post

The number of soldiers who came to Karbala to fight against Imam Hussain (as)

Question 568: Dear Scholars. We have varying numbers relating to the forces in Yazids (la) army in the battle of Karbala. Tabari mentions 1000 troops under the regiment of Hur and 4000 under Umar ibn Sa’ad and therefore 5000 in total. What is a more authentic account?

Salaams and duas

Answer 568: Umar bin Saad was the commander in charge of Yazids army. Although, records differ as to the number of soldiers who came to Karbaa to fight against Imam Hussain (as), but, according to the most reliable sources, they were 30 thousand people. The two following hadith support this idea.

First tradition: Ahmad bin Harun al-Fami said that Muhmmad bin Abdullah bin Jaafar bin Jame al-Hamiri narrated for us that my father quoted from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yahya from Muhammad bin Sinan from Mufadal bin Umar from Imam Jaafar Sadiq (as) that the Imam narrated from Imam Sajjad (as) that one day, Imam Hussain (as) went to His brother Imam Hassan (as), when He looked at him, Imam Hussain (as) started crying. Imam Hasan (as) asked, what makes you cry? Imam Hussain replied: I cried for what they will be brought to you! Imam Hasan (as) said: What shall befall me is the fatal poison, but there is no Day like Your Day O’ Aba Abdillah, Thirty thousand people, claiming to follow our Grandfather (the holy Prophet (pbuh), will unite to attack you and shed your blood, and violate the sanctity and imprison your women-folk and children and plunder your tents. At that time the wrath of Allah, the Almighty will descend upon the Bani Umayyah and the heavens will rain blood, and all things will lamnet over you, to the extent that the wild-beasts of the forests and the fish of the rivers will also weep over your sufferings. [1]

Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

 

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ هَارُونَ الْفَامِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ جَامِعٍ الْحِمْيَرِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ الصَّادِقِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ ع أَنَّ الْحُسَيْنَ بْنَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع دَخَلَ يَوْماً إِلَى‏ الْحَسَنِ ع فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ بَكَى فَقَالَ لَهُ مَا يُبْكِيكَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ أَبْكِي لِمَا يُصْنَعُ بِكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْحَسَنُ ع إِنَّ الَّذِي يُؤْتَى إِلَيَّ سَمٌّ يُدَسُّ إِلَيَّ فَأُقْتَلُ بِهِ وَ لَكِنْ لَا يَوْمَ كَيَوْمِكَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَزْدَلِفُ إِلَيْكَ ثَلَاثُونَ أَلْفَ رَجُلٍ يَدَّعُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مِنْ أُمَّةِ جَدِّنَا مُحَمَّدٍ ص وَ يَنْتَحِلُونَ دِينَ الْإِسْلَامِ فَيَجْتَمِعُونَ عَلَى قَتْلِكَ وَ سَفْكِ دَمِكَ وَ انْتِهَاكِ حُرْمَتِكَ وَ سَبْيِ ذَرَارِيِّكَ وَ نِسَائِكَ وَ انْتِهَابِ ثَقَلِكَ فَعِنْدَهَا تَحِلُّ بِبَنِي أُمَيَّةَ اللَّعْنَةُ وَ تُمْطِرُ السَّمَاءُ رَمَاداً وَ دَماً وَ يَبْكِي عَلَيْكَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ حَتَّى الْوُحُوشُ فِي الْفَلَوَاتِ وَ الْحِيتَانُ فِي الْبِحَارِ.

 

Evaluating the chain of transmitters of this hadith: Although, there it is mentioned some unreliable narrators like Muhammad bin Sinan and Mufadal bin Umar, but the others like Muhammd bin Abdullah bin Jaafar al-Hamdiri and his father Ahmad bin Harun al-Fami are reliable.

Second tradition. Abu Ali Ahmad bin Ziyad said that Ali bin Ebrahim bin Hashim quoted from Muhammad bin Eisa Ubaid al-Yaqtini from Younis bini Abdul Rahman from Ibn Isbat from Ali bin Salim from his father Thabit bin Abli Safiyyeh that Imam Sajjad (as) looked at the son of Hadhrat Abbas (as), Abdullah bin Abbas bin Ali bin Abi Talib (as) while his eyes were full of tears and said: There was no day much harder than the day of Uhud for the holy Prophet (pbuh), where Hamza (as) was martyred and after that, on the battle of Mawtah where Jaafar bin Abi Talib was martyred, He (Imam Sajjad) said, then: there is no Day like your Day O’ Aba Abdillah! Thirty thousand people, claimed to be the Ummah of the holy Prophet (pbuh), united to kill Him, while Imam Hussain (as) reminded them Allah, the Almighty, but they never listened to Him until they killed the Imam (as). [2]

 

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَلِيٍّ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ الْهَمَدَانِيُّ رِضْوَانُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ الْيَقْطِينِيِّ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ ثَابِتِ بْنِ أَبِي صَفِيَّةَ قَالَ: نَظَرَ سَيِّدُ الْعَابِدِينَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع إِلَى عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَاسْتَعْبَرَ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَشَدَّ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ يَوْمِ أُحُدٍ قُتِلَ فِيهِ عَمُّهُ حَمْزَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ أَسَدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَسَدُ رَسُولِهِ وَ بَعْدَهُ يَوْمَ مُؤْتَةَ قُتِلَ فِيهِ ابْنُ عَمِّهِ جَعْفَرُ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ ع وَ لَا يَوْمَ كَيَوْمِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع ازْدَلَفَ عَلَيْهِ ثَلَاثُونَ أَلْفَ رَجُلٍ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ كُلٌّ يَتَقَرَّبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِدَمِهِ وَ هُوَ بِاللَّهِ يُذَكِّرُهُمْ فَلَا يَتَّعِظُونَ حَتَّى قَتَلُوهُ بَغْياً وَ ظُلْماً وَ عُدْوَاناً.

 

Evaluating the chain of transmitters of this hadith: there are many prominent, reliable and pious muhaddith (narrator) among the chain of transmitters of the hadith. So, there is no problem in its chain of narration.

Note: Some sources listed the commanders and the number of their soldiers which altogether become 22 thousand people presented in Karbala.[3] In his book Ithbat al-wasiyya, Al-Mas’udi mentioned 28 thousand people.[4] According to Al-Tabari, they were 14 thousand people.[5] Ibn Shahr Ashub mentioned 35 thousand people (however in his detailed lists of commanders and soldiers he counted 25 thousand people).[6] Sibt b. al-Jawzi said they were 6 thousand people.[7] According to Ibn ‘Inaba, they were 31 thousand people.[8] Mulla Husayn al-Kashifi reported 32 thousand and also 17 thousand people.[9] According to an anonymous report, the enemy’s number were 20 thousand till the sixth day of Muharram.[10]

[1] . Al-Amali (by Sheikh Sadouq), al-Nass, Pg. 116.

[2] . Al-Amali (by Sheikh Sadouq), al-Nass, Pg. 463

[3] . Ibn A’tham, Vol. 5, Pgs. 84-90 and 101; Kharazmi, Vol. 1. Pgs. 341-345; Ibn Emad Hanbali, Shazarat al-Zahab, Vol. 1, Pg. 67; Majlesi, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 44, Pg. 386.

[4] . Ithbatul Wasiyyah, Pg. 166.

[5] . Dalael al-Imamah, Pg. 178.

[6] . Manaqib Aal e Abi Talib, Vol. 4, Pg. 106.

[7] . Tazkiratul Khawas, Vol. 2, Pg. 161.

[8] . Omdatul Talib fee Ansab Aal e Abi Talib, Pg. 192.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Ibn Sabagh Maleki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, Pg. 191.

post

Premarital relation with non-Mahram is impermissible

Question 082: I am in love with my teacher’s daughter and she also loves me very much. We have met each other a few times and message each other daily. Is there any problem and restrictions in our relation according to the Islamic laws?

Answer 082: Islam has prescribed marriage (temporary and permanent) to address this need, in addition to any sexual need, be it flirting, touching, caressing, and so forth, must only take place after marriage has been contracted. Even if boy and girl who are fiances and are planning on getting married in the future, but haven’t contracted any form of marriage yet, cannot take such pleasures in each other, even if it is only limited to having an intimate conversation or shaking hands.

As was said, in Islam, fulfillment of such needs must be within Islamic limits. Temporary marriage is one solution, but has stipulations and conditions that must be met, one of those being the consent of the virgin girl’s father (the rest of the conditions can be looked up in the risalahs).

According to the Shia point of view, the baligh virgin girl must get her fathers or paternal grandfathers (in the case of not having a father) permission if she wants to get married. In the case of her father or paternal grandfather not being present in a way that she can’t get their permission, and her having the need of getting married, their permission will no longer be a condition, if she can distinguish between what is to her benefit and what isn’t.

The same goes for the woman who isn’t a virgin; she doesn’t need to get permission either, if her virginity was lost to a previous husband. In the case of her virginity being lost by a mistaken intercourse, or even adultery, it is a mustahabb precaution to get permission if possible (which means it is better, although it still isn’t a condition and isn’t wajib).[1]

According to Sayyid Sistani (ha), it is not permissible for a boy and a girl to make friendship with each other in order to know each other before marriage. His Excellency also said: pre-marital relation permissible between a boy and a girl is not permissible under any circumstances. [2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Permanent or Temporary marriage of a married man without the permission of his wife, answer 565.

The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Question & Answer » Marriage. Ibid, Marriage » General Rules.

[1] . Tawdih al-Masa’il of the maraji’, vol. 2, Pgs. 449-460, 701-707 and 734-736 and 458-459.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Saistani, Question & Answer » Pre-marital Relation.

post

Pretending to cry over our Sins, for Imam Hussain (as) or Fear of Allah (SWT)

Question 048: What is the ruling of one who desires to cry for his sins, but is unable to do so, so he pretends to cry? Is pretending recommended? What procedures does one have to go through in order to be able to shed tears?

Answer 048: When you want to pray, supplicate or fear Allah, the Almighty you had better to cry or pretend[1] to cry. This act is a psychological example of an artificial effect on our soul.

According to a hadith, in order that your prayers be granted by Allah, the Most High you should cry or pretend to cry. Also, try to have at least one drop of tear coming out of your eyes, even by remembering a memory of one of your relatives who has passed away. In this regards, there is a hadith narrated from the holy Prophet (pbuh) that if one cries or pretends to cry while reciting the holy Quran or hearing it, he will certainly go to the Heaven. Furthermore, if you fear Allah (SWT), the punishment of Hell and desire to go to the Heaven you are supposed to cry or pretend to cry especially at the time of offering prayers, ta’qibat, supplications, dhikr, and during the practices of hajj, especially in Sa’y, stay in Arafa, and on top of Marwa Mount.[2]

The Holy Prophet of Islam (SAWS) has told Abū Dhar al-Ghifari, “One should cry if he can. If not, keeps grief inside of his heart and pretend to cry. If the one is unable to do so, he is far away from Allah (SWT), the Almighty.”[3]

In regards to crying over our sins and fear of Allah (SWT), Imam Sadiq (AS) has said, “If you cannot cry, pretend yourself to cry. If you try to shed tear, even it is equivalent to the size of an insect wing, then congratulations to you.[4]

In a Qudsi Hadith, Allah (SWT) says to Musa (as): O Musa, whoever cries or pretends to cry at the time of martyrdom of the Prophet’s (pbuh) son he will go to the Heaven.[5]

According to some hadiths, if one cries for Imam Hussain (as), make others cry for Him or pretends to cry, then he will certainly go to the Heaven.[6]

Ways for drawing Allah’s (SWT) affection and love: The first step in achieving such a matter is to purify the heart of the love of this world and all things attached to it in an effort to reach Allah (SWT). Such can never be accomplished unless one pushes the love of everything other than Allah (SWT) out of the heart; the reason being that man’s heart is like a container that doesn’t have the capacity of accepting anything unless it has been emptied of all other contents. At the same time, Allah (SWT) hasn’t given anyone two hearts (so that one can encompass all worldly desires and the other contains the love of Allah (SWT).[7] The prophet of Islam (SAWS) says,[8] “حب الدنیا و حب الله لا یجتمعان فی قلب واحد” (“The love of this life and world and the love of Allah (SWT) cannot gather in one heart together [at the same time]”). Clearly, if Allah (SWT) is loved by a person, Allah (SWT) will also love him.

Tawbah or repentance is another way of obtaining Allah’s (SWT) love, meaning to be sorry and regretful regarding ones sins and moving towards and taking refuge in Allah’s (SWT) endless grace and mercy, also draws Allah’s (SWT) affection. Repentance makes the servant of Allah (SWT) draw closer to Him, opening the doors of mercy to him. When one repents, he becomes Allah’s (SWT) friend and loved one.

The author of Tafsir Rahnama says, “One of the reasons why the love of Allah (SWT) towards the righteous and those who repent has been pointed to, is to encourage them to repent and be righteous.[9]

Crying for Allah (SWT), the Almighty is now pleasant, as in the Holy Qur’an, He says, “God loves those who repent and those who purify themselves.”[10]

We will explain to you briefly some of the ways to obtain Allahs (SWT) love, so that you will be able to obtain Allah’s (SWT) love and purify your heart:

Patience and steadfastness during hardship, bitter times, tragedies; Following and obeying the prophet (SAWS), jihad and fighting in the way of Allah (SWT); those who donate and give charity; Faith and good deeds; Generosity and kindness; Purity.

Also, when Allah (SWT) becomes affectionate towards someone, He falls in love with him, as a hadith by the prophet (pbuh) says[11], “اذا احب الله عبداً عشقه و عشق علیه، فیقول عبدی انت عاشقی و محبی و انا عاشق لک و محب لک، ان اردت او لم ترد”, meaning that when Allah (SWT) becomes affectionate of someone, He makes that person fall in love with Him, in addition to Allah (SWT) loving him, as well. Then Allah (SWT) goes on to say, “O servant of mine! You are in love with me, and I also love you, whether you like it or not!”

To sum it all up, there are various ways of reaching a point in which Allah (SWT) becomes affectionate towards one, which can all be summarized in doing what Allah (SWT) has obliged and refraining from what he has prohibited.

Therefore, you are supposed to, at first truly repent in the presence of Allah (SWT), the Almighty and do the above mentioned recommendations in order to obtain Allah’s (SWT) love. If you do so, your heart would be purified of the love of such mundane and worldly things and then crying over your sins is now heavenly pleasant in the presence of Allah (SWT), the Almighty. If you might not be able to cry, pretend as you are crying. [12]

Note: It is correct to say that one must fear Allah (SWT), love Him, and have hope in Him all at the same time. For loving Him and having hope in Him will bring about harmony on one hand, and on the other hand, will compel us to take action, struggle, and push forth in our endeavor to acquire the elements that will secure His satisfaction. Ultimately it will lead to being blessed by His effusions, graces, and bounties in this world and the hereafter. His fear will evoke humility and servility; it will strengthen the spirit of obedience and preclude us from committing sins that might otherwise incur Allah’s (SWT) wrath and chastisement.

Imam Ali Ibn Abu Talib (AS) defines these three groups in his legacy of wisdom as follows, “One group worships Allah (SWT) in hope of boons and benevolence – such is the worship of businessmen; another group worships him out of fear – such is the worship of slaves; and yet another group worships Allah out of gratitude – such is the worship of those who are free of themselves and of self-worship.”[13]

[1] . Pretend to cry means Tabaki: Making oneself cry or to crying with efforts is called Tabaki. Tabaki in the mourning for Imam Hussain (as) means that one has a facial expression of sadness and pretend to cry in order to be counted as a Mourner of the Imam (as) and enjoy the relevant divine rewards.

[2] . Ghafari Sarawi, A’een e Bandegi wa Niyayesh, Pg. 289; Majlesi, Miratul Uqul, Vol. 12, Pg. 57; Noori Tabarsi, Mustadrak al-Wasael, 1408 A.H, Vol. 5, Pg. 205; Moadab, I’jaz Quran dar Nazar Ahlul Bayt (as), Pg. 184; Mahmoodi, Tatib al-Amali, 1420 A.H, Pg. 369; Wasael a-Shia, Hurr Ameli, Vol. 6 , chapter Jawaz al-Qunut bi GHayr al-Arabiyyah, Pg. 289; Frhang Fiqh Farsi, Vol. 2, Pg. 326; Sadeqi Ardestani, Hajj as Miqat ta Mi’ad, Pg. 145.

[3] . Bihaul Anwar, Vol. 74, Pg. 79.

[4] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 484.

[5] . Noori, Hussain bin Muhammad Taqi, Mustardak al-Wasael wa Mustanbit al-Masael, Vol. 10, Pg. 319, Aalul Bayt (as), Qom, first edtion, 1408 A.H; Turayhi, Fakhr al-Din bin Muhammad, Majma al-Bahrayn, researcher and editor: Hussaini Eshkavari, Ahmad, Vol. 3, Pg. 406, Murtadhavi Publication, Tehran, third edition.

[6] . Makarem Shirazi, Ashura Risheha Angizeha Roydadha, Pg. 81.

[7] . Sayyid Abdullah Shubbar, Kitabul-Akhlaq (translation), 414

[8] . Mohammad Rey Shahri, Mizanul-Hikmah, vol. 2, pg. 228.

[9] . Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Tafsir Rahnama, vol. 7, pg. 486.

[10] . Surah Bagharam verse 222.

[11] . Fatemeh Tabatabai, Sokhane Eshq, pg., pg. 34.

[12] . For further information in this regards, please refer to Shahrestani, Sayyid Muhammad Hussain, ‘Ashk Rawan bar Amir Karavan’ (translation of Al-Khasaesul hussainiyah), Pg. 80, Darul Hitab (Jazayei) Literature Institution, 2011; Farhang Aashura (the culture of Ashura), Pg. 104.

[13] . Nahj al-Balaghah, short saying #237: قَالَ ( ع): إِنَّ قَوْماً عَبَدُوا اللٌّهَ رَغْبَةً فَتِلْكَ عِبَادَةُ التُّجَّارِ، وَإِنَّ قَوْماً عَبَدُوا اللٌّهَ رَهْبَةً فَتِلْكَ عِبَادَةُ الْعَبِيدِ، وَإِنَّ قَوْماً عَبَدُوا اللٌّهَ شُكْراً فَتِلْكَ عِبَادَةُ الأَحْرَارِ

post

How to calculate Khums on a house purchased with Sahm e Sadat

Question 046: A member of Ask Islam group contacted me privately about a situation that was brought to him for advice. There is a need for at least 2-3 academically credible sources, which Inshaa’Allah should include references from some of the Grand Marja’ (rulings from Sistani, Makram Shirazi and Khamenei are specifically being requested).

History: A brother, took financial responsibility for some of his extended family. He had an uncle, an aunt, three nieces, and a nephew who were financially dependent on him because his uncle (the head of the family) had a debilitating disability which left him paralyzed. This brother paid for the families expenses.

The house they lived ended up in a court dispute. The family thought the house belonged to them while some other party claimed it didn’t. After a court battle, it was found that the house did not in fact belong to the family that was living in it. The owners came to the house and told the family that they either had to immediately vacate the home or purchase the home. It would have caused great hardship for the family to move due to the uncles disability however they didn’t have any money to purchase the house either, as they were already financially dependent on the brother due to the disability.

Some family members and the uncle approached the brother and asked him to purchase the house since he had the means. The brother did not have the means but he did have some savings that he used in addition to an allocation of Sahm e Sadat that he had arranged for the family with the permission of the marja they followed. With the combination of his savings and the khums, the brother was able to purchase the home, where the family was able to live.

After some time, one of the daughters died, the uncle died, the aunt died, and the two remaining daughters were able to get married. There was only one family member left in the home, which was the teenage son.

The brother came into some financial troubles and needed to sell the house. The son is currently under the financial care of the brother as the child is an orphan.

Since, the home was originally purchase with a share of Sahm e Sadat, the brother has a few questions. He not only has concerns about the orphans well-being but he has concern about the share of Sahm e Sadat used to buy the home originally.
Questions: Should the Sahm e Sadat that was used to purchase the home be returned to the marja or should the brother give it to the orphan son that remains? The child has no inheritance as his father was financially dependent on the brother.
In addition, the home sold for a much greater price than it was purchased for. Does the brother need to add any inflation to the amount of Sahm e Sadat, when he pays it to either the marja or the orphan, in order to make things right?

Is there any other information that the brother needs to know in order to financially settle the son or the marja that he is religiously bound by fiqh? He wants to make sure that there is nothing he needs to worry about in the grave, he wants to make sure hes not being unjust.

If there is any additional information needed, please reach out for me. I know many more details and if there are details I don’t know, I can get them. Please, also see the financial breakdown below:

Brothers Personal Share – Rs 640,000

Sahm e Sadat – Rs 290,000

Buying Price of the House – Rs 930,000

Selling Price of the House – Rs 1,600,000

Profit from the Sell – Rs 670,000

Answer 046: The first order of business is to pay the amount of 498,924 to the orphan. The Sahm e Sadat that was arranged for the family to help purchase the house remains with the family. The orphan is the remaining member so, it should be paid to him. There is inflation on the original 290,000 due to the selling price of the house and the formula is as follows:

290,000 x 1,600,000 ÷ 930,000 = 498,924.

The second order of business is that khums must be paid to the brother’s marja on the remaining money of 1,101,076. The amount that he is to pay to his marja is 220,215. 1/5 or 20% is the amount that is used to figure the amount of khums and the formula is as follows:

1,600,000 – 498,924 = 1,101,076 x 20% = 220,215.

The amount must be paid to the orphan before the amount of khums is paid. The brother’s share of the selling price of the house is 880,861.

1,600,000 – 498,924 = 1,101,076 – 220,215 = 880,861.

498,924 – Orphan

220,215 – Khums

880, 861 – Profit.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Islamic Laws / Khums.

[1] . While these formulas are agreed upon among all Grand Maraja’, this particular scenario and the formulas used to reach these figures were confirmed by the Office of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (ha).

post

Zakat of Fitrah, Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies)

Question 045: What is Zakat al-Fitrah and on whom its payment is obligatory? Can you also please let me know the commodity for, and the quantity of and the time when Zakãt of Fitrah becomes obligatory Zakät?

Brief Answer 045: At the time of sunset on Eid ul fitr night (i.e. the night preceding Eid day), whoever is adult and sane and is neither unconscious, nor poor, nor the slave of another, he should give, on his own behalf as well as on behalf of all those who are his dependents, about three kilos per head of wheat or barley or dates or raisins or rice or millet etc. It is also sufficient if he pays the price of one of these items in cash. As per obligatory precaution, he should not give from that food which is not staple in his place, even if it be wheat, barley, dates or raisins.[1]

Detailed Answer 045: Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies) is also called Fitrah. There are several traditions that have come down on this subject. Here are a few of them.

  1. ‘Who so ever fails to pay Zakãt-i Fitrah runs the risk of meeting (an early) death.”[2]
  2. Verily, Zakãt-i Fitrah complements Fasting in the same way as the Salavat on the Prophet (May Allah send Blessings on him and his Progeny) complements Prayers.[3]

Now, we shall discuss about those on whom its payment is obligatory, its commodity, its quantity, its time and its uses.

Those on Whom Payment of Zakat-i Fitrah is Obligatory:

1:The payment of Zakãt-i Fitrah is obligatory on a person who is Mukallaf, free and rich, in deed or virtually. So it is obligatory neither on a minor, nor on a lunatic, even if he has fits of lunacy periodically, in case he has had a fit of lunacy on the beginning of the night of Eid (al-Fitr). It is also not obligatory on their guardian (or Wali) to pay the Fitrah on their behalf out of their property. Rather, according to the stronger opinion, there is exemption from its payment as regards its payment for a minor or a lunatic even by the person who maintains a minor or a lunatic. Nor is its payment obligatory on one who has been unconscious on the beginning of the night of Eid (al-Fitr). Nor is it obligatory on a slave. Nor is it obligatory on a poor person who has no expenses for himself and his family sufficient for the whole year, indeed and virtually, as a surplus after deducting the debts and other exemptions. It is more cautious to take into consideration the debts the person has to pay during the current year and others. Of course, according to the more cautious opinion, if a person has something surplus from the expenses of a day and night even to the extent of a Sã (a cubic measure of varying magnitude = about 3 kilos), it would be better for him to pay the Fitrah. Rather it is approved even for a poor person to pay the Fitrah in all circumstances even if he revolves a single Sa’ throughout the members of his family until it comes back to himself, and then he should pay it to a stranger (poor person). This is the rule when there is no non-Mukallaf person among the members of his family, otherwise, he should confine the revolving process of the Sä among the Mukallaf members of his family only. If a Wali (or guardian) receives Fitrah from a non-Mukallaf, he should spend it on him alone and none else, and it is not to be paid to anyone else.

2: It is a condition that the above conditions should be there at the beginning of the night of Eid (al-Fitr) i.e., before the beginning of the night even if for a moment, in a way that the person should fulfill all the conditions when the night falls, so that it is not sufficient to possess these qualifications earlier but losing it as the night falls. Likewise, it is not sufficient if a person did not fulfill these conditions earlier, but happens to fulfill them afterwards. So the payment of Fitrah shall be obligatory on a person, for example, who attains the legal maturity (or Bulugh) at the time of the nightfall or he recovers of his lunacy. But it would not be obligatory on a person who attains legal maturity after the fall of night, or one who recovers of his lunacy. Of course, it would be approved to pay the Fit rah if a person attains legal maturity or recovers of his lunacy before noon on the day of (Eid al-Fitr).

3: Payment of Fitrah for himself and for those who are maintained by him is obligatory on person who fulfils all the conditions mentioned above, regardless whether the person maintained is a Muslim or an infidel, free or slave, minor or adult, including even a child born before the sight of the moon for the month of Shawwâl even for a moment. Similarly, everyone who enters the list of persons maintained by him before the sight of the moon for the month of Shawwàl including even a guest, although he may have not eaten anything (in his house), provided he falls under the persons maintained by him, although he may not be treated as a member of his family, contrary to a child born after the sunset. The same rule shall apply to a person who is included among the persons maintained by him after the sunset, so that he shall not be bound to pay their Fitrah. Of course, payment of Fitrah by him for them shall be approved if what is mentioned above takes place before noon on the day of Eid (al-Fitr)

4: A person the payment of whose Fitrah has become obligatory on another person due to his becoming the latter’s guest or being included among those maintained by him shall himself be exempted from its payment, even if he happens to be a rich person and would have fulfilled all the conditions required for the payment of Fitrah had he not been included among those maintained by the other person. Rather, according to the stronger opinion, payment of Fitrah shall be exempted if the host or one having the liability of maintenance happens to be poor while the guests were rich. According to the stronger opinion, the guest should himself pay the Fitrah if he comes to know that the host has not paid it due to forgetfulness or deliberate violation (of the relevant rule), though, according to the stronger opinion, it shall not be obligatory on him to pay his own Fitrah. According to the stronger opinion, payment of Fitrah is obligatory on the guest if he does not fall under the category of those maintained by the host, but the host should not give up caution by also paying the Fitrah for such guest in addition to the one paid by the guest.

5: If a person is away from his family, it shall be obligatory on him to make the payment of the Fitrah for the members of his family, except when he has authorized them to pay it from his own property and they can be relied upon in the matter of payment (of the Fitrah).

6: Apparently the criterion for being a member of one’s family is being included among those maintained by that person and not among those whom he is liable to maintain, though it is to be more cautious to take into consideration either of the two aspects. If the permanent wife of a person is included among those maintained by another, payment of the Fitrah shall be obligatory on that person, and not on her. If the wife does not fall under those who are to be maintained by any one else, payment shall be obligatory on herself provided that she fulfills all the relevant conditions. In case she does not fulfill the relevant conditions, payment of her Fitrah shall not be obligatory on any person. The same rule shall apply to the case of a slave.

7: If a person is to be maintained by two persons, payment of his Fitrah shall be the liability of both, provided that they are capable to do so. In case only one of them is able to maintain the person, it shall be obligatory to pay the Fitrah of his share to the exclusion of that of the other. Caution must not be given up in both the cases.

8: The receipt of Fitrah of a non-Hãshemite by a Hàshemite is forbidden, the criterion in this case being the maintainer and not the person maintained. It is more cautious to observe caution in both the cases.

9: Like all the other cases of Ibädät, in Fitrah too, Niyyat is essential. It is permissible for a person on whom payment of Fitrah is obligatory to pay the Fitrah personally or authorize another to make its payment on his behalf. In such case, it is indispensable for the agent to make the

Niyyat of closeness (to Allah). If the principal authorizes another merely to take the Fitrah to the poor, the former shall be bound to have the Niyyat that what his agent is taking to the poor is the Zakãt (of Fitrah). It is sufficient to have such Niyyat in his heart, and it is not obligatory to bring it to his memory in detail. It is also permissible for a person to authorize another to make the payment of the Fitrah from his own property, and get its payment from him, so that the latter becomes an agent in payment of something from the property of his client. It is also permissible to authorize another to make payment of his Fitrah from his own property voluntarily without demanding its payment from him. Of course, there is difficulty in the permissibility of payment of Fitrah for another voluntarily without being authorized by that person to do so as his agent.

The Commodity for the Zakät of Fitrah:

1: The general rule for the commodity of the Zakãt of Fitrah is what is usually used for food in each community or area, though they may not suffice with it, as wheat, barley and rice used in most of the parts of Iran and Iraq, rice most of the areas of Gilan and its suburbs, dates, cheese and yoghurt are used in Nejd and the plains of Hijãz, though, according to the stronger opinion, it is permissible to pay the Fitrah in the form of (any of) the four grains in all circumstances. If in an area the staple food is maize or the like, it is permissible to pay the Fitrah in the form of maize, as also it is permissible to pay it in the form of (any of) the four grains. In case a particular grain is not the staple food of an area, it is more cautious to pay Fitrah in the form of the four grains. It is also permissible to pay Fitrah in value of the commodity. There is, however, difficulty in the permissibility of the payment of Fitrah in the form of anything else that is not of the same commodity in value; rather, it is not far from being insufficient. It is also a condition to take into consideration the time of payment and the place at the time of paying the value of the commodity of Fitrah

2: It is also a condition in whatever is paid as Fitrah that it must be sound and without any defect, so that it is not permissible to pay it in the form of anything defective, as also it is not permissible to pay it in the form of a commodity mixed with something pardonable. Rather there is difficulty in the permissibility of paying something defective and mixed in value for something sound without defect and unmixed.

3: It is preferable to pay the Fitrah in the form of dates and then in the form of raisins (or currants). Preference is given to the more useful in consideration of the external preferences, as, in case the staple food of a person is wheat of superior quality, it is preferable for him to pay Fitrah also in the form of wheat of a superior quality and not of a lower quality, or in the form of barley.

The Quantity of Zakât of Fitrah:

The quantity of Zakàt of Fitrah is a Sã in case of each foodstuff, including even yoghurt. A Sa = 4 Mudds, which are equal to 9 Iraqi Ratls and 6 Medenese Ratis These 4 Mudds are equal to 614 1/4 Sayrafi Mithqäls. According to the Hiqqah of Najaf, which is equal to 933 1/3 Mithqals, it amounts to 1/2 Hiqqah, 1/2 Waqiyyah (a Waqiyyah being equal to 1/2 Ratl) and 31 Mithqäls minus two grams; while according to the Hiqqah of Istanbul, which is equal to 280 Mithqàls, it amounts to 2 Hiqqahs, 3/4 Waqiyyah and I 3/4 Mithqàls. According to the Shàhi Maund, which is equal to 1280 Mithqals, it amounts to 1/2 Maund minus 25 3/4 Mithqãls. According to the current measure in Kilograms, a Sa = about 3 Kilograms.

The Time When Zakãt of Fitrah Becomes Obligatory:

The time when payment of Fitrah becomes obligatory is the beginning of the night of Eid (al-Fitr) and continues till the noon (of Eid al-Fitr). It is preferable, rather more cautious, to delay the payment of Fitrah upto the day of Eid (al-Fitr). If a person offers the prayers of Eid (al-Fitr) he must not give up the caution by taking out the Zakãt of Fitrah before (offering) his prayers. If the time of payment of the Fitrah has already and he has set aside Fitrah, he must pay it to the person entitled to receive it. In case a person has not already set aside the Fitrah, then, according to the more cautious opinion, its payment shall not drop, and he should make its payment with the intention of seeking closeness (to Allah) without intending the payment being made on its due time or compensatory after the lapse of the due time.

1: It is not permissible to tender the Fitrah before the month of Ramadan, rather, according to the more cautious opinion, in all circumstances. Of course, there is no objection in its payment to a poor person and then accounting it for as Fitrah on the arrival of its time.

2: It is permissible to set aside Fitrah and specify it in the property of special commodities or set aside its value in cash. It is more cautious, rather more according to the guiding principles to confine to cash while setting aside the value of the commodity. If a person sets aside less than what is required, the rule shall be exclusively meant for that part, and the rest, shall remain unseparated. If a person sets aside more than required, then in setting it aside until the separated part is mixed with that belonging to Zakãt of Fitrah, there is difficulty. If, however, a person specifies the Zakãt of Fitrah in a property that is jointly owned by the master and another person, and his portion in it is equal to or less than Zakat, then apparently Zakât may be set aside in this way. If the time for the payment of Zakät of Fitrah has lapsed, but the person has set aside the Zakãt on its due time, it would be permissible for him to delay its payment to the person entitled to receive it, particularly in consideration of some preferences, though he shall be liable in case it is destroyed despite his capacity to pay it and the availability of the person entitled to receive it. On the contrary, if he were not capable, he shall not be held liable except in case of transgression of the rules or omission in the safeguard of the commodity like all other things deposited in trust.

3: lt is more cautious not to shift the commodity specified as Zakãt of Fitrah from one place to another when the person entitled to receive it is also there.

The Uses of Zakãt of Fitrah:

According to the stronger opinion, the uses of Zakãt of Fitrah are identical with those of the Zakat for property, though according to the more cautious opinion, it should be confined to payment to poor Mu’mins (i.e. Shi’ahs) and their children, rather the indigent among them, even if they are not morally sound. It is also permissible to pay the Fitrah to the Mustad’afs (i.e. those who have been rendered weak or poor) from among the opponents (i.e. the Sunnis) in case of unavailability of the Mu’mins (i.e. the Shi’ahs).

It is more cautious not pay to the poor less than a Sa (which is equal to about 3 Kilograms) or its value, even if the number of the poor is such that distributing the Fitrah to all of them in that way is not possible.

It is also permissible to pay several Sa’s (of Fitrah) to a single poor person, father even up to the extent of his yearly expenses.

According to the more cautious opinion Fitrah should not be paid or received more than required for the yearly expenses (of a poor person).

It is approved to pay Fitrah exclusively to the Dhawi al-Arham (relatives on the maternal side), neighbors, those who have migrated from their native places for the sake of (Islamic) faith, jurists, intellectuals, etc. who possess some preferences, and caution must not be given up by not paying Fitrah to one who drinks wine or commits such major sins in public.

It is not permissible to pay Fitrah to a person who spends it in the commission of a sin.[4]

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Zakat of Fitrah.

[2] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 96, Pg. 109.

[3] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 6, Pg. 221.

[4] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, rules concerning ZAKAT OF BODIES (OR FITRAH).

post

Things on which Payment of Zakat is Obligatory or Recommended

Question 044: Can you please tell us those things on which payment of zakat is either obligatory or recommend?

Answer 044: Zakãt is obligatory on three cattle, namely, camels, cows and sheep (male and female both), two rich minerals, namely, gold and silver, and four cereals, namely, wheat, barley, dates and raisins (or currants), and it is not obligatory except on these nine items.

Note: some scholars have considered Zakat to be payable on the wealth in business, as a necessary precaution.[1] Some other scholars consider payment of Zakat on invested capital as recommended.[2]

Zakãt is approved on fruits and other things grown on land including even saitwort excluding vegetables or green crops (of grain) like Qatt (a grain eaten by desert people after pounding it), brinjal (or aubergine), cucumber, melon and the like. It is not free from difficulty in declaring payment of Zakät to be approved in case of (other) grains The same is the case with merchandise and mares. As regards horses, ponies and donkeys, Zakãt is not approved in their case.

The followings are rules relating to the nine items (1. Wheat, 2. Barley, 3. Dates, 4. Raisins, 5. Gold, 6. Silver, 7. Camel, 8. Cow, 9. Sheep (including goat).), on which Zakãt is obligatory.

Payment of Zakat on Cattle: There are four conditions for the obligation of Zakat on cattle in addition to those mentioned earlier. They are: the Nisabs (criteria of payment of Zakat), grazing in the pastures, completion of one full year and their not being employed for service.

  1. Nisãbs of Zakat on Camels: There are the following twelve Nisäbs on camels:
  2. One sheep on each unit of 5 camels.
  3. Two sheep on each unit of 10 camels.
  4. Three sheep on each unit of 15 camels.
  5. Four sheep on each unit of 20 camels.
  6. Five sheep on each unit of 25 camels.
  7. One Bint-i Mukhãd on each unit of 26 camels.
  8. One Bint-i Labun on each unit of 36 camels.
  9. One Hiqqah on each unit of 46 camels.
  10. One Jadha’ah on each unit of 6l camels.
  11. Two Bint-i Labun on each unit of 76 camels

11 Two Hiqqah on each unit of 91 camels.

  1. On each unit of 121 camels Zakãt shall be charged in the following way one Hiqqah on each 50 camels, one Bint-i Labun on each 40 camels, which means that it shall be obligatory to charge the Zakãt according to the rates of these numbers wherever applicable. If action cannot be taken without both these numbers, both of them shall be taken into account. One may take into account either or both of them Therefore, one cannot imagine a case where action cannot be taken accordingly; rather, it can be attained in one of the ways in case of groups of ten Of course, in case of a number consisting of units (i. e., numbers from one to nine) lying between two groups of ten, one cannot imagine action on them .So action shall be taken by counting in a way that may take in

all the numbers without taking into account the units So in case of the number being 121 camels, three forties shall be taken into account and three Bint-i Labuns shall be payable as Zakãt.

Again, in case of the number being 130 camels, two forties and one fifty shall be taken into account, and two Bint-i Labuns and one Hiqqah shall be payable as Zakãt. In case there are 140 camels, two fifties and one forty shall be taken into account, and two Hiqqahs and one Bint-i Labun shall be payable as Zakãt In case there are 150 camels, three fifties shall be taken into account, and three Hiqqahs shall be payable as Zakãt Where there are 160 camels, four forties shall be taken into account, and four Bint Labuns shall be payable as Zakãt. Action shall be taken in a similar way until the number reaches 200 camels, when one may account for five forties and pay five Bint-i Labuns, or account for four fifties, and pay four Hiqqahs.

  1. Nisãbs of Zakát on Cows & Buffaloes: There are two Nisabs for cows including buffaloes, one where they are 30 and the other where they are 40. So for each 30 cows one Tabi’ or one Tabi’ah, and for each 40 cows one Musnah shall be paid as Zakãt. Here too the rule should be applied, as far as possible, taking into account the above standard of payment of one Tabi’ or Tabi’ah for each 30 Cows and one Musnah for each 40 cows. There is no Zakãt until the number reaches sixty. When the number reaches sixty one cannot imagine that the rule cannot be applied to groups of ten, when they are accounted for according to thirty – thirty or forty – forty or they may be together (i.e.30-40). So in case of 60 cows, they shall be counted as two thirties, and two Tabi’s shall be paid as Zakät. In case of 70 cows, they shall be accounted for as 30 and 40, and one Tabi’ and one Musnah shall be paid as Zakãt. In case of 80 cows, they shall accounted for as two forties, and two Musnahs shall be paid as Zakat. In case of 90 cows, they shall be accounted for as three thirties, and three Tabi shall be paid as Zakät. In case of 100 cows, they shall be accounted for as two thirties and one forty, and two Tabi’ahs and one Musnah shall be paid as Zakãt. In case of 110 cows, they shall be accounted for as two forties and one thirty. (and two Musnahs and one Tabi’ah shall be paid as Zakat). In case of 120 cows, one may either account for as four thirties or three forties (and make payment accordingly)
  2. Nisãbs of Zakãt on Sheep: There are five Nisãbs of Zakãt on Sheep.
  3. For each unit of 40 sheep – one sheep.
  4. For each unit of 121 sheep – two sheep.
  5. For each unit of 201 sheep – three sheep.
  6. For each unit of 301 sheep – 4 sheep, according to the more cautious opinion The problem is, however, very difficult.
  7. For 400 sheep or above, for each 100 sheep – one sheep, how high so ever the number may be.

Rules Concerning Grazing in Pastures: It is a condition that the cattle (on which payment of Zakãt is obligatory) should have grazed in the pasture throughout the year, so that if it happens to be fed on fodder during the year in a way that according to the custom or tradition it may cease to be called a cattle grazing in the pasture, it shall not be obligatory to pay Zakat on it

Rules Concerning (Completion of a Whole) Year: A year is considered to be complete after the passage of eleven months. Apparently the Zakãt is shifted to its owners (i.e. those who are entitled to receive it) at the start of the twelfth month when it becomes their wavering ownership and its payment becomes obligatory unwaveringly, and so it is not permissible for the owner of the property to make any changes in it which may deprive those entitled to receive it of their right. In case he does, he shall be held responsible for it. Of course, if any of the conditions are not fulfilled unintentionally in a way that the property falls short of the Nisab during the twelfth month, the property shall return to its previous owner, and the obligation for the payment of Zakãt shall be dropped. According to the stronger opinion, twelfth month shall be counted in the first year and not in the second.

Rules Concerning the Last Condition: It is also a condition (for the payment of Zakat) that the cattle (on which Zakãt is to be charged) should not have been employed for service throughout the year. In case they are employed for service, although for a short period of time, no Zakat shall be payable for them, even if they happen to be grazing (in the pasture). The criterion for determining whether they are employed for service is the prevalent or usual practice.

Note: Neither sick cattle shall be accepted as Zakät for healthy cattle, nor shall old cattle for the Zakät of young cattle. Similarly, defective cattle shall also not be accepted as Zakãt for sound cattle, even if they fall under the Nisãb.

Zakät on Gold and Silver: The following are some conditions in addition to the general conditions already understood.

First: Nisäb

I – Nisãb of Zakat on Gold: In case of gold, the Nisãb of Zakat is twenty Dinars, whose Zakãt is ten Qirats which is equal to half a Dinar, and one Dinar is one Shar’i Mithqal which is equal to 3/4th of a Sayrafi Mithqal. So twenty Dinars come to fifteen Sayrafi Mithqals, and its Zakãt amounts to 4/8th of a Mithqal. There shall be no Zakat on less than twenty Dinars of gold, nor if it exceeds a little until the excess reaches four Dinars, and that is equal to three Sayrafi Mithqals whose Zakãt is two Qirats, as one Dinar = 20 Qirãts. The same amount shall be payable for each excess of four Dinars, and there shall be no Zakãt on any amount of gold which is less than four Dinars, but not in the sense that there shall be no Zakãt on it at all, as is the case when gold is less than twenty Dinars, but what is meant by exemption of whatever lies between two Nisabs is whatever exceeds the amount of Nisãb until its reaches another Nisab shall be supposed to belong to the previous one. So the first Nisab of gold begins from twenty Dinars until twenty-four Dinars, and it falls under the first amount of Zakãt that is half a Dinar.

Once the amount reaches twenty-four Dinars, two Qirats shall be added to the amount of Zakãt, and it shall remain so until it reaches twenty-eight Dinars, when another two Qirats shall be added to the amount of Zakãt, and so on.

2 – Nisãb of Zakat on Silver: The Nisãb of Zakãt on Silver is two hundred Dirhams of which Zakãt is five Dirhams. Then on each amount exceeding forty Dirhams, there shall be an addition of one Dirham in the amount of Zakãt, whatever the amount may be. There shall be (initially) no Zakãt on silver of less than two hundred Dirhams, and so also there shall be no Zakãt on an excess of less than forty Dirhams, in the sense already explained under the rules relating to the Zakãt on gold. A Dirham is equal to six Dawaniq, which is equal to half of one-fifth Shar’i Mithqal, as each ten Dirhams are equal to seven Shar’i Mithqals.

Explanation: The general rule in the payment of Zakãt on gold and silver is that when each of them reaches the Nisab i.e. twenty Dinars in case of gold and two hundred Dirhams in case of silver, 1/40th of the amount of gold or silver, as the case may be, shall be paid as Zakãt, and so its owner shall be considered to have paid what was due. If a person pays a bit more than the due amount of Zakãt, there shall be no objection, rather it shall be better and shall add to the beneficence.

Second: For the obligation of payment of Zakãt on a gold or silver coin, it should bear the seal of a king or somebody like him of whatever time or place, belonging to Islam, or a non-believer, with writing on it or without it, even if the writing has been obliterated for some reason. In case a coin of gold or silver does not originally bear a seal or writing, payment of Zakãt shall not be obligatory on it, except when it was in currency, in which case, according to the more cautious opinion, it shall be obligatory to pay Zakát on it. If a coin (of gold or silver) is used, for example, as an ornament for decoration, then it shall not be obligatory to pay Zakãt on it, regardless whether its value exceeds (the limit of Nisäb) or falls short of it, and whether it was used in a way as transaction or not.

Third: Completion of a year. It is also a condition that the whole Nisab should subsist for a full year. If, therefore, during the year it falls short of the required limit or it is changed in substance, etc., or by means of casting, even if in order to escape payment.[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to following answer:

Index: Zakat of Gold and Silver and its criterion, answer 039.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

[1] Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.2, p. 107, issue No.1853, Grand Ayatollah Sistani: “As an obligatory precaution, upon the wealth in business”.

[2] Ibid. Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani: “It is recommended that Zakat should also be paid from the capital of business, trade and commerce every year”; Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi: “It is recommended that Zakat should also be paid from the capital of business, trade and commerce every year. Similarly, it is recommended to pay Zakat on grains other than wheat, barley, dates and raisins.”

[3] Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.2, Pg. 107, issue No.1853; Ibid, Pg. 131; Tahrir al-Wasilah, vol.2, Pgs. 614-615, issue No. 5-7; Ibid, Vol. 1, rules concerning “Things on which Payment of Zakàt is Obligatory or Recommended”.

post

studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting

Question 572: Is it permissible for a student who has to attend his classes in the month of Ramadhan and also has important exams in this month, not to fast in order to better concentrate on his studies and during the exams?

Answer 572: Attending your classes and studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting. Of course, if one is left with one of the two options i.e. he should attend his class or observe fast and that not attending his classes will put him into such difficulty that is not bearable normally, he should make niyyah of fasting at dawn and should abstain from eating and drinking until it becomes extremely difficult to fast in which case it is permissible to eat or drink at the time of extreme hunger and thirst sufficing to the necessary amount (of food or water). He should observe the qadha of that day after the month of Ramadhan and he will not be liable to any kaffara.

If a person has the means and can go out of the city with the intention to travel as far as 44 kilometers, he can go on a short journey and break his fast during the journey and come back to his hometown to attend his classes or exams.

One should travel 44 kilometers to break his fast. If the outward and return distances make 44 km, he should break his fast. Remember, the beginning of 8 farsakh (44 km) should be calculated from a point beyond which he will be deemed a traveler, and this point is represented by the last boundary of a city. In certain very big cities, it would be probably reckoned from the end of locality.[1]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Fasting and Education; Majma’ al-Masael (by Golpayegani), Vol. 1, Pg. 274; New Istiftaat (Makarem), Vol. 2, Pg. 151.

post

Authenticity of traditions of the emergence of Dajjal from Isbahan

Question 488: I have often heard bakri kuffar claim that the dajjal (LA) will be aided by Jews from Isfahan wearing shawls. Many Shia Ulama claim this is untrue. Can you prove it to be wrong? Provide all kinds of evidence t disprove it’s authenticity

Answer 488: One of the signs of the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as)[1] is the coming of the “Dajjal”.  According to Arabic literature experts, any liar and trickster can be called a dajjal.

Different unusual traits have been related to him in hadiths (in which are mostly found in Sunni sources), namely: he falsely claims his lordship[2], is high in age[3], along with him is fire and water[4], he cures the blind and those suffering from leprosy[5].

As for who the dajjal really is, one can’t reach a definite conclusion, but in a nutshell, it can be said there are several possibilities regarding this matter:

1) The dajjal is a true person that does extraordinary things using witchcraft and magic that will appear at the end of time.  He will be the head of a great trouble-making that will take place for all of mankind.  As the literal meaning of dajjal suggests, he is a user of witchcraft and a trouble-making individual with many materialistic facilities and capabilities.  Some hadiths name him “the messiah of misguidance” which is the opposite of “the messiah of guidance”, meaning Prophet Isa (pbuh).

During the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as), he will begin to work against him.  He is of those who have long lives and is and will remain alive until the day he appears.  He will take over the whole world expect for Makkah (Mecca) and Madinah (Medina).[6]

2) Iblis or Satan is the dajjal.

3) The Sufyani  is the dajjal.

4) The dajjal has a symbolic and secret side to it (and isn’t a true person):

“The dajjal symbolizes the highest levels of civilization, culture and Western technology that are in conflict with Islam and its principles; a culture that tries to conquer and enslave all.  We can clearly see today how the West’s materialist culture and technology has taken over all societies today, even Muslim ones…”[7]

Is it true that Dajjal will emerge from Esfahan?

The following are some traditions narrated in this regards we need to evaluate if they are accurate or not?

First traditions: Dajjal will emerge from Jews people of Isbahan (one of the Esfahan’s villages) in a way that seventy thousands of Jews will support it.[8]

Arabic version:

یخرج الدجال من یهودیه اصبهان معه سبعون الفا من الیهود علیهم التیجان.

حَدَّثَنَا مَنْصُورُ بْنُ أَبِي مُزَاحِمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ حَمْزَةَ، عَنِ الْأَوْزَاعِيِّ، عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ، عَنْ عَمِّهِ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «يَتْبَعُ الدَّجَّالَ مِنْ يَهُودِ أَصْبَهَانَ، سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا عَلَيْهِمُ الطَّيَالِسَةُ». [9]

Evaluation: This hadith hasn’t been mentioned in Shia sources. It is just narrated (by Anas bin Malik) from the Holy Prophet (pbuh). In his musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal is the first person from ahlul sunna that quoted this hadith.[10] It is also narrated by Ibn Hamad who was in jail with Ahmad, but He didn’t attributed to the holy Prophet (pbuh).[11] Also, Ibn Hamad quoted from Yahya bin Saeed al-Attar from Salman bin Eisa this following hadith: Dajjal will emerge from an Island of which is located in the sea in Isbahan!

Esfahan hasn’t any sea to say there is an island. According to Shia and Sunni, ibn Hamad is a weak narrator that all of his works are not reliable.

The same hadith also mentioned in Musnad abi Ya’la.[12]

In Mojam Awsat, Tabarani quoted this hadith from Awzaee from Rabiah from Anas bin Malik. Awzaee was a person whom is not reliable.

This hadith is also mentioned in Mustadrak Hakim[13], history of Damascus City (Vol. 38, Pg. 10), Ibn Kathir (Vol. 1, Pg. 122). They all mentioned that this hadith is narrated by Ahmad whom is weak.

Some sunni also narrated this hadith without mentioning any Shia sources.

In Mojam al-Boldan Hamoodi explained the place where dajjal will emerge from as follows:

Isbahan is a city for Esfahan where Jey was the first city center. When Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem he captured the people of Jerusalem and took the Jews people of Jerusalem with him to Esfahan dwelled them in a place beside Jey (Esfahan city center) named it Judaea. [14]

Note: Hamoodi was a NasibiThis tradition hasn’t been mentioned in any Shia sources. Considering this issue that we approve this hadith, but it impossible that seventy thousands of Jews people live in a village. Because, most of people who live in Esfahan are Shia Muslims. Therefore, Esfahan is not the seat of Jews government.

Second tradition: Dajjal will emerge from Esfahan from a village known as Judaea.[15]

Evaluation: This hadith quoted by a narrator named Nazal bin Sabrah that his name has never mentioned in any Shia Rijali books. He is also unknown, however he has praised in Sunni sources.

Third tradition: The commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (as) was busy delivering a sermon when he repeated three times: “Ask me (all that you need) before you lose me.”  A righteous individual by the name of Sa’sa’ah ibn Sawhan stood up and asked: “Oh commander of the faithful!  Who is the Dajjal?”

In response to this question, Imam Ali (as) replied: “Be aware that the (name) of the dajjal is Sa’ed ibnul-Sa’ed.  The unfortunate one is he who acknowledges and accepts him, and the fortunate being the one who rejects him.  He will emerge from a place called “Isbahan”, from an area which is known to be the area of the Jews.  His right eye is shut, bearing no eyeball.

His other eye is in his forehead, shining so brightly that it resembles the morning star in brightness.  In his eye there is a piece of meat that seems to have mixed with some blood and on his forehead, in between the two eyes, it has been written “Kafir” in a way that every literate and illiterate person can read.  He travels over the oceans and the sun accompanies him.  In front of him, there is a mountain of smoke and behind him there is a white one that people perceive to be food.  He will appear during a very hard drought.  He will be riding a dark or green donkey.  Every step this donkey takes is equal to one mil (mile).  He will travel and go here and there on earth.  Every water source or spring that he crosses will turn and remain dry till the Day of Judgment.  He will shout with a voice heard by all in the East and the West saying: “Come to me, Oh friends and followers of mine!”  I (am a God) who has created, who has created the faces, has measured every persons portion (of sustenance), and is your guide.  I am the exalted Lord!”  He is a liar!  He is Allah’s (swt) enemy…and in the end he will eventually be killed by the one Isa (pbuh) prays behind (Imam Mahdi (as))”.[16]

Evaluation: The hadith is weak! Because, the one who narrated it from Imam Ali (as) is unknown.

Forth tradition: Dajjal will emerge from Isbahan.[17] This tradition mentioned in Tabarani from Muhammd bin Hayat al-Jawhari al-Ahwazi from Muhammad bin Mansoor al-Nahwi al-Ahwazi from Abu Hammam Muhammad bin al-Zabarqan, Thana Younis bin Abid from al-Hasan (Hasan Basri) from Omran bin Hasin that the Holy Prophet  (pbuh) has said this hadith.[18]

Evaluation: This above hadith has some problems in its Sanad even according to Ahlul Sunna. Also, this tradition has not mentioned in any shia sources.

Fifth tradition: When Imam Mahdi (ajtf) appeared He will be received an information that Dajjal emerged from Isbahan. According to this tradition, Dajjal cannot be a sign for His reappearance as Dajjal will emerge after Imam Mahdi (ajtf).[19]

Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

خرج المهدي إلى بلاد الروم، وجيشه مائة ألف فيدعو ملك الروم إلى الايمان فيأبى فيقتتلان شهرين فينصر الله تعالى المهدي… يفتح رومية بأربع تكبيرات ويقتل بها ستمائة ألف ويستخرج منها حلي بيت المقدس، والتابوت الذي فيه السكينة، ومائدة بني إسرائيل، ورضاضة الألواح، وحلة آدم وعصي موسي، ومنبر سليمان، وقفيزين من المن الذي أنزل الله عز وجل على بني إسرائيل أشد بياضا من اللبن، ثم يأتي بالمدينة (كذا) يقال لها القاطع طولها ألف ميل وعرضها خمسمائة ميل ولها ستون وثلاث مائة باب يخرج من كل باب مئة ألف مقاتل، فيكبرون عليها أربع تكبيرات فيسقط حائطها فيغنمون ما فيها، ثم يقيمون فيها سبع سنين ثم ينتقلون منها إلى بيت المقدس، فيبلغهم أن الدجال قد خرج في يهود أصبهان

Evaluation: This hadith hasn’t also been mentioned in any Shia sources.

From where Dajjal will emerge: There are some different opinions about it. Some say Dajjall will emerge from Esfahan, some say from Bajestan (Sistan), Iraq, Balkh and others say Khorasan.[20]

In Bihar al-Anwar Allamah Majlesi narrated a hadith from Imam Muhammad Baqir (as) in which He has said: Dajjal will emerge from Balkh.[21]

Ibn al-Razzaq quoted a tradition from Kaab al-Akhbar that Dajjal will emerge from Iraq.[22]

In Muntakhab al-Athar Ayatollah Safi Golpayegani said: Dajjal will emerge from Bajestan (Sistan).[23]

According to Saeed Ayyoub, Dajjal will emerge from Israel.[24]

Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

يقاتل بقيتکم المسيح الدجال علي نهر الاردن أنتم شرقي و هم غرب

[1] Of course this sign has been counted as one of the signs of the Day of Judgement (Sunan Tirmidi, vol.4, pp.507-519; Sunan Abi-Dawud, vol.4, pg.115; Sahih Muslim, vol.18, pp.46 and 81), yet in Shia hadith sources it has been counted as one of the signs of the nearness of the Day of Judgment (Biharul-Anwar, vol.6, pg.296, chapter 1 (The signs of the hour (Day of Judgment) and the story of Ya’juj) and also the signs of the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as).  There is no problem in this sign being both the sign of the Day of Judgment and the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as), because his reappearance is one of the signs of the end of time and the Day of Judgment.

[2] Sunan Ibn Majah, vol.2, pg. 1360.

[3] Sahih Muslim, vol.8, pg. 205.

[4] Sahih Bukhari, vol.8, pg. 103.

[5] Musnad Ahmad, vol.5, pg. 13.

[6] Al-Faqih, vol.2, pg. 564, the chapter on the respect and virtue of Medinah; Tahdhib, vol.6, pg. 12, chapter 5, The respect and virtue of Medinah.

[7] Seyyid Muhammad Sadiq, Tarikh ma badal-Dhuhur, pp. 141 and 142.  Quoted and obtained from: Ali Asghar Rizvani, Maw’ud Shenasi, pg. 533.

[8] Mojam Ahadith al-Imam al-Mahdi (ajtf), Vol. 2, Pg. 96.

[9] Qashiri Neishaboori, Muslim bin al-Hajjaj, al-Musnad al-Sahih, al-Mokhtasar, researcher Abdul Baqi, Muhammad Foad. Vol. 4, Pg. 2266, Dar o Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, Bita.

[10] Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, Pg. 224.

[11] Vol. 2, Pg. 533, H 1509.

[12] Musnad abi Ya’la, Vol. 6, Pgs. 317-318, H 3639.

[13] Mustadrak Hakim, Vol. 4, Pg. 528.

[14] Yaqut Hamoodi, Mojam al-Boldan, Vol. 1, Pg. 206.

[15] Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’mat, Sheikh Saduq, Pgs. 526-527.

[16] Lotfollah Safi, Muntakhabul-Athar, Chapter 3, pg. 532, hadith 8.

In some hadiths it has been stated that he will eventually be killed by Prophet Isa (pbuh) (Biharul-Anwar, vol.14, pg.348, chapter 24) or it has been stated that he will be killed by Prophet Isa (pbuh) at a gate in Sham.  For further information, see: Biharul-Anwar, vol.52, pp. 193 and 209; Kamaluddin, 525 and 526; Kashful-Ghummah, vol.3, pg.281; Al-Masa’ilul-Ashr, printed in the works of Sheikh Tusi, vol.3, pg. 122; Irshad, vol.2, pg. 371; Kanzul-Ummal, vol.14, pp. 198-200.

Of course, there is no conflict between these two statements that Prophet Isa (pbuh) is one of those who takes orders from Imam Mahdi (as) and one can relate the doing of a soldier to his commander.

[17] Mojam Ahdith al-Imam al-Mahdi (ajtf), Vol. 2, Pg. 61.

[18] Tabarani, al-Awsat, Alaa maa fee Majma al-Zawaed; Majma al-Zawaed, Vol. 7, Pg. 339 from al-Tabarani fee al-Awsat;  Kanzul ummal, Vol. 14, Pg. 327, H 38823 from tabarani in al-Kabir.

[19] Al-Qawl al-Mokhtasar, Ibn Hajar Heitami, Pg. 14, H 61;  Mojam Ahadith al-Imam al-Mahdi (ajtf), Vol. 2, Pg. 141. This hadith mentioned in Al-Etr al-Wardi, Pg. 68 from al-Hadiyyatal Nadiyyah.

[20] . al-Malahim wa al-Fitan, Pg. 126.

[21] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 190-194.

[22] . Musannaf ibn al-Razzaq, Vol. 11, Pg. 396.

[23] . Muntakhab al-A’thar, Pg. 425.

[24] . Aqidat al-Masih al-Dajjal fee al-Adyan, Saeed Ayyoub, Pgs. 279-280.

post

Istibra: liquid which comes out of body after Istibra is treated as pure

Question142: Sometimes while traveling a liquid comes out of my body, in which I am not able to recognize. What should I treat the liquid as?

Answer 142: If you performed Istibra after each urination, the liquid which comes out of your body afterward, is treated as pure.
Istibra is a recommended act for men after urinating. Its objective is to ensure that no urine is left in the urethra. There are certain ways of performing Istibra. The best way is after the passing of urine, if the anus also becomes najis, it is made clean first. Thereafter, the part between the anus and the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, and the forefinger below it, pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be jerked three times

It is also considered as pure if you are doubtful whether or not it is urine, semen or other najas things.

Otherwise, if you didn’t perform Istibra or you are sure it is a kind of najas thing (such as semen or urine and etc.) it is regarded as impure.[1]

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha).

post

The Second Message of Iran Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei

Question 571: What is the Second Message of Iran Supreme Leader ‘Ayatollah Khamenei’ in which He Urges Western Youth to Facilitate Correct Interaction with Muslims?

Answer 571: Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei, the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, in a letter addressed to the youth in the Western countries, has described the bitter terrorist events in France as a ground for deliberation.

Referring to painful examples of the “effects of terrorism, which is backed by certain big powers, on the Muslim world, [powerful countries’] support for Israel’s state terrorism, and harmful military campaigns [launched] against the Muslim world in recent years,” Ayatollah Khamenei said: “I ask you, young people, to lay the foundation for an appropriate and honorable interaction with the Muslim world based on correct knowledge and with deep insight and by taking advantage of tragic experiences [of the past].”

The full text of the Leader of the Islamic Revolution’s letter is as follows:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

To all the youth in Western countries

The bitter incidents triggered by blind terrorism in France motivated me once more to talk to you, young people. In my view, it is regrettable that such events provide the ground for dialogue, but the reality is that if [such] painful issues do not provide the ground for finding a solution and a venue for consultation, the ensuing damage will double.

The suffering of every human being in any spot in the world is per se sorrowful for his fellow humans. The scene of a child dying before the eyes of his beloved ones, a mother whose family’s happiness turns into mourning, a husband carrying the lifeless body of his wife to somewhere hastily, or a spectator who is not aware that he is going to see the last sequence of his life in moments, are not scenes which would not stir human sentiments and feelings.

Anybody endowed with affection and humanity is affected and touched by these scenes, whether they occur in France, in Palestine, in Iraq, in Lebanon or in Syria. Definitely, one and a half billion Muslims share this feeling and abhor and loathe the perpetrators of these tragedies. But the important question is that if today’s sufferings do not end in building a better and safer future, they will be reduced to mere bitter and fruitless memories. I believe that this is only you, the youth , who by learning lessons from today’s hardships, will be able to find new solutions for building the future, and block off-roads which have led the West to this current position.

It is true that today, terrorism is the pain we and you share, but it is necessary for you to know that the insecurity and anxiety that you felt in the recent incidents differ on two major grounds with the pain that people in Iraq, Yemen, Syria and Afghanistan have endured throughout successive years. First of all, the Muslim world has been victim to terrorism and violence more extensively, on a much larger scale, and for a much longer period of time, and the second difference is that unfortunately, these acts of violence have always been supported by big powers in different ways and an effective manner.

Today, barely is someone unaware of the United States of America’s role in the creation or strengthening and arming of al-Qaeda, Taliban and their ominous followers. Alongside this direct support, the palpable and known supporters of Takfiri terrorism, despite having the most primitive political establishments, have always been among the allies of the West, and that is while the most progressive and the clearest thoughts born out of dynamic democracies in the region have been ruthlessly suppressed. The West’s double-standards vis-à-vis the movement of awakening in the Muslim world is a telling example of contradiction in the Western policies.

Another aspect of this contradiction is seen in the [West’s] support for Israel’s state terrorism. The oppressed people of Palestine have been experiencing the worst kind of terrorism for more than 60 years. If the people in Europe have been taking refuge in their homes and been avoiding gatherings and crowded centers [only] for a number of days, it has been for tens of years that a Palestinian family has not been safe from the Zionist regime’s carnage and destruction machine even at its own home. What kind of violence could be compared today with the Zionist regime’s settlement construction in terms of its intense brutality?

Without having ever been seriously and effectively blamed by its influential allies, or at least the self-declared independent international institutions, this regime has been demolishing the homes of Palestinians and destroying their orchards and farmlands on a daily basis without even giving them time to move their living properties or collect their crops, and all this is often taking place before the terrified and tearful eyes of women and children, who witness the beating and injury of their family members and, in some cases, their transfer to notorious torture chambers. Do you know any other act of brutality on the same scale and dimension and at this rate of persistence in today’s world? If shooting at a woman in the middle of the street only for having protested at a soldier armed to the teeth is not terrorism, so what is it? Should this barbarism not be labeled as extremism just because it is being committed by the military forces of an occupying government? Or maybe these images should no longer stir our conscience only because they have been constantly seen on TV screens for 60 years?

Military campaigns targeting the Muslim world over recent years, which have taken countless lives, are another example of the West’s contradictory logic. Besides human losses, the invaded countries have lost their economic and industrial infrastructure, their drive towards growth and development has been halted or slowed down, and in some cases, turned back tens of years. Nonetheless, they are rudely asked not to consider themselves as oppressed. How can a country be reduced to ruins and its city and village be reduced to ashes and then [its people] be told not to consider themselves as oppressed! Instead of inviting [people] not to understand or forget about tragedies, isn’t honest apology better? The pain endured during these years by the Muslim world due to the hypocrisy and insincerity of the aggressors is no less than material damage.

Dear youth! I expect you to change this hypocrisy-infested mentality at present or in the future; a mentality whose art is covering up far-fetched goals and embellishing sly intentions. In my view, the first step to establish security and calm is to reform this violence-breeding mentality. As long as double standards dominate the Western policy, and as long as terrorism is divided in the eyes of its powerful supporters into good and bad categories, and as long as interests of governments are given precedence over human and moral values, the roots of terrorism should not be sought anywhere else.

Unfortunately, these roots have also penetrated deeply the cultural policies of the West through consecutive years, and have led to a soft and silent onslaught. Many countries in the world take pride in their indigenous and national culture; cultures that have fed human communities for hundreds of years at the same time that they have been flourishing and reproducing. The Muslim world has been no exception to this rule. But in the contemporary period, the Western world, benefitting from advanced tools, has been insisting on cultural simulation and unification in the world.

I consider the imposition of the Western culture on other nations and belittling independent cultures as a silent and very harmful act of violence. Humiliating rich cultures and insulting their most respected parts are happening while the alternative culture is by no means qualified to supplant them. For instance, the two elements of “aggressiveness” and “moral promiscuity,” which have unfortunately turned into the main components of the Western culture, have downgraded its acceptability and standing even in its own birthplace. The question now is if we would be committing a sin if we rejected a belligerent, obscene and culture that shuns spirituality? If we block the flood of destruction, which is streaming towards our youth in the form of different quasi-artistic products, will we be guilty? I do not deny the significance and vale of cultural bonds. These bonds have led to growth and prosperity and richness every time they have been made under natural conditions and through respect for the accepting society. On the contrary, incongruous and imposed bonds have proven to be unsuccessful and damaging.

I regret to say that vile groups like Daesh are born out of such unsuccessful bonding with imported cultures. If the problem was really ideological, such phenomena must have been seen in the Muslim world before the era of colonialism as well. However, history proves the contrary. Historical evidence makes it clear how the colonialism’s concurrence with an extremist and ostracized mentality in the heart of a primitive tribe, planted the seed of radicalism in this region. Otherwise, how is it possible that a refuse like Daesh could have been born out of one of the most ethical and the most human religious ideologies in the world that, in its essential fabric, draws a parallel between killing a human being and killing of the entire humanity?

On the other hand, one must ask why some people, who have been born in Europe and grown up intellectually and spiritually in the same environment, are being attracted to this kind of groups? Can one believe that these people suddenly turn so extremist as to shoot and kill their own countrymen only after one or two trips to war zones? Definitely, one should not ignore the impact of a lifetime unhealthy cultural feeding in a contaminated and violence-breeding environment. A comprehensive analysis must be carried out in this regard, an analysis to explore the overt and covert sources of contamination of a society. Maybe, the deep-seated hatred that has been sown in the heart of some [social] classes in the Western societies throughout years of industrial and economic prosperity due to inequalities and, at times, [as a result of] legal and structural discriminations, has given rise to complexes that emerge from time to time in such a sickening manner.

At any rate, it is you who should break through the outer layers of your society, find knots and grudges and do away with them. Instead of being widened, the rifts must be narrowed. The big mistake in fighting terrorism is hasty reactions that increase existing chasms. Any emotional and hasty move that would isolate or scare away and unsettle the Muslim community living in Europe and America, which comprises millions of active and responsible human beings, and deprive them of their basic rights more than before, and ostracize them socially, will not only fail to solve any problems, but also increase distances and deepen grudges. Superficial and reactionary measures, particularly when legalized, will have no other outcome but to clear the way for future crises by increasing existing polarizations. According to reports received, in some European countries certain regulations have been adopted to obligate citizens to spy on Muslims. These behaviors are unjust and we all know that injustice is willy-nilly produces reciprocal response.

Furthermore, Muslims do not deserve such ingratitude. The Western world has known Muslims for centuries. Both the day that the Western people settled in the territory of Islam as guests and cast a covetous look on the wealth of their host, and the day that they were the host and benefited from the Muslims’ work and thought, they mainly saw nothing [from Muslims] but kindness and patience. Therefore, I ask you, the youth, to lay the foundation for a proper and honorable interaction with the Muslim world based on correct knowledge and deep insight and by [learning lessons from past] tragic experiences. In this case, in a not distant future, you will see that the edifice you have erected on such a foundation will spread the shadow of confidence and trust over the heads of its architects, grant them the warmth of security and clam, and radiate the rays of hope in a bright future on the world. [1]

Seyyed Ali Khamenei,

Azar 8, 1394; November 29, 2015

——————

Related Links:

The first message by the Leader of the Islamic Revolution addressed to the Western youth had been published in February.

The Second Message of Imam Khamenei to the Western Youth in 62 Languages.

[1] . Adopted from: The Office of the Supreme Leader, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei.

post

The First Message of Iran Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei to the Youth

Question 570: What is the first Message of Iran Supreme Leader ‘Ayatollah Khamenei’ to the Youth in Europe and North America?

Answer 570: The first Message of Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei (ha), Supreme Leader of The Islamic Republic of Iran to the Youth in Europe and North America is as follows:

In the name of God, the Beneficent the Merciful

To the Youth in Europe and North America,

The recent events in France and similar ones in some other Western countries have convinced me to directly talk to you about them. I am addressing you, [the youth], not because I overlook your parents, rather it is because the future of your nations and countries will be in your hands; and also I find that the sense of quest for truth is more vigorous and attentive in your hearts.

I don’t address your politicians and statesmen either in this writing because I believe that they have consciously separated the route of politics from the path of righteousness and truth.

I would like to talk to you about Islam, particularly the image that is presented to you as Islam. Many attempts have been made over the past two decades, almost since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, to place this great religion in the seat of a horrifying enemy. The provocation of a feeling of horror and hatred and its utilization has unfortunately a long record in the political history of the West.

Here, I don’t want to deal with the different phobias with which the Western nations have thus far been indoctrinated. A cursory review of recent critical studies of history would bring home to you the fact that the Western governments’ insincere and hypocritical treatment of other nations and cultures has been censured in new historiographies.

The histories of the United States and Europe are ashamed of slavery, embarrassed by the colonial period and chagrined at the oppression of people of color and non-Christians. Your researchers and historians are deeply ashamed of the bloodsheds wrought in the name of religion between the Catholics and Protestants or in the name of nationality and ethnicity during the First and Second World Wars. This approach is admirable.

By mentioning a fraction of this long list, I don’t want to reproach history; rather I would like you to ask your intellectuals as to why the public conscience in the West awakens and comes to its senses after a delay of several decades or centuries. Why should the revision of collective conscience apply to the distant past and not to the current problems? Why is it that attempts are made to prevent public awareness regarding an important issue such as the treatment of Islamic culture and thought?

You know well that humiliation and spreading hatred and illusionary fear of the “other” have been the common base of all those oppressive profiteers. Now, I would like you to ask yourself why the old policy of spreading “phobia” and hatred has targeted Islam and Muslims with an unprecedented intensity. Why does the power structure in the world want Islamic thought to be marginalized and remain latent? What concepts and values in Islam disturb the programs of the super powers and what interests are safeguarded in the shadow of distorting the image of Islam? Hence, my first request is: Study and research the incentives behind this widespread tarnishing of the image of Islam.

My second request is that in reaction to the flood of prejudgments and disinformation campaigns, try to gain a direct and firsthand knowledge of this religion. The right logic requires that you understand the nature and essence of what they are frightening you about and want you to keep away from.

I don’t insist that you accept my reading or any other reading of Islam. What I want to say is: Don’t allow this dynamic and effective reality in today’s world to be introduced to you through resentments and prejudices. Don’t allow them to hypocritically introduce their own recruited terrorists as representatives of Islam.

Receive knowledge of Islam from its primary and original sources. Gain information about Islam through the Qur’an and the life of its great Prophet. I would like to ask you whether you have directly read the Qur’an of the Muslims. Have you studied the teachings of the Prophet of Islam and his humane, ethical doctrines? Have you ever received the message of Islam from any sources other than the media?

Have you ever asked yourself how and on the basis of which values has Islam established the greatest scientific and intellectual civilization of the world and raised the most distinguished scientists and intellectuals throughout several centuries?

I would like you not to allow the derogatory and offensive image-buildings to create an emotional gulf between you and the reality, taking away the possibility of an impartial judgment from you. Today, the communication media have removed the geographical borders. Hence, don’t allow them to besiege you within fabricated and mental borders.

Although no one can individually fill the created gaps, each one of you can construct a bridge of thought and fairness over the gaps to illuminate yourself and your surrounding environment. While this preplanned challenge between Islam and you, the youth, is undesirable, it can raise new questions in your curious and inquiring minds. Attempts to find answers to these questions will provide you with an appropriate opportunity to discover new truths.

Therefore, don’t miss the opportunity to gain proper, correct and unbiased understanding of Islam so that hopefully, due to your sense of responsibility toward the truth, future generations would write the history of this current interaction between Islam and the West with a clearer conscience and lesser resentment.[1]

Sayyid Ali Khamenei

21st Jan. 2015

———————–

Related Links:

[1] . Adopted from: The Office of the Supreme Leader, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei.

post

A Study of Al-Bayan, Iftikhariyah and Tatanjiyah Sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as)

Question 569: Agha! Are al-Bayan, al-Iftikhariya and Al-Tatanjiya sermons imputed to Mola Ali A.s which are found in Mashariq al-Anwar of Shaykh Rajab Borsi, are authentic? What are their health of authentication in regards of Ayatollah Sistani and the rest of mujtahideen? what is the take of Shariyah on them?

Answer 569: There are many sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as) mentioned in traditional and historical sources. But, they haven’t been mentioned in Nahj al-Balaghah.

Al-Bayan Sermon: Khutbatul Bayan or Iftikhar Sermon is one of them attributed to the Imam (as).

In this sermon, Imam Ali (as) introduces himself, foretells about the future and states the end of time and signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf). A major part of the sermon relates to messianic issues as well as the apocalyptic period and signs of reappearance. This sermon discusses the signs of reappearance and also deals with the subject of Sayyid Hasani and his uprising and conduct with Imam Mahdi (atf) as well as his surrender to the Imam.  When it comes to the chain of transmission of this narration and its validity, there are discrepant views and comments among Shia scholars some affirming it, others opposing.

According to the references mentioned in this sermon, Abdullh bin Masood said: When Imam Ali (as) being appointed to caliphate, He came back to Basrah after three days, ascended to pulpit in the Jame’ Mosque of the city and delivered a sermon saying about the difficulties and calamities happened the death of the holy Prophet (pbuh). While Imam Ali (as) delivering speech a man named Suwaid bin Nufil Hilahi, one of the great man of Khawarij interrupted the his speech, and asked: from where did the Imam know these things? Imam Ali (as) looked at the man angrily and talked about his attributes and knowledge. The followings are a few phrases the Imam introduced himself: Ana’ Sirr al-Asrar, Ana’ Shajarat al-Anwar; Ana’ Dalil al-Samawat; Ana’ Anis al-Musabbahat.[1]

This long sermon has only mentioned in recent sources. Ilzam al-Nasib, written by Ali Yazdi haeri (d. 1333 A.h) is one of the most accessible sources. In this book, there are three different versions of this sermon, Khutbat al-Bayan that each of them has vast difference with the other. The first two versions have no references, but the book al-Durr al-Munazzam fee al-Sirr al-Aazam, written by Muhammad bin Talhah Shafe’ei, the Sunni scholars but loving Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) is the only sources mentioned for the third version of this sermon.[2]

Those who mentioned in this book as the chain of narrations for this sermon are unknown except Tawq bin Malik, because he is not a narrator and had never narrated a hadith from him. He is one of the Harun al-Rashid’s commander that passed away in the year 216 A.H.[3]

The followings are some points we should take into consideration about Abdullah bin Masood, the main narrator that is the most important reason than the chain of narration.

  1. He has passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). So, he couldn’t narrate this sermon, because Imam Ali (as) was delivered it after being appointed to caliphate in Basra or Kufa.
  2. This chain of narration is Marfoo. This means that there are some unknown persons between ibn Masood and the listener of Khutbah, so we ought not to accept this hadith as Sahih.
  3. According to Sunni scholars, Abdullah bin Masood has never narrated a Hadith from Imam Ali (as).[4]
  4. According to Shia, ibn Masood wasn’t careful about narrating hadith. Meaning that he cannot be trusted.[5]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned reasons, we ought not to trust about the chain of narration of this sermon.

In his book Bisharat al-Islam, Sayyid Mustafa  Ale Haydar said: we haven’t found the correct chain of narration for this sermon. None of the great narrators like Kulayni, sadouq and Sheikh Tusi have never narrated it. We can conclude that since Allamah Majlisi never narrated this sermon that this sermon is not reliable.[6]

Late Mirza-ye Qummi, the author Qawanin al-Usul after denying the attribution of this sermon to Imam Ali (as), talked about Khutbat al-Bayan and its problems in detail at the end of book Jame’ al-Shatat.[7]

Allamah Jafar Murtadha Ameli specialized an important part of his book, al-dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur wa al-Jazirat al-Khazra, to reecting this sermon, some of which are as follows:

  1. In this sermon, some persons like Amr bin Saleh, Salman, Miqdad and ibn Yaqtin have been mentioned as those who were presented there, while salman and Miqdad have already passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). Also, Amr bin Saleh and ibn Yaqtin weren’t contemporary to the Imam.

Suwayd bin Nufil Hilali who mentioned in this sermon as the great man of Khawarij is not exist.

  1. As we read in the first version of this sermon, Gabriel (as) has descended on the Rock of Jerusalem, while this place is the Jewish Kiblah and Bani Umayyah forged some traditions in praise of it.
  2. According to Islamic traditions, Imam Hussain (as) will give Ghusl to, shroud and bury the Imam of the Time (ajtf), but this sermon says: Prophet Jesus (as) will do it.
  3. There are some ambiguous phrases mentioned in this sermon, some of which are as follows: Ana Mus’haf al-Injil, Ana Sher al-Zabraqan, Ana Unuq al-Sibtayn, Ana Atarud al-Ta’til, Ana Nasikh al-Mary, Ana Ghufran al-Shartayn and etc.
  4. There are many highly colored statements in this sermon, some of them are: Ana Alaniyat al-Mabood, Ana al-Dhahir ma’a al-Anbiya, Ana Sabab al-Asbab, Ana al-Awwalu wal Akhar, Ana al-Dhahir, Ana al-Batin, Ana Waze al-Shariat and etc.
  5. There are some solecisms, incorrect words (grammatical mistakes) and Farsi words like Keywan have mentioned in this sermon.
  6. As we Shia denied determining the time of Reappearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf), but there have mentioned some strange signs of re-emergence and determined that the Imam will appear in the year 1184 A.H.
  7. Many repetitive phrases are exist in this sermon.
  8. As the following phrase has mentioned in this sermon we come to the conclusion that one who forged this sermon is Nasebi and an enemy of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth). [8]

“ضيّعتُ الارض و حُكم الفرض”

Mirza-ye Qummi said: I haven’t seen in any authentic book that this sermon is attributed to Imam, but it has mentioned in some Sufism resources.[9]

Al-Iftikhariya Sermon: In his Mashariq al-Anwar, Hafez Rajab Borsi has narrated from Asbagh bin Nabatah a relatively long sermon named Al-Iftikhar Sermon which the narrator has attributed to Imam Ali (A.S). In that sermon, Imam Ali (A.S) introduces himself with these words: “I am the brother of the Messenger of God and the Heir to His knowledge, the treasury of His wisdom, and the Companion of His secret. There is not a letter revealed by God in any of His Books whose intention does not point towards me. He hath vouchsafed unto me the knowledge of what was from eternity and what will happen unto the Day of Resurrection. To me hath been vouchsafed the knowledge of past and future generations and their genealogies.”[10] Then he refers to future events and the signs of reappearance.[11] If you go through the sermon and take careful a look at the words, you will come to know that a lot of the words and meanings in this sermon are also found in other narrations which have been substantiated and approved in their own respective places.

Al-Tatanjiya Sermon: Late Hafez Rajab Borsi has reported this sermon in his Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin”.[12] Considering that Imam Ali (A.S) says in a part of this sermon: «اَنَا الْواقِفُ عَلَى التُّطُنْجَیْنِ» [13](I am abiding over the two gulfs (tatanjayn)), this sermon is called Al-Tatanjiya which means two gulfs of water or this world and the hereafter. The first part of the sermon dealing with creation of the world is very similar to the first part of Nahjul Balaghah. Most of the wordings and sentence structures are completely overshadowed by Quranic verses and are relying on traditional beliefs. The sermon deals mainly with Imam Ali’s expanse of knowledge, especially his super knowledge of the universe, the preceding and future events. It is for the same reason that the sermon is replete with statements about the cosmos as well as reports about the apocalyptic period or the end of time.  This sermon explains the course of glorification of Allah, the Exalted, throughout the history of prophets as well as the existential guardianship (wilayat takvini) and knowledge of the Infallible Imams (A.S). In other words, it introduces the perfect man. The discourse is about the first creation and created which have been referred to in the tradition as such: «اَوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللّه‏ُ الْعَقْلُ» (The first thing that God created was the intelligence).[14]

This position of intelligence has different expressions in its various dimensions. This position of intelligence is the “Muhammadan Reality (haqiqat muhammadia)”.

The Al-Tatanjiya Sermon has not been narrated in Nahjul Balaghah but Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad Musavi (d. 703 A.H.) has recorded it in his al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq Min Ezhar al-Hadaiq.[15] Some recent scholars like Ali Yazdi Haeri (d. 1323 A.H.) have also narrated it.[16]

At the end of this sermon, there is a description of the four realms (aqalim) and Sheikh Agha Buzurg Tehrani has considered it probable that this sermon might be united with the Al-Aqalim Sermon which Ibn Shahrashub has talked about in his Al-Manaqib.[17] This sermon has been published either independently or as supplements in other publications. Different manuscripts of this sermon are said to be in the libraries of the University of Tehran, the Iranian parliament, Waziri Yazd and Masjid A’azam of Qom.[18] Many commentaries have been written expounding the said sermon[19] the most famous of which is Irshad Al-Mustarshideen by Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d.1259 A.H) of which seventeen manuscripts are available in Iran’s libraries.[20]

This sermon is defective in terms of its chain of transmission. Thus, the chain of transmission cannot be considered as reliable but the contents and significations of the sermon are acceptable even though they may not be those of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali, peace be upon him.  Keeping in view the fact that there are also other narrations having higher and more perfect contents than those of this narration reaffirming it, some scholars are of the view that the contents of the Al-Tatanjiya Sermon are correct. They maintain that by turning to the reports regarding the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (A.S), the doubt concerning this sermon will be removed. In fact, they state that the reports, like verses, explicit or implicit, general and particular, restricted and unrestricted, ambiguous and unambiguous. Some of them should be interpreted in the same way as the Quranic verses. Hence, it is necessary for every just and fair individual not to reject a tradition which he finds apparently dichotomous with the principles and rules. He should rather reflect and contemplate on it and should also compare it with other reports which have been passed on from the Infallibles (A.S) and which interpret the report. That is because their reports, like the holy verses of the Quran, expound and interpret one another.[21] For instance, in Kulayni’s Al-Kafi, there are traditions about perfect man which are in no way in contradiction with Islamic doctrines. For example, Imam Ali (A.S) has been reported as having said:

«أَنَا عَيْنُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا يَدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا جَنْبُ اللَّهِ- وَ أَنَا بَابُ اللَّهِ»[22]

“I am God’s eye, and I am God’s hand…”  Hence, it can be said that the traditions in this regard confirm the content of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon to some extent.

[1] .Haeri Yazdi, Ali, Ilzam al-Nasib fee Ithbat  al-Hujjat al-Ghaeb, Vol. 2, Pgs. 148-191, first edition, Beirut, 1422 A.H.

[2] . Ibid, Pg. 232.

[3] . Al-Tabari, Abu Jafar, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 8, Pg. 323, Dar al-Turath, Beirut, second edition,; Al-Yaqoubi, Ahmad bin Abi Yaqoub, Tarikh al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 2, Pg. 424, Dar al-Sader, Beirut, Bita.

[4] . Al-Mazy, Yousef bin al-Zaki, Tahzib al-Kamal fee Asma al-Rijal, Vol. 16, Pg. 121, N. 3564, al-Risalah Institution, Beirut, 1400 A.H.

[5] . Kashi, Abu Amr, Muhammad bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Rijal al-Kashi, Pg. 38, Mashad University Publication Instirution, Mashhad, 1490 A.H.

[6] . Ale Haydar, Sayyid Mustafa, Bisharat al-Islam, Pg. 75, H. 214, al-Bithat Institution, Tehran, 1410 A.H.

[7] .Qummi, Abul Qasim, Jame’ al-Shatat, Pg. 792, Kayhan Institution, first edition, Tehran, 1413 A.H.

[8] . Ameli, Jafar murtadha, Dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur, Pg. 75, Muntadi Jabal al-Amel al-Islami, Qom, 1412 A.H.

[9] . Jame al-Shatat, Pg. 792.

[10] Hafez, Borsi, Rajab bin Muhammad, Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin fi Asrar Amir al-Momeneen (A.S), researched and edited by Ashur,Ali, p. 260, A’lami, 260, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[11] Vide: Ibid, p. 260 – 262.

[12] Ibid, p. 263.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Sheikh Hurr Amili, Muhammad bin Hasan, al-Jawahir al-Saniyah fi al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyah (generalities of Qudsi hadiths), p. 647, Dehqan Publications’, Tehran, third edition, 1380 (2001); Ibn Abil Hadid, Abdul Hamid bin Hebahullah, Sharh Nahjul Balaghah, researched and corrected by Ibrahim, Muhammad Abulfazl, vol.18, p. 185, Late Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi’s Library, Qom, first edition, 1404 A.H.

[15] Musavi, Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad, al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq min Ezhar al-Hadaiq, vol.1, p. 452, Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance, Tehran, 1375 A.H.

[16] Yazdi Haeri, Ali, Elzam al-Nasib fi Ethbat al-Hujjah al-Ghaib (atf), researched and corrected by Ashur, Ali, vol.2, p. 199, al-A’lami Institute, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[17] Agha Buzurg Tehrani, al-Zari’ah Ela Tasanif al-Shi’ah, vol.7, p. 199, and 201, Ismailiyan, Qom, 1408 A.H; Ibn Shahrashub Mazandarani, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib (A.S), vol.2, p. 274, Allamah Publications, Qom, first edition, 1379 A.H.

[18] Vide: Fehres (Catalogue) of the Library of the University of Tehran, vol.13, p. 3380, and vol.6, p. 365; Fehres of Majlis Library, vol. 38, p. 497; Fehres  of Waziri Yazd Library, vol.1, p. 21, Fehres of Masjid A’azam Library, Qom, 606.

[19] Muhammad Karim Khan bin Ibrahim Kermani (d. 1288 A.H.), A Commentary of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon (a manuscript of which is kept in Sepahsalar Library. There is also an unknown commentary on Al-Tatanjiya Library in the Catalogue of the University of Tehran (vol.2, p. 703, No. 1067). Vide: Ali Sadrai, Khoei, with cooperation of Abul Fazl Sulaymani, Mahdi, Ashtiani, Ihsan, Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 377 – 378, Dar al-Hadith Printing and Publication Institution, Qom, first edition, 1384 (2005).

[20] Vide: Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 375 – 377.

[21] Vide: Allamah Hasanzadeh Amuli, Hasan, The Best Work in Rejection of Compulsion and Predestination and Two other Treatises, p. 98, Islamic Propagations Office, Qom, fourth edition,1379 (2000).

[22] Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Al-Kafi, researched and corrected by Ghaffari, Ali Akbar, Akhundi, Muhammad, vol.1, p. 145, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H.

post

Khums: Rules concerning Awl and Ta’sib

Question 324:  Salam sheikh…what is awl and tasib…i just asked bcs you know im not too familiare with shia beliefs

Answer 324: In the book of Islamic inheritance there has been mentioned two important issues regarding Ta`síb and Awl. Shia and Sunni have different opinion in this regards. According to some verses of the Holy Quran and narrations from Ahlul Bayt (pbuth), Shia unanimously believe that Awl and Ta’sib are null and void.[1]

If the surviving heirs of a deceased inherit by Fard, they shall inherit in one of the following ways.

Firstly, If the inheritance of the deceased is equal to the prescribe shares without any surplus or deficiency, as when the heirs are the parents and several daughters, then two-thirds shall go to the daughters and a third to both the parents, a sixth going to each of them.

Secondly (Ta’sib), if the inheritance exceeds the amount of the shares, the surplus shall return to the sharers, and it shall not go to the Asabah of the deceased, that means every male who is related to the deceased directly or indirectly through males.

If the heirs are confined to a single daughter and the mother, the daughter shall get a half by Fard and the mother a sixth by Fard, and the surplus shall revert to both of them in fourths in proportion to their shares.

If the heirs are confined to several daughters and the mother, the daughters shall get two-third by Fard, and the mother a sixth by Fard, and the surplus shall revert to the daughters and the mother in fifth in proportion to their shares, and the Asabah shall get dust (i.e. nothing).

Thirdly (Awl), if the inheritance falls short of the amount of shares, and that happens by the inclusion in the heirs of one or two or more daughters or one or two or more sisters by both subjected to Awl in proportion to all due to their inclusion. If the heirs of the deceased are confined to a daughter, husband and both parents, the prescribed shares of the husband and both the parents shall be given to them, and the deficiency, that is half of the sixth (of the deficiency, which is a fourth of the estate, shall fall on them. The same shall happen in other similar cases as well.

The surplus shall not revert to the following shares:

  1. The wife in general. So she shall be given her prescribed share, and the residue shall revert to the other classes including even the Imam (as).

The Husband, he shall be given his prescribed share, and the residue shall go to the other heirs, except when the heirs of the deceased are confined to him and the Imam (as), in which case a half of the estate shall revert to him in addition to his own prescribed share.

The mother, when there is someone excluding her from the return, as has already been mentioned.

The brothers or sisters by mother in all circumstances in the presence of anyone of the parental grandfathers or grandmothers, or anyone of the brothers or sisters by both parents or by the father, as already mentioned.

The male children or the female children accompanied by male children inherit by virtue of Qarabat. Same is the case with a father provided the deceased has left no child.

The same is the case with the grandfathers and grandmothers in general, or the brothers or sisters by both parents or by father provided there are some males among them. The same is the ease with all the groups belonging to the Third Class from among the paternal uncles and aunts and their children, who inherit by Qarabat, and net by Fard.

If an heir inheriting by Fard is combined with one inheriting by Qarabat, then the sharer shall get his prescribed share and the residue shall go to the hair inheriting by Qarabat. If both the parents are combined with the male or female children, both the parents shall get their prescribed shares, that is, two-sixths, and the residue shall go to the children by Qarabat. If both the parents are sole heirs, then the mother shall get a sixth if combined by a Hajib and a third by Fard in his absence, and the residue shall go to the father by Qarabat. If one or several sisters by both the parents combine the maternal grandfather or grandmother, then the sister or sisters shall get the prescribed share, and the residue shall go to the grandfather or grandmother by virtue of Qarabat. Similar is the case with ethers than those mentioned.[2]

Ta’sib: according to Ahlul Sunna, the six kinds of shares determined in the Qur’an at times equal the whole estate, such as two daughters along with parents (2/3 + 1/6 + 1/6). Here the question of ‘awl and ta’sib does not arise, because the two daughters will take two-thirds and the parents one-third.

At times the total of the shares does not exhaust the whole estate, such as the case of a single daughter, whose share is half, or two daughters, whose share is two-thirds. This (in Sunni schools) results in ta`sib.

When the total shares exceed unity—such as when the husband, the parents and the daughter inherit together, the share of the husband, the daughter and the parents being one-fourth, one-half and one-third respectively—the estate cannot cover all the three shares together. This results in `awl. `Awl will be discussed in the second chapter.

Awl: According to Ahlul Sunna, `awl is applied where the shares exceed the heritage, such as where the deceased leaves behind a wife, parents and two daughters (the shares being, the wife’s one-eighth, the parents’ one-third, the two daughters’ two-thirds; here the estate falls short of the sum of one-eighth, one third and two-thirds 127/24]). Similarly, if a woman dies and leaves behind her husband and two agnate sisters, the share of the husband is one-half, and that of the sisters two-thirds; here the estate falls short of the sum of half and two-thirds (7/6). ‘Awl occurs only if the husband or the wife is present.

The schools differ regarding the issue. Will the deficit, in such a case, be diminished proportionately from the shares of all the sharers, or will it be diminished from the shares of only some of them?

The four Sunni schools accept the doctrine of ‘awl, the rule that all the shares will be diminished proportionately, exactly like the creditors’ claims when the assets fall short of meeting them. Hence if the heirs are wife, parents and two daughters, according to these schools it will be an instance of ‘awl. The obligation is met by dividing the heritage into 27 parts, though it earlier comprised 24 parts. The wife will take 3/27 (i.e. her share becomes 1/9 instead of 1/8), the parents take 8/27 and the daughter 16/27.

[1] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 7, Page 79, Chapter: Ibtalel Awl; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 26, Pgs. 73-75, Publisher Alul Bayt; Oyoun Akhbar al-Ridha (as), Vol. 2, Pg. 165; Elalul Sharae’, Vol. 2, Pgs. 567-569; Man La Yahdhurul Faqih, Vol. 6, Pg. 123-124; Ibid, Vol. 4, Pg. 256.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 4, Pgs. 44-46 (English version)

post

Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?

Question 260:  Was Bay’ah (allegiance) performed by Imam Ali (as) or was it not taken? Did the caliphate have Imam Ali’s (as) silent approval?

Answer 260: When Imam Ali (as) has been carrying the funeral of the holy Prophet (PBUH) such as washing and enshrouding -in accordance with the Will of the Prophet (s)- the event of Saqifah happened.

According to some narrations, Imam Ali (as) abstained from supporting and giving the bay’ah to Abu Bakr until after Lady Fatima (sa) passed away.[1] When the Imam (as) saw people turned their face away from him (as), he was compelled to give bay’ah to him.

Why didn’t Imam Ali fight is a typical Sunni argument? Some Shia narrations indicate that if Imam Ali had 40 men he would have fought, but his much smaller group of followers meant that if Imam Ali had fought for the leadership, the nascent and young Muslim state would have been ripped into shreds, and in all honesty, Islam probably wouldn’t exist today.

Assuming Imam Ali did give bayah, this does not mean to say he considered Abu Bakr’s rule legitimate. Nay, he only paid allegiance for the greater good, and that was to reconcile the nation. His views remained the same, and are expressed most famously in Khutbatul Shaqshaqiyya, delivered during his reign as caliph.

What was of dire importance to Imam Ali (as) and the other imams, to the extent that they sacrificed everything, even their lives for it, was the preservation of Islam. It was for the preservation of Islam that Imam Ali (as) would cooperate with the khalifahs and give them the best consultation he could, whenever needed.

The reason being that the imam didn’t want anything for himself; anything he wanted was for Islam’s flourishing and since, in any case, Abu Bakr and Umar were the heads of the Islamic state then, and opposing them, in that sensitive and pivotal time in which Islam was expanding its boundaries and there were conquests, and Islam had many adversaries, and the Roman and Persian empires were great threats, Imam Ali (as), through his deep insight, took the right stances, not making Islam any more vulnerable than it already was, and in this way, putting an end to the dreams of the enemies of Islam taking advantage of the circumstances.

What was asserted in the question about Imam Ali (as) accepting the caliphate of the khalifahs, isn’t correct, because on top of all the objections and oppositions he had before the martyrdom of Lady Zahra (as), in the following years, especially during his own rule, he would strongly criticize their actions and would question their caliphate itself. The third sermon of the Nahjul-Balaghah, known as the sermon of Shiqshiqiyyah, is clear evidence of this claim

In this sermon, the imam (as) says: “…Then I began to think whether I should assault or endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations…”

We must say that those taking care of the issue of caliphate acted so fast that they didn’t even wait for the prophet to be buried so that they could at least consult with the Harun of the Muslim nation (meaning Imam Ali (as)), and as was said, considering the pressure and propaganda that was dominant at the time and the danger of conflict breaking out between two of the Ansar’s tribes, they rushed in doing bey’ah with Abu Bakr without any further ado, although some of them regretted their bey’ah later, when Lady Fatimah (as) said some things to them and asked them to support Ali (as); they said: If you had told us these things earlier, we would have never preferred anyone over Ali (as)![2]

Did they give Imam Ali (as) a chance to voice his opinion? The only way such a thing seems possible is if he had abandoned the prophet’s body like everyone else and tried to get his right too! This is something that the imam was avoiding, or else he could have done that too. As he himself says: “We have a right that if we are given, then all the better, and if we are denied it, we prefer to, as the second person (and not the caliph), to ride the back of the camel, no matter how long that takes.”[3]

In addition to all of this, the Shia believe that imamate and leadership of the Muslim nation can only be determined by divine decree, therefore, considering all of the clear injunctions by the prophet about Imam Ali (as) being his successor, there remains no room for any of these theories and conjectures, because when there is a nass or legal injunction, all ijtihad and personal opinions are invalid.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Shia consider Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman as Hypocrite, Q 265.

[1] . Tabari, Tarikh al-Umam wal Moluk, Vol. 2m Pg. 448, Istiqamat publication, Cairo.

[2] Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 30, pg. 124, Al-Wafa’ Publications, Beirut, 1404 (AH).

[3] Nahjul-Balaghah, pg. 472, Dar al-Hijrah Publications, Qom.

post

Chatting on the internet with non-Mahram

Question 350:  Salam, what is the limits when you want to talk or even chat with females? By the way, my jurisprudence is Sayed Sistani?

Answer 350: According to Ayatollah Sistani (ha), all kinds of relations with a non-Mahram including joking, expressing mutual love, talking with the intention of deriving pleasure, looking at the body of a girl (except her face and hands up to the wrists) and at her hair or looking at her face with pleasure are haram (forbidden). In fact, if it is feared that they might fall into a sin, it is forbidden for them to have any kinds of relationship with each other. His Excellency also replied a question similar to talking to ones fiancé on telephone as follows: If it is feared that you might fall into a sin, it is not permissible. Since she is not related to you through nikah as of now, you cannot express love or start joking and becoming intimate with her.

The Ayatollah says: If there is a fear that a girl or a boy may be drawn towards sin, it is not permissible to chat with girls on the internet. Normally chatting ends up in a sin for both sides. [1]

According to holy Islamic Laws, any form of interaction between a non-Mahram man and woman, whether it is direct or indirect, is impermissible if it accompanied with lust, or there is fear of sin taking place. Otherwise, if there is no such a fear that you might fall into a sin, there would be no problem.

A glance at the fatwas of the maraje’ on questions about this issue clears everything up:

Question 1: When a non-mahram man and woman are speaking with each other, is there a difference between the dialogue being from far away or in person?

Answer (all of the maraje’): There is no difference in ruling and in both cases, if there is lust involved or fear of sin taking place, it is impermissible.[2]

Question 2: What is the ruling on chatting with the opposite sex and speaking of normal things?

All of the maraje’: If there is fear of corruption and sin taking place, it is impermissible.[3]

Question 3: Is it permissible for non-mahram men and women to greet each other?

All of the maraje’: If it is without lust and there is no fear of sin taking place, it is permissible.[4]

Question 4: What is the ruling on kidding with non-mahrams?

All of the maraje’: If it is with lust or there is fear of sin taking place, it is impermissible.[5]

Question 5: Is having a warm relationship between a boy and girl while working or in gatherings problematic?

All of the maraje’: Friendship between boys and girls is impermissible, because there is a fear of sin taking place. As for their relationship at work, if it doesn’t lead to corruption and Islamic standards are observed, it is permissible.[6]

Question 6: What is the ruling on writing to non-mahrams and speaking of sensual things via email with them?

All of the maraje’: Speaking of things that lead to corruption and pave the way to corruption are problematic.[7]

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Question & Answer» Chat between Male & Female; Ibid, Male and Female Relations.

[2] Imam Khomeini, Istifta’at, vol. 3, question 52; Bahjat, Tawdih al-Masa’el, issue 1936; Makarem Shirazi, Istifta’at, vol. 1, question 819; Tabrizi, Istifta’at, issue 1622; Safi, Jame’ul-Ahkam, vol. 2, pg. 1673; Nouri, Istifta’at, vol. 2, pg. 656; Fazel, Jame’ul-Masa’el, vol. 1, question 1718; Khamenei, Ajwibah al-Istifta’at, question 1145; Al-Urwah al-Wuthqa, vol. 2, al-nikah, issue 3; Sistani, sistani.org (official website), questions 19 and 20; Wahid, office.

[3] Sistani, sistani.org (official website); Tabrizi, tabrizi.org (official website); the office of all of the maraje.

[4] Al-Urwah al-Wuthqa, vol. 2, al-nikah, issue 39 and 41.

[5] Ibid, issues 39 and 41; Fazel, Jame’ul-Masa’el, vol. 1, question 1720 and Khamenei, istifta’, question 782.

[6] Khamenei, istifta’, questions 651 and 779 and the offices of all the maraje’.

[7] Imam Khomeini, Istifta’at, vol. 3, miscellaneous questions, question 127; the offices of all the maraje’.

post

Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman

Question 150: Is the saying authentic that reciting Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman for 100 times is recommended for granting our wishes?

Answer 150: In the book Miṣbāḥ al-Kaf’amī the Du-A’a Ilaahee Kayfa Ad-O’oka (Dua muqatil bin sulaiman) has been narrated from Imam Sajjad (as), as follows: [1]

إِلَهِي كَيْفَ أَدْعُوكَ وَ أَنَا أَنَا وَ كَيْفَ أَقْطَعُ رَجَائِي مِنْكَ وَ أَنْتَ أَنْتَ إِلَهِي إِذَا لَمْ أَسْأَلْكَ فَتُعْطِيَنِي فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي أَسْأَلُهُ فَيُعْطِيَنِي إِلَهِي إِذَا لَمْ أدعوك [أَدْعُكَ] فَتَسْتَجِيبَ لِي فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي أَدْعُوهُ فَيَسْتَجِيبَ لِي إِلَهِي إِذَا لَمْ أَتَضَرَّعْ إِلَيْكَ فَتَرْحَمَنِي فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي أَتَضَرَّعُ إِلَيْهِ فَيَرْحَمَنِي إِلَهِي فَكَمَا فَلَقْتَ الْبَحْرَ لِمُوسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ وَ نَجَّيْتَهُ أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تُنَجِّيَنِي مِمَّا أَنَا فِيهِ وَ تُفَرِّجَ عَنِّي فَرَجاً عَاجِلًا غَيْرَ آجِلٍ بِفَضْلِكَ وَ رَحْمَتِكَ يَا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ

Transliteration: Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem Elaahi Kayfa Ad’ooka Wa Anaa Anaa Wa Kayfa Aqta-O’ Rajaaee Minka Wa Anta Anta Elaahi Iz Lam As-Aloka Fa-Too-Teenee Faman Zal-Lazee As-Alohu Fayo’teenee Elaahi Iz Lam Ad-Oo’ka Fa-Tastajeebo Lee Faman Zal Lazee Ad-Oo’ho Fa Yastajeebo Lee Elaahi Iz Lam Atazarra’ Elayka Fa Tarhamoni Faman Zal Lazee Atazarra-O’ Elayhe Fa Yarhamonee Elaahi Fakamaa Falaqtal Bahra Le Moosaa A’layhis Salaamo Wa Najjaytahu As-Aloka An Tosalle A’laa Mohammadin Wa Aale Mohammadin Wa An Tonajjeyanee Mimmaa Anaa Feehe Wa Tafarreja A’nnee Farajan A’aajelan Ghaira Aajelin Be Fazleka Wa Be Rahmateka Yaa Arhamar Raahemeen.

Translation: My God how can I call on You (for help) for I am me (a sinful servant)? How can I cut off hope from You, for You are You (the merciful lord)? My God (even) when I did not beseech You, You gave me. So who is he who gives, if I beseech him? My God (even) when I did not call out, You fulfilled my desire. So who is he who satisfies, if I call him? My God (even) when I did not humbly solicit, You took pity on me. So who is he who shows mercy, I’ll solicit him? My God I beseech You, that just as You parted as under the sea for Musa (pbuh) to save him, send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, and come to my rescue, and deliver me (from these troubles), and disperse (afflictions), and do it quickly, without delay, through Your kindness, through Your mercy, O the most merciful.

In his book Mafatih al-Jinan Sheikh Abbas Qummi (ra) said: In book Balad al-Amin, sheikh Kaf’ami quoted a Dua from Imam Zainul Abedin (as) and said that Muqatil bin Sulaiman narrated it from the Imam (as). He (Muqatil) also said that whoever recited it 100 times and his duas haven’t been granted, curse me (Muqatil).[2]

The followings are some issues we should take into consideration:

Kaf’ami has narrated this Dua by only mentioning this phrase: “مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْن” (meaning that it has narrated from Ali bin al-Hussain (as)).

– There hasn’t mentioned any name of Muqatil bin Sulaiman in this Dua nor how many times we are recommended to recite this Dua.

– As Muqatil bin Sulaiman died in the year 150 (A.H.), he was unable to directly narrate this Dua from Imam Sajjad (as).[3] He was one of the companions of Imam baqir (as) and Imam Sadiq (as).[4]

But, if we recite this Dua with the intention to get the reward from Allah, the Almighty and also as what Sheikh Abbas Qummi (ra) has narrated in Mafatih al-Jinan, our righteous wishes will be granted by Allah (SWT). In sha Allah.

[1] . Kaf’amī, Ebrahim bin Ali, al-Miṣbāḥ, Pg. 292-293, Qom, Dar al-Radi (Zahedi), second edition, 1405 A.H.

[2] . Qummi, Sheikh Abbas, Mafatih al-Jinan, Pg. 113, Qom, Osveh Publication.

[3] . Khayr alDīn Ziriklī, al-Aalam, Vol. 7, Pg. 281, Beirut, Dar al-Elm lil Malaeen, fiftieth edition, 2002.

[4] . Allamah hilli, Khuasat al-Aqwal, Pg. 260, Qom, Dar al-Zakhayer, 1411 A.h; hussaini Tafreshi, Sayyid Mustafa bin Hussain, Naqd al-Rijal, Vol. 4, Pg. 412, Qom, Aalul Bayt (pbuth) Institution, first edtion, 1418 A.H.