[4] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 61.

[5] . Sheikh Kuleini, Usul al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Kitab al-Hujjah, Chapter The Features of Surah al-Qadr.

[6] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 13, Pg. 5, Tafsir Tabari, Vol. 1, Pg. 271; Albidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 1, Pg. 276.

[7] . Surah al-Qisas, verses 7-13.

[8] . Surah Taha, verses 38-40.

[9] . Surah Tahrim, verse 11.

[10] . Surah Qisas, verse 15-29.

[11] . Surah Tahrim, verse 10.

[12] . Surah Taha, verse 117.

[13] . Surah Tahrim, verse 10.

[14] . Surah Hud, verse 79; Surah Hijr, verse 71.

[15] . Surah hud, verse 71-72.

[16] . Surah Yousef, verses 23, 51.

[17] . Surah Qasas, verse 7, 10, 12,13.

[18] . Surah Qasas, verse 26-27.

[19] . Surah Qasas, verse 9; Surah Tahrim, verse 11.

[20] . Surah Naml, verses 22-44.

[21] . Surah Ale Emran, verses 35-36.

[22] . Surah Maryam; Tahrim, verse 12; Surah Ale Emran, verses 39-42-45-47; Surah Anbiya, verse 91;

[23] . Surah Ahzab, verse 6.

[24] . Surah al-Ahzab, verse 59.

[25] . Surah Mujadilah, verse 1.

[26] . Surah al-Masadd, verses 4-5.

[27] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 42.

[28] . Surah Momenoon, verse 50.

[29] . Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 15, Pg. 46.

[30] . Surah Tahrim, verse 12.

[31] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 75.

[32] . Surah Tahrim, verse 12.

[33] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 43, Pgs. 36-37, Wafa Publication, Beirut; Amali, Sheikh Sadouq, Pgs. 175, 554, 575, first edition, Be’that Institution, 1417 A.H.


Completeness and Immunity of the Holy Quran to Distortion according to Shia

Question 294: As Salam O Alaikum, What are the views of classical Shia scholars like Shaykh Mufeed, Shaykh Tusi, Baqir Majlisi, Mulla Nouri Tabrisi & Al Ayyashi on the Completeness and Immunity of the Holy Quran to Distortion? Do we carry the same Qur’an as it was revealed or additions and depletions have been made to it, what are the views of the above mentioned scholars on it?? (Save the views of Shaykh Sudooq)


Answer 294: According to Sheikh Sadouq and Mufid (ra), the Quran that is in our hand is the holy Quran has been sent down to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) by Allah, the Almighty. Those who attribute the alternation, any addition to us (Shia) are a liar.[1]

Allamah Muhammad Hussein Tabatabai says under verse 9 of Surah Al-Hijr [«انا نحن نزلنا الذكر و انا له لحافظون»] the features which have been mentioned for the Quran such as eloquence, expressiveness, coherence and the miraculous nature of the Quranic verses entirely exist in the present Quran which we have possession of. He has concluded that this Quran is the very same Quran which was known during the Apostle of God (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him). “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)”.[2]

We would like to draw your attention to two Shia and Sunni hadiths regarding this issue:

1- Sufyan ibn Samt narrates that he asked Imam Sadeq (as) about the differences in recitation of the Quran. He said to recite the Quran as we have been taught [and like everyone else].[3]

2- Ibn Masoud, one of the prophet’s (pbuh) companions says: “I have heard the Quran being recited from different reciters and [despite their differences] they were all similar and of the same meaning. Therefore, refrain from disputing about this issue with each other. Truly, some of the differences that can be found are like when we use different words like “هلم” “تعال”and “اقبل” with the same meaning [they all convey the same meaning].[4]
Therefore, we must say that according to most Islamic scholars, no verses have been added to the Quran nor omitted, and if sometimes some individuals from either sect believe that some alteration has occurred, it in no way affects the authenticity of the Quran in its entirety and the belief can’t be related to the school of thought as a whole.

Allamah Tabarsi (ra), the great interpreter of the holy Quran said: No verses have been added to the Quran nor omitted. In Majma al-Bayan he also said under the verse 9 of Surah Al-Hijr: Although, a group of Imamiyyah and Jama’at of Hashviyyah[5] said that the holy Quran has been altered in a way that some verses have been added or omitted, but the correct opinion of Imamiyyah is against this idea. Furthermore, Sayyid Murtadha (ra) supported the idea that no verses have been added nor omitted.[6]

But, according to Sheikh Mirza Hussain bin Muhammad Taqi bin Ali Muhammad Noori Tabarsi known as Muhaddith Noori and haji Norri, one of the Shia Muhaddith (refers to a specialist who intensely knows and narrates hadith) in 14th century, no verses of the holy Quran have been added but a few verses have been omitted before the collection of the holy Quran due to some reasons. In this regards, he wrote a book called Faslul Khitab that many Shia and Sunni scholars protested against this book. As a result, Mirza Hussain Noori severely regretted writing the book.[7]

Q: How can we prove that the Holy Quran has not been distorted and altered throughout the centuries?

A: First of all we should know that t he distortion of Religious texts and scriptures has been common among most religions and one of the main reasons new prophets were sent to people was to provide a corrective for the previous altered religions.[8]  But Islam, as the Seal of Religions, has been protected from any potential distortion and falsification.

This question can be answered in different ways depending on the individual who has posed the question. It can be answered from a Muslim perspective (using Quranic verses and traditions) and a non-Muslim one (using intellectual and logical argumentation and reasoning). Here we will answer the question from a non-Muslim perspective and won’t touch on the many Quranic verses and traditions from the infallibles that clearly prove its immunity.

First: The Quran’s Eejaz (Miracle) 

Allameh Tabatabei argues that the Quran cannot have undergone distortion due to its I’jaz (its miraculousness).  In this respect he says: “It is a historical fact that 14 centuries ago a Prophet named Muhammad arose and brought a book named the Quran that was his miracle for all times.  The Quran was revealed with certain qualities that made it significant among other books and challenged all Arabs to bring anything like it.  It is also historically certain that none of the prophet’s adversaries were able to bring a chapter, even the size of the smallest chapters, that would resemble the Quran with its special qualities.

The current Quran that we have still has those qualities like its beautiful rhythm and eloquence, the harmony of the verses, prophecies of future events, etc.  In other words this Quran has the features of the Quran that was revealed 14 centuries ago and not one person has been able to bring a chapter similar to its chapters.  This proves that it has not been distorted or falsified for if it was, it would not have maintained the same qualities.[9]

There is no doubt that if it was possible to bring even one chapter similar to the Quranic chapters the disbelievers that were contemporary with the prophet and were and are known to be the most learned in Arabic literature would have done so, because not only did the disbelievers use every single method to defeat Islam and the Prophet but the Quran itself had challenged them to do so.  This way they could defeat the prophet and deny his prophethood so much easier without going through the trouble of going to war with him.  Obviously they tried their best but it was useless, for Allah says in the Quran: “Say,” Should all humans and jinn rally to bring the like of this Qur’an, they will not bring the like of it, even if they assisted one another.”[10]

Another challenge that the Quran has made is that no contradictions can be found in the various verses of the Quran.  In this regard Allah says: “Do they not ponder about the Qur’an? Had it been from other than Allah, Surely they would have found therein so many contradictions”.[11]  There are no contradictions among the Quranic verses we read today.[12]

Also, the current Quran also has all the other qualities that the Quran had 14 centuries ago like prophets’ stories, marvelous and valuable truths, prophecies, etc.[13]

Second Reason:

This reason is made up of several premises:

1- A revealed religion is a set of beliefs and rules that are revealed to a prophet by God for the guidance of the people.

2- All religions (except for the Seal of Religions), depending on the needs of their time, have partially brought some of the beliefs and rules of the Complete Religion for the people of their time .

3- The reason for having many religions, in addition to bringing new rules from the complete religion, is so that previous distorted ones can be corrected.

4- In order for the last prophet to rise and call the people to the Seal of Religions; firstly, the last religion must be utterly comprehensive leaving out no paths that would lead one to God, and secondly, the last religion must be protected from all forms of distortion. If any of these two elements are lacked in a religion, the mind will not accept it to be the seal of religions.

In this light one can conclude that “the Seal of Religions is immune to distortion”[14], and this means that the book of this religion cannot be altered as well, because the book of a religion consists of most of its rulings and teachings and protecting a religion from distortion without protecting its book makes no sense.[15]

So till here what was proven is that the book of the Seal of Religions will be protected from change, now we will combine this fact with the two other statements (first: The Quran is the Book of Islam, second: Islam is the Seal of Religions) to conclude that the Quran has never been altered or distorted.[16]

Once we accept that Prophet Muhammad was the Seal of Prophets and that his religion was the last religion sent down to humankind until the end of the world we must admit that Allah will always protect Islam and keep it from being changed.  How can the distortion of the Quran be consistent with the fact that Islam will stay alive till the end of the world?

Third Reason:

Knowing that the Quran meant everything to Muslims throughout time and that they used it as their constitutional law and the rules by which they lived and worshipped Allah, there was no period of history wherein the Quran could have been altered without other noticing.

The Quran was the book that early Muslims would recite in their prayers, mosques, houses and wars when confronting the unbelievers to prove that Islam was the true religion to live by.  Islamic history shows that in some cases men would set teaching their brides the Quran as their “Mehr” (dowry).

Generally speaking at that time the only book which was spoken about and so many events revolved around was the Quran.  Children would learn it in the early years of their lives and anyone who intended to learn about the new religion was taught the Quran.  Therefore there was no chance for the Quran to be changed.[17]

Fourth Reason:

The Quran we have today is the same one that was compiled during the prophet’s time,[18]  and even if anyone does not accept this he must know that even those who have different opinions regarding the current order of the chapters and other detailed issues agree that not even one word was added or taken away from the Quran; because Muslims strived to memorize and learn the Quran to the extent that the social status of individuals was somewhat determined by how much Quran they knew by heart.

There were so many Muslims which memorized the Quran that history says that 400 of them died as a result of only one war which took place at the time of Abu Bakr’s reign. [19]

In another war that took place at the time of the prophet and occurred in a village not far from Medina named “Bi’r Ma’unah” history recounts that 70 Muslims who knew the Quran by heart were martyred.[20]

The Quran was not a forgotten book that lied on Muslims’ bookshelves without anyone reading and reciting it, hence it was not possible for anyone to alter it and it that case it would have been ensued by extreme opposition by the Muslim nation.

Memorizing the Quran has always been seen as a great form of worship and tradition among Muslims.  Even after the Quran was compiled, transcribed by hand in the form of a book and later on by print which lead to it being the most sold book in all Muslim countries, memorizing it still meant a lot to Muslims, an inevitable result being that memorizers of the Quran can be found in almost every city and town.

Today there are special schools in Muslim countries with different names like “Madreseto Tahfizel  Quranal Karim” or “Jameatol Quran” that have been established for the memorization of the Quran.  In some cases the teachers are small children who have just finished memorizing the Quran themselves.[21]

Reports show that approximately one million and five hundred thousand citizens of Pakistan know the Quran  by heart![22] One of the requirements to enter the Islamic University of Al-Azhar in Egypt is to have memorized the entire Quran.  After going through a test applicants must score 20 out of 40 to attend classes at Al-Azhar![23]

In brief, memorizing the Quran is a tradition established by the prophet in his ahadith.  Keeping in mind what was said, there is no possibility that the Quran could have undergone any change through the course of 14 centuries.

Fifth Reason:

There were numerous writers which the prophet had assigned to write the divine revelations that were sent down to him by Allah.  Historians have mentioned up to 43 Muslims[24] as the writers of the Quran, although Imam Ali and Zeyd Ibn Thabet would accompany the prophet more than others in this task.[25]

The question is how can a book with so many writers be altered?


Since the advent of Islam all of the imams have encouraged Muslims to recite, ponder and act upon the Quran at hand[26], this comes to show that it was certain it hadn’t undergone any change, especially in the first few centuries of Islam.

In the Nahjul-Balaghah we find proof for such a claim.  In sermon 133 we read: “The Book of Allah is among you. It speaks and its tongue does not falter. It is a house whose pillars do not fall down, and a power whose supporters are never routed.”[27]

In serman 176 Imam Ali says: “And know that this Qur’an is an adviser who never deceives, a leader who never misleads and a narrator who never speaks a lie.[28] No one will sit beside this Qur’an but that when he rises he will achieve one addition or one diminution-addition in his guidance or elimination in his (spiritual) blindness.”![29]

If the Quran had been changed or altered it would not make sense for the imams to invite the people to the current Quran.  If it had been altered it would not have been introduced as a light that helps distinguish between true and false or as Allah’s steady and firm rope which we all must hold on to.[30]

Taking these six arguments into consideration, no room should be left for any doubt about the Quran being immune to any form of distortion and falsification[31].

[1] . Eʿteqādātal-Emāmīya by Shaykh Saduq • Tashih al-I’tiqad by Shaykh Mufid, Vol. 1, Pg. 84, chapter 33.

[2] . [15:9]; For further information, see: Allamah Tabatabai, Tafsir Al-Mizan, vol.12, pg.104 and pg.106 and pg.138.

[3] . Muhammad ibn Yaqub Kuleini, Al-Kafi, vol.2, pg. 631, hadith 15.

[4] . Beyhaqi, Sunan Kubra, vol.2, pg.385.

[5] . Hashviyyah is a group that believe that Bani Umayyah is their Imam. They don’t consider the children of the holy Prophet (pbuh) as Imam; For further information, refer to: Sheikh Mufid, al-Ershad, Qom, Publication of Worldwide Congress of Sheikh Mufid, 1413 A.H, Vol. 2, Pg. 22; Ayatollah Sobhani, Sheikh Jaafar, Buhuth fee al-Milal wa al-Nihal, Al-Nashr al-Islami Institution, Al-Imam Al-Sadiq (as) Institution, Vol. 1, Pg. 124.

[6] . Ibid.

[7] . Al-Dariat, Vol. 16, Pg. 231.

[8] See: Payame Quran,‌ Makarem Shirazi.

[9] See: Al-Mizan, vol. 12, pp 150-155 and 157.

[10] Isra:88.

[11] Nisa:86.

[12] For further information, see: Mabaniye Kalamiye Ejtehad, Hadavi Tehrani, Mahdi, pp. 54-55.

[13] See: Translation of Al-Mizan, vol. 12, pp. 150-154.

[14] Hadavi Tehrani, Mabaniye Kalamiye Ejtehad, pg. 67.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Tafisir Nemouneh, vol. 11, pg. 22.

[18] Of course, there are different viewpoints on the compilation of the Quran.

[19] Muntakhab Kanzul-Ummal as quoted by Al-Bayan fi Tafsiril-Quran, pg. 260.

[20] Safinatul-Bihar, vol. 1, pg. 57.

[21] In this regard, the memories and memoirs of Dr. Mohammad Hosein Tabatabai who is famous for being the child who memorized the entire Quran and earned a PhD are worth reading.

[22] Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 11, pg.24. Of course, these statistics belong to years back and naturally, the number of those who have memorized the Quran is higher than this number in that country.

[23] Ibid, as quoted by the Encyclopedia of Farid Wujdi.

[24] Historians have recorded between 14 to 43 individuals.

[25] Zanjani, Abu Abdillah, Tarikhul-Quran, pg.24.

[26] Meaning that when one observes the sayings of the imams, they are all encouraging the Muslims to recite and ponder the verses of the Quran at hand.

[27] وَ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِكُمْ نَاطِقٌ لَا يَعْيَى لِسَانُهُ وَ بَيْتٌ لَا تُهْدَمُ أَرْكَانُهُ وَ عِزٌّ لَا تُهْزَمُ أَعْوَانُه‏.

[28] اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ هُوَ النَّاصِحُ الَّذِي لَا يَغُشُّ وَ الْهَادِي الَّذِي لَا يُضِلُّ .

[29] وَ مَا جَالَسَ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا قَامَ عَنْهُ بِزِيَادَةٍ أَوْ نُقْصَانٍ زِيَادَةٍ فِي هُدًى وَ نُقْصَانٍ مِنْ عَمًى.

[30] See: Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 11, pp. 24-26.

[31] . Adopted from answer 453 IQ.


Different Types of dreams: True Dreams and False

Question 561: Salamualekum warah matul laa. Please from the view of ahlulbat(as) at which time of the day does dreams comes true. True Dreams and False? At which time are dream considered satanic. At which time are dreams have equal chance of been true or not coming to pass.
Please help.

Answer 561: Although, time has no real effect on defining our dreams as the true or false dream, but the probability of being true or false can be determined in some of the times. In this regards, there is a hadith in which mentioned that those dreams have been seen in the third time of the night are of the true dreams. Because, the angels descend during this time.[1] Also, those dreams have been seen during the time when sleeping is considered as makruh are probably counted as false dreams, especially during the time of worshipping Allah, the Almighty when a person fell asleep due to the carelessness or being faraway from Allah (SWT).

Imam Sadiq (as) said: During the time of morning, sleeping is considered as sinister. It prevents sustenance from reaching you. A similar hadith has also narrated from the holy Prophet (pbuh).[2]

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: Dream is of three types: Sometimes, a good news from Allah, a cause of sorrow and grief from Satan and sometimes, it is kinds of different issues we think about them during the day, and that’s why we see them in our dreams during night.[3]

Dream is divided into three divisions:

  1. Those dreams that are related to the past and desires. Most of our dreams are of this type. These kinds of dreams have no special interpretation.
  2. Confused and unknown dreams. Such dreams caused by our imagination and hallucinations. So, these kinds of dreams have also no special interpretation.
  3. Those dreams that are related to the future or give evidence of the future. These dreams are of two types: A. Definite dreams that don’t require any interpretation as they would happen in the future. B. Indefinite dreams that need to be interpreted. These kinds of dreams can be categorized as the true dreams. But, we ought not to recognize whether our dreams are of the true dreams or false. Because, a dream is an imaginary series of events that everyone experiences in his mind while he is asleep. It is still not clear enough for scientists as to how it really takes place. The Holy Quran speaks about Joseph’s dreams which came true[4] and whom God taught the science of interpreting dreams.[5]

When in prison, Yusuf interpreted the dreams of his inmates and when he was out of the prison, he interpreted the dreams of the king of Egypt. Therefore, interpreting dreams or the allegorical explanation (ta’vil)[6] of dreams, as termed by the Quran, is a reality and a science which God, the Exalted, taught Prophet Yusuf.  Daniel was also one of the prophets whom God taught the science of interpreting dreams.[7] The Quran gives examples of other divine prophets whose dreams God confirm and endorses to have been true.[8]

We come across two kinds of dreams in the narrations:

Some dreams are true and some are false.[9] The true dreams have been described and termed as “one part out of seventy parts of prophethood”[10]. This science cannot be acquired as it needs purification and cleansing of the soul, and it is given to an individual only on specific circumstances. It is for the same reason that the number of people bestowed with this ability is few and far between[11].

How to interpret our Dreams:  

Imam Musa Kadhim (as) said: dream would be come true as how it has interpreted. According to a tradition, the king of Egypt’s dream was of such confused dreams[12]. Meaning that his dream had no interpretation, but when the Prophet Josef (as) interpreted the dream it had come true. Imam Kadhim (as) also narrated a tradition: At the time of the holy Prophet, a woman saw a dream that a pillar of her house has been broken, so she goes to the Prophet and explained her dream. The Prophet interpreted: Your husband will come back home safely from journey. So, her husband come back home as the Prophet explained. She saw the same dream and the Prophet interpreted the same. So, the same thing happened again. but, she saw it for the third time but before she explained it to the Prophet she told it to another one and he said: Soon, your husband will die. When the Prophet heard the news, He said: why this man didn’t interpreted a good interpretation.[13] In other sources it is said that when the woman saw the same dream for the third time she wanted to explain it to the holy Prophet (pbuh), but He wasn’t present on that time, so she found Abu Bakr and told him about the dream. When the woman met the Prophet, He said to her: your husband will die as Abu Bakr interpreted your dream.[14]

Therefore, the important thing is to interpret our dreams good as Imam Reza (as) narrated a Qudsi hadith in which Allah, the Most High says: “I am as My servant excepts of Me, so if he thinks good of Me then he will have it, and if he thinks evil of Me then he will have it.”.[15]

[1] . Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlesi, Hilyatul Muttaqeen, Qom, Hijrat publication, 1994, Pg. 246.

[2] . Hilyatul Muttaqeen, Pg. 170.

[3] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 14, Pg. 441

[4] – Yusuf (Joseph): 4

[5] – Yusuf: 101

[6] – Yusuf: 101

[7] – Majlisi, Behar al-Anwar, Vol.14, p.371

[8] – Saffat: 105; Fath: 27.

[9] – Kulayni, Al-Kafi, Vol.8, p.91, Dar al-Kotub al-Islamiyah.

[10] – Saduq, Man La Yahzoruhu al-Faqih, Vol.2, p.584.

[11] . Adopted from answer 5212.

[12] . أَنَّ رُؤْيَا الْمَلِكِ كَانَتْ أَضْغَاثَ أَحْلَام

[13] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, editor and researcher: Ghafari, Ali Akbar, Akhoundi, Muhammad, Vol. 8, Pg. 335, 336, Dar l-Kutub al-Islamiyya, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H; Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir, Mer’atul Uqul fee Sharh e Akhbar Aal e al-Rasool, editor and researcher: Rasooli, Sayyid Hashem, Vol. 26, Pg. 491, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyya, Tehran, second edition, 1404 A.H.

[14] . Jazri, ibn Athir, Mubarak bin Muhammad, al-Nihayat fee Gharib al-Hadith wal Athar, Vol. 1, Pg. 314, Esmaeeliyan publications, Qom, first edition, 1988; Zamakhshari, Mahmood bin Umar, al-Faeq fee Gharib al-Hadith, editor and researcher: Shams al-Din, Ebrahim, Vol. 1, Pg. 211, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, first edition, 1417 A.H; ibn Mandoor, Muhammad bin Mukarram, Lisan al-Arab, editor and researcher: Mir Damadi, Jamal al-Din, Vol. 5, Pg. 328, Dar al-Fikr Li al-Tabaat wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzee, Dar e Sader, Beirut, third edition, 1414 A.H.

[15] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 72; Sheikh Hurr Ameli, Hidayat al-Ummah ila Ahkam al-Aemmah (Muntakhab al-Masael), Vol. 5, Pg. 541, Majma al-Bohuth al-Islamiyyah, Mashhad, first edition, 1412 A.H.