Praying for non-Muslim Parents

Question 516: Can I as a Shia Muslim pray for my dead parent who is a non-Muslim? They were Ahl al-Kitab. If so, can you provide sources and scholarly opinions? Thank you.

Answer 516: We have already sent a similar question to the office of grand maraja’, whether it is permissible to solace to non-Muslims who have passed away and send salawat, recite surah al-Fatiha and pray for them?

Our maraja’ have different opinions about it. Some say, it is permissible if they have not fought Muslims on the account of Religion and have not driven us out of our Homeland. Others say, it is permissible to solace, though asking Allah, the Almighty for His forgiveness and pray for them is not permissible.

Ayatollah Khameneni: There is no problem in it per se if they have not fought Muslims on the account of Religion.

Ayatollah Sistani: It is impermissible to ask Allah, the Almighty for their forgiveness and pray for them.

Ayatollah Safi Golpayegani: Sending Salawat and praying to Allah (SWT) to forgive them are not permissible[1].

According to the verses of the Holy Quran, if those non-Muslim who have not fought Muslims on the account of Religion and have not driven us out of our Homeland, Allah (SWT), the Almighty does not forbid us from doing good and regarding justice to them. Therefore, we can visit their graves and ask Allah, the Almighty for His forgiveness and pray for them. However, Allah (SWT) forbids us only from having Friendship with those who fought us on the account of Religion and Drove us out of our homeland; and helped one another in driving us out; We are forbidden to have friendly Relation with them; and whoever among us does so, then he is regarded as One of the disbelievers. Because, in the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “The Prophet and the faithful may not plead for the forgiveness of the polytheists, even if they should be [their] relatives, after it has become clear to them that they will be the inmates of hell”.[2]

It should be noted that the loss of a family member is a difficult challenge to overcome. However, one can overcome this situation by doing the following points:

A: Having patience: Patience is mans’ greatest friend in life.[3] Patience in the face of calamities is one type of patience.[4] The ahadith speak of a great reward for patience in such situations. To pay attention to its results and rewards which are mentioned in the Quran and ahadith is one of the ways to overcome a loss. We will mention some of these Quranic verses and ahadith below:

1- In the Quran, God says: “Peace be to you, for your patience.” How excellent is the reward of the [ultimate] abode!”[5] “We will surely test you with a measure of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth, lives, and fruits; and give good news to the patient. Those who, when an affliction visits them, say,” Indeed we belong to Allah, and to Him do we indeed return. It is they who receive the blessings of their Lord and [His] mercy, and it is they who are the [rightly] guided”[6]

2- Imam Ali says “Having patience when calamities strike stems from one’s wisdom.”[7]

“Amongst the treasures of belief is having patience when calamities befall one.”[8] “Having patience at the time of catastrophes elevates one to lofty spiritual levels.”[9]

B: We must understand that death will take place for all of us: “Every soul shall taste death. Then you shall be brought back to us.”[10] Because all creatures are manifestations of Go Godl’s existence and attributes and they have come from him, they will all go back to him “Indeed we belong to Allah, and to Him do we indeed return.”[11]

One of the results of having belief in God is that when catastrophes strike, a believer reminds himself of the abovementioned verse. The better and deeper one understands the truth mentioned in the verse, the easier he will be able to overcome such issues.

C: The ahadith have mentioned certain acts to be carried out for the dead. Some of them are wajib and some are mustahab. We will mention some examples of these ahadith below:

First: Paying charity; A man from the tribe of Bani Saedah came to the Prophet after his mother passed away and said: “My mother passed away during my absence. If I pay charity on behalf of her, will her soul be rewarded?” The Prophet replied: “Yes.”[12]

Second: Reciting Quran; The Prophet stated: “Whoever passes by a graveyard and recites surah Ikhlas eleven times and sends the reward for the dead, he will be rewarded by the number of people that are buried there.”[13]

Third: Doing good deeds; Imam Sadiq said: “The reward of charity, supplicating and good deeds will reach the dead as well as the one who carried them out.”[14] “Whenever a Muslim does good deeds on behalf of the dead, God will multiply his reward and also give the dead the reward of the good deed.”[15]

Fourth: Performing Wahshat prayer; It is mustahab to pray two raka’ats on the first night of burial.[16] The details of this prayer are mentioned in the law books of the maraji’.[17] Therefore, it is musthab to perform this prayer only on the first night and not all nights. For the other nights, one may perform other acts for his mother to send her the reward and make her soul calm and happy in the other world.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Visiting non-Muslim graves and Praying for them, answer 103.


[1] . Adopted from answer 35827.

[2] Surah Mumtahina, verses 8 & 9;  Surah Tawbah, verse 113; Adopted from Index: Visiting non-Muslim graves and Praying for them.

[3] For further information, refer to the topic “Increasing Patience”, Question 8418 (site: 9091).

[4] Daylami, Shaykh Hasan, Irshad al-Qulub ila al-Sawab, vol. 1, p. 126, Sharif Radhiyy Press, Qum, first edition, 1412 AH.

[5] Ra’d:24.

[6] Baqarah:155-157.

[7] Tamimi Amidi, Abd al-Wahid ibn Muhammad, Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim, p. 283, hadith 6299, Islamic Propagation Office Press, Qum, 1366 (solar).

[8] Ibid, p. 282, hadith 6298.

[9] Ibid, p. 262, hadith 6269.

[10] Ankabut:57 “كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ثُمَّ إِلَيْنا تُرْجَعُون”.

[11] Baqarah:156 “إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَ إِنَّا إِلَيْهِ راجِعُونَ”.

[12] MullaHavish Aal Ghazi, Abd al-Qadir, Bayan al-Ma’ani, vol. 1, p. 203, Taraqi Press, Damascus, first edition, 1382 AH; Qurtubi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Quran, Nasir Khosro Press, Tehran, first edition, 1364 (solar).

[13] Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 10, p. 368, al-Wafa Institute, Beirut, 1404 AH.

[14] Amili, Shaykh Hurr, Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 8, p. 279, Aal al-Bayt Institute, Qum, 1409 AH.

[15] Hilli, Ibn Fahd, Uddat al-Da’i, p. 146, Daar al-Kutub al-Islamiyy, Qum, 1407 AH.

[16] Amili (Kaf’ami), Ibrahim ibn Ali, Al-Misbah, p. 411, Daar al-Radhiyy Press, Qum, second edition, 1405 AH, Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 8, p. 168.

[17] Musawi (Imam Khumayni), Sayyid Ruhullah, Tawdhih al-Masa’il, vol. 1, p. 348, researched/edited by: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Bani Hashimi Khumayni, Islamic Publications Office, Qum, eighth edition, 1424 AH.


Good behavior? Refraining from a bad suspicion

Question 580: Assalam o Alaikum, my question is y psychologists cannot behave normal in their own life? My own sister in law is a clinical psychologist and she always behave oddly in matters related to family?

Answer 580: The reason why you think she behaves oddly toward her family can be of the followings:

Each science has its own particular definition about normal behavior.

Researchers have been working on defining normal and abnormal behavior for many years. According to them, abnormal behavior means being deviant or to go astray from natural path. Those who are very tall or short are considered as unnatural according to this definition. Also, one who has the highest level of intelligence is considered as unnatural according to custom. A psychologist examines such behavior using pathology approach.

The following are some different ways by which a psychologist define abnormal behavior:

Mental definition: We judge others based on our own behaviors. This means, we consider our own behaviors as the criterion to judge others. If their behaviors look like ours then we can say such behaviors are normal. Otherwise, it is considered as abnormal.

Normative definition: According to this definition, normal means perfection. Those who go astray from perfection, which has been defined by a political or religious organization, are considered as abnormal. It is said that this approach is focus on “thing which should be” instead of “thing which is logically possible”. If we want to conclude who is normal according to this definition we reach to this conclusion that no one is perfect.

Cultural definition: Culture dictates forms of different aspects of life to us. E.g. How to dress up, social behavior, language, love and etc. that have been determined by culture. Some of behaviors are culturally considered as taboo and others unlawful. Those who avoid such cultural standards are considered as abnormal. The definition of normal and abnormal behavior can be changed along with changing societal standards, norms and cultural traditions. It is enough to compare yourself with your parents. For instance, nowadays, things which have been considered as normal among youth had been considered as abnormal among previous generations.

Statistical definition: Normal distribution has particular features. For example, if you get less than 70 or more than 130 mark in each background you would be odd, but you are not considered as abnormal. This definition can be useful for measuring the capabilities of a person not for sensitive areas like a person’s personality of mental illness.

Clinical definition: Being abnormal usually come with incompatibility and odd behaviors. According to clinical psychologist, the difference between normal and abnormal person is almost mentally. They have been trying to find a way by which can exactly determine the difference.[1]

One of the important criterion for being abnormal is having irrational thoughts, according to clinical psychologists. This means, if a person has irrational belief about the universe is considered as abnormal.

Islamic definition: If you know yourself, nature, abilities, capabilities and the reason why you have created by Allah (SW) you would reach to the welfare goal which is achieving the greatest happiness in hereafter. In other word, if you know yourself you would know Allah, the Almighty. According to Islam, normal behavior is to obey Allah and disobey the faithless and the hypocrites. In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “There is certainly a good exemplar for you in them for those who look forward to Allah and the Last Day and anyone who refuses to comply [should know that] indeed Allah is the All-sufficient, the All-laudable”.[2] So, if we follow the holy Prophet (pbuh) and the Infallibles (pbuth) behaviors we considered as normal person according to Islam. Our behaviors would be accepted by Allah (SW) if they guided us to the straight path.

Note: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “O you who believe! avoid most of suspicion, for surely suspicion in some cases is a sin And do not spy”. So, we Muslims are supposed not to be Inquisitive about other people’s life.[3]

Conclusion: If you think that she behaves oddly in matters related to family she may act based on her own knowledge got from clinical psychology. If you think her behavior is against Islamic Laws you are just supposed to forbid the way she is behaving in a good manner. According to some of psychologists, being optimistic is much better than being pessimistic. The similar issue can be found in our traditions as the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recommended us to refrain from bad suspicion about Allah (SW) and people.[4]

[1] . Bartlett, Steven (2011).

[2] . Surah al-Mumtahinah, verse 6.

[3] . Surah al-Hujurat, verse 12.

[4] . Qadhaee, Muhammad bin Salama, Sharh Farsi Shahab al-Akhbar (Sayings of the Holy Prophet)), Pg. 357; Sajestani, Abu Davood Suleiman bin Ash’ath, Sunnan Abi Davood, Vol. 4, Pg. 298.


Rules Concerning Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã Prayers

Question 143: Why is the Eid prayer led by one person and the Eid qunut dua led by another person?

Answer 143: The Prayers for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are obligatory during the presence of the Imam, Peace be upon him, and when he has complete freedom of action as well as the fulfillment of other required conditions, but they are approved during the Occultation (Ghaibat) of the Imam, and it is more cautious to offer them individually during the Period of Occultation of the Imam. There is, however, no objection in offering them with Jamã’at with the hope (that it shall be desirable to Allah), and not with intention that it has come down in the Shari’at The time for offering these two prayers is from the rising of the sun to noon. It does not become due if not offered.

They consist of two Rak’ats, in each of the Rak’ats one must recite the Sürat al-Hamd (Chapter 1 of the Quran) and some other Surah of the Quran. It is, however, preferable to recite Surat al-Shams (Chapter 91 of the Quran) in the first Rak’at and Surat aI-Ghãshiyah (Chapter 88 of the Quran) in the second Rak’at, or Surat al-A’la (Chapter 87 of the Quran) in the first Rak’at and Surat al-Shams in the second Rakat. After the recitation of the Surah from the Quran in the first Rak’at, one must recite five Takbirs and five Qunuts, one Qunut being after each Takbir, and in the second Rak’at four Takbirs and four Qunuts, one Qunut being after each Takbir.

In the Qunüt, it is permissible to recite any Dhikr or Du’ã’ like other prayers, and if one recites what is usual, there is no harm; rather, it would be approved, and that is as follows (in Arabic): “Allãhummã ahlal kibriyã’i val ‘azamati va ahlal judi val jabarut va ahlal ‘afwi var rahmah va ahlat taqwâ val maghfirah As’aluka bihaqqi hadhal yowmi ladhi ja ‘altahu lil Musilmeena Eidä va lil Muhammadin sallallãhu alaihi va àlihee dhukhran vasharafan va karãmatan va mazeeda an tusalli ‘alã Muhammadin va Al-i Muhammad va an tudkhilani fi kulli khairin adkhalta feehi Muhammadan va Al-a Muhammad va an tukhrijani min kulli su’in akhrajta minhu Muhammadan va Al-a Muhammad Salawàtuka ‘alaihi va ‘alaihim Allãhummã as’aluka khaira ma sa’laka bihi ‘ibãdukas Salihun va ‘audhu bika mimmasta’ãdha minhu ‘ibãdukal mukhlisun”.

Its English translation is as follows: “O Allah, Possessor of Majesty and Greatness, Possessor of Generosity and Almightiness, Possessor of Forgiveness and Mercy, Possessor of Protection and Pardon, I ask Thee, for the sake of this Day which Thou hast set for Muslims a Day of Rejoicing, and for Muhammad, Blessing be on him and his Progeny, (a source of) treasure, honour, dignity and even more, to send Blessing to Muhammad and his Progeny, and to enter me (or my name) in every good deed, Thou hast entered in it (the names of) Muhammad and Muhammad’s Progeny, and remove me (or my name) from every evil, Thou hast removed from it (the names of) Muhammad and Muhammad’s Progeny, Thy Blessing be on him and them. O Allah, I ask Thee for every good thing asked for by Thy pious Devotees, and seek of Thee for the refuge sought for by Thy pure Devotees.”

If a group of people offers these two prayers with Jamã’at with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), the Imam shall deliver two Sermons after offering them with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah). It is permissible to give up both these prayers during the

Period of Occultation (of the Twelfth Imam). (When these prayers are offered), it is permissible to recite the words loudly by the Imam (when offered with Jamãat), or by the individual (when offered individually). It is also approved to raise the hands at the time of reciting the Takbirs, and offer it in large open spaces excepting Mecca. It is disapproved to offer these prayers under a roof.

Like all other Jama’ats, the Imam is not responsible in these prayers for anything except recitation.

If a person doubts about the number of the Takbirs or Qunuts (in these prayers), and the doubt occurs in its proper place (of compensation), he shall decide in favour of the minimum.

If a person does something entailing the performance of the prostration for error, it is more cautious to perform the prostration for error with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), though its non-obligation, when the prayer be considered to be approved, (and not obligatory), is not devoid of force. The same is the case with the compensation for a forgotten Tashahhud or prostration

In the prayers for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhà, there is neither a call for prayer (Adhãn), nor a call for standing for prayer (Iqamah). Of course, it is approved for the Muadhdhin (one who calls for prayer) to call (loudly) three times: ‘Assalat’ (i.e., The prayer is ready).[1]

According to an obligatory precaution, it is said that two sermons (khutbas) be delivered after Eid prayer (in regards to the Jummah prayer, another difference is that the khutbah is delivered before prayer and with Eid prayer the khutbah is delivered after the prayer), and it is better the sermons should explain rules regarding Zakatul Fitr.

– If you are going to offer it individually, you must recite the whole Dhikrs by yourself.

– If you want to offer it in congregation, some of its Dhikrs are recited by the Imam and others by you and the Imam simultaneously.

– When the Imam of prayer is reciting Surah al-Hamd and al-Ikhlas (or al-A’la) others just listen and don’t recite these Surahs by themselves.

– Other Dhikrs such as Takbirs, dua in Qunut, Ruku, Sujood and Tashahhod are being recited by the Imam of Prayer and all Mamomeen altogether.

– Since this prayer comes only once a year, there is often difficulties about how to offer this prayer and recite the dua in Qunut. So, a mukabbir (one who pronounces takbir) is usually recite this dua in order to help others recite this dua correctly. However, the Imam of prayer and all Mamoneen are reciting it by themselves.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Zakat of Fitrah, Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies), answer 045.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

[1] . Tahrir al-Wasiah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Rules Concerning Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã Prayers.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masail (without annotation), Roohollah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pgs. 824 & 825 question 1516, 1519 & 1520.


Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer

Question 579: Hi. I have heard that Muslim can make Dua during Sajdah in his own language while praying. Is this true?

In which position that Dua would be recited. Will it be while saying Subhana rabbi al awla in Sajdah?

Answer 579: The followings are the answers of our maraja’ regarding this issue:

Imam Khomeini (ra), Ayatollah Araki (ra) Ayatollah Noori Hamedani:

There would be no problem to recite dua in any language other than Arabic while praying.[1]

Ayatollah Bahjat (ra):

Reciting dua or dikr in any language which is specialized for the person offering prayer is permissible, though it is against the precaution.[2]

Ayatollah Tabrizi (ra), Khoei, Shobairi Zanjani, Safi, Golpayegani and Vahid Khorasani:

There would be no problem to recite dua while praying, however you are supposed not to recite it in other than Arabic langage, according to a recommended precaution.[3]

Ayatollah Khamenei:

There is no problem to recite dua in any language during the prayer.[4]

Ayatollah Sistani:

Reciting Dua during the prayers is permissible. However, the recommended precaution is that one should not read Duas in any language other than Arabic.[5]

Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra):

Reciting dua during the prayer is permissible, however it should be recited in Atabic language, according to an obligatory precaution.[6]

Ayatollah Makarem:

It is impermissible to recite dua in any language other than Arabic.[7]

Note: It is obligatory to recite Dhikr in prostration as mentioned under Rukü’, the major Tasbih here being: Subhana rabbiyal a’lã va bi hamdihi.[8]

It is mustahab to recite dua in the last sajdah of the prayer. In this regards, Imam Ali (as) says: It is not necessary to recite Surah al-Hamd and Ikhlas in Ruku and Sajdah. You are recommended to at first praise Allah, the Almighty and then make dua.[9]

The followings are duas we are recommended to recite. Although, they haven’t exactly mentioned in traditions, but there are some traditions that are related to these duas.

. Ya Latif irham ‘abdika al dhaeef al-Zaleel.[10]

. Ya Wali ul Aafeeya, As’aluka al-Afyiah, Aafyit al-Dunya wal Akhirah.[11]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer.

Index:  Perform our prayers in Arabic language, answer 010.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 154, q. 1135; ibid, Pg. 207, q. 1137; Ibid, Pg. 231, issue. 1136.

[2] . Istiftaat, Vol. 2, Pg. 151, q. 2029.

[3] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 176, q. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 197, issue. 1144; Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 270, issue. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 229, issue. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 199, issue. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 408, issue. 1144.

[4] . New Istiftaat, N. 1, Pg. 16, code: 32304.

[5] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja, Pg. 232, issue. 1122; The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, rules concerning Things which invalidate prayers » Introduction.

[6] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 192, issue. 1154.

[7] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 193, issue. 1016.

[8] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Rules Concerning Sajdah (Prostration).

[9] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 6, Pg. 310.

[10] . Sheikh Sadouq, Man la Yahduruhul Faqih, researcher and editor: Ghafari, Ali Akbar, Vol. 2, Pg. 165; Sayyid bin Tawus, Radi al-Din Ali, al-Iqbal bil Aamal al-Hasanah, researcher and editor: Qayoumi Esfahani, Javad, Vol. 1, Pg. 395.

[11] . Sheikh Sadouq, Oyoun Akhbar al-Rida (as), researcher and editor: Lajvardi, Mahdi, Vol. 2, Pg. 16; al-Iqbal bil Aamal al-Hasanah, Vol. 3, Pg. 39.


Ruling on foods and drinks containing alcohol / Vanilla Extract

Question 578: Salaam, I would like to ask regarding the alcohol contain in vanilla essence or medicine. I read once that the pharmacy alcohol is Pak. So it is safe to use vanilla essence or medicine with pharmaceutical alcohol, right? Please confirm. Jazakallah khair

Answer 578: A similar question has sent to the office of grand jurists and the answers that have been received are as follows:

Ayatollah Khamenei:

Generally speaking, the alcohol which is not determined whether or not it is originally intoxicating or not, is ritually clean and is treated as such. There is no problem in using the liquids which contain alcohol and if one doubts whether the alcohol is intoxicating or not, it is treated as clean. So, if the alcohol is not intoxicating and it is not in a liquid form either, it is halal.[1]

Ayatollah Sistani:

All kinds of alcohol whether derived from wood or other sources are pure (tãhir). Therefore, the food in whose preparation alcohol was used is tãhir except for when it causes drunkenness, in which case, the ruling which will apply to it would be different; it would be haram to use it. God knows best.

Considering that vanilla extract contains 35% alcohol, it is not permissible to use its extract![2] But, if the alcohol used in it is so minute that it dissolves in it, there would be no problem to use it.[3]

Q: Alcohol is used in the production of many drugs and medications: Is it permissible to take them? Are they considered pure (tãhir)?

A: They are pure; and since the alcohol used in them is so minute that it dissolves in them, it is therefore permissible to take them also.[4]

Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi:

Considering the high quantity of alcohol in it, it is necessary to avoid it.

Alcohols are divided into two groups: Alcohol that is produced through chemical processes and the one produced through distillation and fermentation. Since ethanol is an industrial alcohol, we will take a look at some facts about industrial alcohol:

The truth of the matter is that industrial alcohol shares the same formula fermented alcohol has (C2H5OH). The difference between the two though, is that industrial alcohol isn’t considered khamr, while distilled alcohol, since it comes from the distillation of khamr, might be considered khamr itself.

The common viewpoint among the ulema is that any intoxicating substance that is originally liquid is najis. The question is, does industrial alcohol fall under this category or not?

According to the common viewpoint here, it seems that industrial alcohol can’t be considered an intoxicant although it is used in intoxicating drinks. The reason that it isn’t considered an intoxicant isn’t that they add poisonous and foul-smelling substances such as methanol to it, but because it is so dense and concentrated that if no additives are added to it, drinking even a little is poisonous, this is why this substance (industrial alcohol) isn’t considered as an intoxicant by the people (urf).[5]

Other Translation:

نمایه: حکم ترکیبات الکل یا ژلاتین در مواد غذایی، سوال شماره 32.

[1] . Tawdzīh al-Masā’il of Marāja‘, Vol.1, Pg.145; Istiftā’āt by Ayatollah Khamenei, q.  302,304,305,306,307(Published by Jameh Mudarrasin).

[2] . For further information in this regards, please refer to IslamQuest Website.

[3] .  The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Question & Answer » Eating & Drinking.

[4] . Ibid.

[5] The Hawza website, the page of the E-library on Alcohol and its products.


Miracles of the Prophet Noah (as) in the Holy Quran

Question 499: what is the miracle of prophet Noah mentioned in chapter 11 verse 28? I haven’t seen anything in the Qur’an specifically that mentions exactly what it is or in any hadith.

Answer 499: When People of the Prophet Noah told Him: ‘We do not see you to be anything but a human being like ourselves.’ the Prophet (as) answered: “O my people! tell me if I have with me clear proof from my Lord, and He has granted me mercy from Himself and it has been made obscure to you; shall we constrain you to (accept) it while you are averse from it?” When they told Him: “We do not see anyone following you except those who are simpleminded riffraff from our midst. Nor do we see that you have any merit over us. Rather we consider you to be liars”, He said: “O my people! I do not ask you any material reward for it. My reward lies only with Allah. But, I will not drive away those who have faith. Indeed they will encounter their Lord. But I see that you are an ignorant lot”. [1]

In order to call people to salvation, keep them to the right path and prove these missions each Prophet (as) has certainly come to His people with the Truth, Clear Signs and Miracles from Allah, the Almighty.

In the holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “Has there not come to you the account of those who were before you the people of Noah,” Ad and Thamoud, and those who were after them, whom no one knows [well] except Allah? Their apostles brought them manifest proofs, but they did not respond to them, and said,” We disbelieve in what you have been sent with. Indeed we have grave doubts concerning that to which you invite us.””. [2]

Although, Miracles of the Prophet Noah (as) have not clearly mentioned in the Holy Quran, but if we interpret some verses of the Holy Quran and refer to some authentic sources available in this regards we would find miracles some of which are as follows:

  1. Being Signaled and Revealed about the Storm and Saved and delivered from: In the holy Quran Allah (SWT says: “So We delivered him and the Inmates of the Ark, and made it a sign to the nations”.[3] Also, Allah, the Almighty says: “When Our edict came and the oven gushed [a stream of water], We said,” Carry in it a pair of every kind [of animal], along with your family except those [of them] against whom the edict has already been given and those who have faith.” And none believed with him except a few.”
  2. Build the Ark (at a place where there was no sea) that saved Him and those with Him: “In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “Build the ark before Our eyes and by Our revelation, and do not plead with Me for those who are wrongdoers: they shall indeed be drowned.”[4]
  3. Long Life: None of the Prophets (as) have lived a lifetime as the Prophet Noah. He had lived more than 2500 years, though His strength had never decreased through the ages neither His teeth fell out.[5]

Note: The Prophet Noah had been Guided and Preached His People for nine hundred and fifty years[6], but He lived about 2500 years.  [7]

[1] . Surah Hud, verses 27-29;  Tafsir al-Mizan Vol. 10, Pgs. 304-307.

[2] . Surah Ebrahim, verse 9.

[3] . Surah Ankabout, verse 15.

[4] . Surah Momenoon, verse 27.

[5] . According to Tha’labi, living long time (more than 1000 years old) is a Miracle of the Prophet Noah. History of the Prophets (as), Pg. 65.

[6] . Surah Ankaboot, verse 14.

[7] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 11, Pg. 284, (quoted by Sheikh Sadouq in Amali), Pg. 287;  Majma al-Bahrain, Pg. 1367, second edition, Tehran, office of Farhang Islami Publication.


The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) in Ghadir Khumm

Question 470: Did the Holy Prophet (s) mean political authority or religious and mystical authority (Wilayah) in the event of Ghadir Khumm?

Answer 470:  According to Shiites, there is no doubt that the Wilayah (guardianship/authority) of the Commander of the Faithful that was announced and stressed by the Holy Prophet (s) in the event of Ghadir and on many other occasions before and after Ghadir[1] includes all the cases where the Messenger of Allah (s) maintained wilayah (authority). Considering that the Prophet (s) established and led a government, we entertain no doubt that political authority or discretion over political affairs was one of the main aspects of his authority.

If we are to deal with your question in a more elaborate and detailed manner, we must say that in view of what happened after the Messenger of Allah (s) with the caliphate being denied to its principal owner, it was not justifiable for the general public in the succeeding generations to see the reign of government given to someone else in spite of all the explicit and implicit evidence which proved the right of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) to the caliphate. For this reason, the authors who were inclined to the predominant intellectual cult tried, as far as they could, to avoid mentioning the merits and privileges of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s) in their works. At times, they have sufficed to mentioning the selected parts, and if there was a mutawatir (narrator by many reporters) tradition which they could not deny, they would embark on justifying and interpreting them in a way such that would fit their own theological dogmas.

The Ghadir tradition is one of the traditions mentioned partially in the authentic Sunni books because it was not possible for them to sensor it completely.[2] The explicit statements by the Holy Prophet (s) with reference to the wilayah of Imam Ali (a.s.) are some of the proofs that have been authenticated in most of these books. Obviously, studying a narration with such explicitness and clarity begs the question: Why was Imam Ali (a.s.) denied political leadership despite the Prophet’s sayings? That is where the justification comes to the scene with the wilayah in hadith interpreted as mystical authority or just as mere friendship and love. Such justifications have also been used in regards to other similar traditions. For instance, they say that the Prophet (s) introduced Ali (a.s) like Harun (Aeron). That is to say, Ali (a.s) is the Prophet’s vizier and there is a difference between vizier and successor! Therefore, Ali (a.s) is not the Prophet’s successor, rather he was his vizier during his lifetime and his viziership came to an end with the demise of the Prophet (s)!

Now, regardless of what Shiites believe, we shall, with reliance on Sunni books, discuss the Ghadir issue. In the event of Ghadir Khumm, the Prophet (s) first asked Muslims: “Who is more appropriate for authority (awla) over you than yourselves?”

They replied: “God and His Messenger.”

Thereupon, the Prophet (s) declared that Ali (a.s) was like him in all terms. In other words, Ali had the same trait and authority that the Prophet (s) had. He addressed the Muslim gathering as such: “Of whomsoever I am a master, this Ali is his master.” It is interesting to know that following this event, Umar, the second caliph, came forward and said to Ali (a.s.): “Congratulations! You have become our master and the master of every believing man and every believing woman.”[3]

Another incident that is also endorsed by Sunni scholars and has been related in their reliable books is the story related to the Battle of Tabook. “The Messenger of God took a journey to Tabook, and he appointed Ali to succeed him in Medina. Ali said to the Prophet: `Do you leave me with the children and the women (and deprive me of taking part in the Jihad)?’ The Messenger replied: `Are you not satisfied to be to me like Aaron to Moses, except that there shall be no Prophet after me?'”[4] In fact, if the Prophet intended mystical wilayah (authority) in Ghadir, he could not have meant anything but political wilayah.

These two stories beg two basic questions:

  1. Did the Holy Prophet’s question (who is more precious and appropriate for authority over you than yourselves) relate to mystical authority only? Did it not include political authority so that we may consider the authority that was mentioned thereafter as only mystical, not political?
  2. If the answer to the first question is in the negative and wilayah in the Ghadir tradition includes both mystical and political authority, then that is the point we want to assert and we do not need to further prolong the discussion. But if they still insist that the declared wilayah in Ghadir is mystical only, then the second question arises as follows: We have a person after the Prophet (s) who is at a high mystical rank and is also the bravest man militarily. He was considered to be the commander of the Prophet’s army and has been his successor during the Battle of Tabook in the last years of the Prophet’s life. He had also at times been tackling and administering the affairs of people in Yemen. Such a person is worthy of taking the government and the authority after the Prophet. Additionally, no party believed that the Prophet had appointed any particular person as his successor or as caliph after him, otherwise vowing allegiance to Ali (a.s.) would have been opposed to the command of the Messenger of Allah (s).

Moreover, we see that, as per the Sunni books, this perfect mystic who maintained mystical authority over Muslims opposed the person who had come to power after the demise of the Holy Prophet (s); he did not pledge allegiance to him for six months.[5] Shouldn’t we give importance to his mystical authority in this regard? Is it not violation of the Prophet’s command to be inattentive to his sayings and views? If in such matters, we do not pay attention to the words of a mystic who has authority over us, then what would be the benefit of his mystical authority?!

Hence, we conclude that the declared authority (Wilayah) in Ghadir – be it mystical or political – will not justify the acts of those who prevented Imam Ali (a.s) from reaching the caliphate notwithstanding the fact that we believe that he, like the Holy Prophet (s), enjoyed mystical authority as well as political eligibility. In fact, to bring up such a discussion in regard to the Prophet (s) was not meaningful, nor was it ever propounded by anyone. The big question that arises here is: Based on the Holy Prophet’s explicit statements about Imam Ali (a.s.) having all his traits, is it not strange to surrender the caliphate to someone other than him?![6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida, answer 028.

[1] – On Yawm al-Dar, the Day of Mubahalah, the Battle of Tabook, when some individuals objected to the way he led the contingent led to Yemen etc.

[2] – See: Ahmad bin Hanbal, Al-Musnad, vol.1, pg. 118 – 119, Dar Sadir, Beirut, Ibn Majah Qazvini, Al-Sunan, vol.1, pp.43-45, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut and Sahih Tirmidhi, 1403 A.H., vol.5, pg. 297, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut.

[3] – Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad, vol.4, pg. 281, Dar Sadir, Beirut.

[4] – Bukhari, Sahih, 1401, A.H., vol.5, pg. 129, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut.

[5] – See: Bukhari, Sahih, vol.5, pp.82 & 83.

[6] . The answer adopted from IQ with a few changes has been made on.


Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam

Question 515: Please say that it is a hadith is Islam that you should get you daughter married in a house financially stronger and wealthier than you is that true? What are the Essential Requirements for having a Successful Marriage in Islam?

Brief Answer 515: There is a hadith narrated from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in which He has said: If one gets married to a woman for her property Allah would leave him to her property, if one gets married for her beauty he would see an unpleasant thing inside of his wife and if one gets married to a woman for her religion Allah, the Almighty would collect all of the values (such as property, beauty and etc.) for him.

Some of the important teachings concerning marriage which must be taken into consideration are: ethical and moral adherence of the boy and girl, honesty and truthfulness, genealogical originality and equality of the boy and girl in terms of their cultural, financial, family, scientific and religious status.

Detailed Answer 515: Marriage is one of the beauties of creation and a tradition of all nations and peoples of the world. Islam also attaches great importance to it; it has been looked at from different angles and aspects in a way such that it is considered to be irreplaceable with anything. The conducts and practice of the imams and noble servants of God who have the highest degree of knowledge about Islam well endorse the above. Imam Baqir (a.s.) narrated from the Holy Prophet of Islam as having said: “There has not been created any institution in Islam which is more favored and dearer to Allah than marriage.[1]

The Commander of Faithful, Imam Ali (a.s) said: “Engage in marriage; because this is the tradition of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh).”[2]

The Prophet of Islam and all of the Imams have laid so much emphasis on the institution of marriage that it has been considered to be equal to safeguarding half of one’s religion. The Prophet of Islam, peace be upon him and his family, stated: “Whoever gets married has safeguarded half of his religion.”[3] That is to say, marriage causes a believer’s personality to reach a stage where he safeguards half of his faith. Imam Sadiq (a.s) stated: “Two Rak’ats (units) of a married person’s Salat (prayer) are better than seventy Rak’ats offered by a bachelor.”[4]

All this emphasis implies the extra-ordinary importance attached by Islam to marriage and formation of family. It is a structure in which the first nucleus of a healthy and divine society comes into being. Islam not only attaches importance to marriage itself but also to the way it is formed and continued.[5]

Islam has presented highly valuable guidelines and models for us, and it has explained the characteristics and features of a good spouse and a healthy marriage as shall be enumerated below:

  1. Having real faith and adherence to Islamic moral codes: Such a person, being in communion with God, is reliable. On the other hand, a young man who is not abiding by such principles is not likely to remain faithful to his commitments. Imam Reza (a.s) said: “If a man seeks your hand for marriage and you are happy with his religiosity and moral characteristics, give consent for marriage with him. Do not reject him because of his poverty.”[6]
  1. Having good moral characteristics which cause the parties to the marriage to be happy and have a prosperous family life. It is said in the traditions that a bad spouse leads a person into pre-mature old age.
  2. Honesty and truthfulness: If a man gives promises while seeking a woman’s hand for marriage but he does not remain committed, there would be no trust in their lives.
  3. Genealogical originality: The Holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) said: “Keep away from the grass that grows on dirt i.e. a beautiful woman in a bad family. The Holy Quran says: He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them. According to the verse, the women are a source of comfort and good for men.
  4. Avoiding heavy dowry: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: “The best women of my Ummat (nation) are those who are beautiful in face and less in dowry.”[7]
  5. Cultural, financial, family, scientific and religious equality of man and woman: If a girl is not of equal status to man especially culturally, it will lead to serious problems in the couple’s lives. One should try, as far as he can, to marry someone who is considered to be his/her equal. It is only a faithful Muslim who is the equal of another faithful Muslim. The Holy Prophet said: ““If one with whose religion and character you are pleased comes to you (to seek your daughter’s hand in marriage), then marry (your daughter) to him.”[8]

There is a hadith narrated from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in which He has said: If one gets married to a woman for her property Allah would leave him to her property, if one gets married for her beauty he would see an unpleasant thing inside of his wife and if one gets married to a woman for her religion Allah, the Almighty would collect all of the values (such as property, beauty and etc.) for him. [9]

Conclusion: There is no authentic hadith saying that you are recommended to marry your daughter to one who is wealthier than you or your daughter, whereas the both man and woman who want to get married to each other are supposed to be equal in cultural, financial, family, scientific and religious affairs as well as considering the other important teachings concerning marriage. On the other hand, we can see the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Lady Khadijah (sa) and the other Imams (pbuth) in order to make sure how they got married!

[1] – Ameli, Shaykh Hurr, Wasail al-Shi’ah,  vol.20, pg.13, Aalulbayt (a.s.) Publications.

[2] – Ibid, pg.15.

[3] – Ibid, pg.17.

[4] – Wasail al-Shia, vol.20, pg.20. رَكْعَتَانِ يُصَلِّيهِمَا الْمُتَزَوِّجُ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ رَكْعَةً يُصَلِّيهَا غَيْرُ مُتَزَوِّجٍ

[5] – Question 2478 (site:2619), index: Abandoning Marriage

[6] – Rayshahri, Muhammad, Mizanul Hikmah, vo.4, pg.280, Darul Hadith Publication.

[7] – Question 1300 (site: 1283), Index: The Philosophy of Marriage in Islam

[8] – Nahjul Fasahah, pg. 37, hadith No.193.

[9] . Man La Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 3, Pg. 251; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 51, H 25008.


The sign of Laylatul Qadr, the Night of Power

Question 065: Are there narrations that state that the sky should be completely white during sunrise, in order to confirm Laylatul Qadr? If there is, can you provide the narration(s) and its source(s)? And or are there other indications of confirmation?

Answer 065: When Imam Baqir (a.s) was asked, “What is the Sign of Laylat Al Qadr (The Night of Power)”, he replied:

“علامتها ان یطیب ریحها، و ان کانت فی برد دفئت، و ان کانت فی حر بردت فطابت”

Translation: “The sign for the night of power (Laylatul Qadr) is that a sweet smell of this night is spread everywhere. If it is in the winter its weather will be changed to hot and gentle. If it is during the hot summer it will be changed into the cool and temperate weather”. [1]

According to Allamah Tabatabaee, when the sun rose on the following morning, it had no (visible) rays[2].

Imam Sadiq (as) said: Every year we have the Night of Power. Its days are as the same as its nights.[3]

[1] . Wasaiel al-Shia, Vol. 7, Pg. 256.

[2] . al-Mizan, Vol. 4, Pg. 332.

[3] . al-Fusul al-Muhimmah fee Usul al-Aemmah (Takmilatul Wasael), Vol. 2, Pg. 165; al-Tahzib, Vol. 1, Pg. 445; Biharul Anwar, Vol. 95, Pg. 121.


A Muslim Woman Cannot Marry a Non-Muslim Man

Question 576: Can a Muslim woman marry a Non-Muslim (christian or Jewish) man (interfaith marriage)?

It’s mentioned in Surah Al-Mumtahanah verse 10 “O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. But give the disbelievers what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation. And hold not to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent. That is the judgement of Allah; He judges between you. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.”

In this verse, it shows the marriage of muslim women to the disbelievers (Kuffar) is suspended, in which disbelievers doesn’t include the people of the book (Ahel Al Ketab, Christians and Jewish), because many verses in Quran called Christian and Jewish as Ahel Al ketab but not Kuffar (disbelievers).

Note: The maraja showing different opinions in case if a Muslim man marrying a woman from the People of the Book, are these opinions applied on Muslim women who want to marry a man from the People of the Book?

Answer 576: According to the following verses of the Holy Quran, traditions and fatwas of our maraja, a Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim man.

Verses of the Holy Quran:

  1. As for the unbelievers the holy Quran reject any ways for them to triumph over the believers. “… and Allah will never provide the faithless any way [to prevail] over the faithful.” [1] When it comes to the submission, a woman is supposed to submit unto her husband. If a Muslim woman marry a man from Ahli Kitab the man can influence the wife in the long run. In this regards Imam Sadiq (as) says: A woman is under the influence of her husband. [2] This might be a reason to change her religion.
  2. In other verse of the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “O you who believe! when believing women come to you flying, then examine them Allah knows best their faith Then if you find them to be believing women, do not send them back to the unbelievers Neither are these) women (lawful for them, nor are those) men (lawful for them And give them) former husbands (what they have spent And no blame attaches to you in marrying them when you give them their dowries And hold not to the ties of marriage of unbelieving women and ask for what you have spent, and let them ask for what they have spent That is Allah’s judgment He judges between you And Allah is Knowing, Wise”.[3] In this regards, a man asked Imam Sadiq (as) that my wife has a sister who lives in Basrah city where many people are of religion other than Islam, in this case are we allowed to marry her to one of them? The Imam (as) forbade him according to verse of the holy Quran.[4]
  3. There is another verse of the holy Quran in which Allah, the Almighty says: “… And do not give (believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe And certainly a believing servant is better than an idolater, even though he should please you. These (idolaters) invite to the Fire And Allah invites to the garden and to forgiveness by His will And makes clear His communications to men, that they may be mindful”[5]


The followings are some highly valuable guidelines and models presented by the Infallibles (pbuth) for us to have a good spouse and a healthy marriage:

  1. Having real faith and adherence to Islamic moral codes: Imam Reza (a.s) said: “If a man seeks your hand for marriage and you are happy with his religiosity and moral characteristics, give consent for marriage with him. Do not reject him because of his poverty.”[6]
  2. Cultural, financial, family, scientific and religious equality of man and woman: The Holy Prophet said: ““If one with whose religion and character you are pleased comes to you (to seek your daughter’s hand in marriage), then marry (your daughter) to him.”[7]
  3. Being carefree and inattentive to prayers and hijab and drinking wine mean that the boy is not the equal of a practicing and faithful Muslim girl. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: “If a drinker makes a request for marriage, do not accept him.”[8]

Imam Baqir (as) was asked if we are allowed to marry Ahle Kitab, He said: You are not allowed to do so. The man asked again, what is the reason behind this prohibition? The Imam (as) replied: According to this following verse of the holy Quran: “And hold not to the ties of marriage of unbelieving”. [9]


Imam Khomeini: A Muslim woman cannot marry a Kafir whether permanently or temporarily[10]

Sistani: As for a Muslim woman, she is not allowed to marry a non-Muslim man at all.[11]

Fadhil, Safi, Makarem: A Muslim woman cannot marry a man from Ahle Kitab.[12]

If a non-Muslim woman, who got married to a non-Muslim man, converts to Islam:

Khamenei: She must separate from him and there is no need for the divorce contract.

Sistani: There is no need for the divorce contract and she must separate from him as soon as she embraces Islam.

Makarim: In the case asked about, if her husband does not embrace Islam, she will separate from him.

Saafi: [The woman] needs to finish the waiting period; if her husband embraces Islam by then, the marriage will hold, but if he doesn’t, then the wife separates from him without the divorce contract and the marriage is terminated.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index:  Rules regarding temporary or permanent marriage with people of the book, answer 080.

[1] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 141.

[2] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 348.

[3] . Surah al-Mumtahinah, verse 10.

[4] . Sheikh Hurr Ameli, Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 14, Pg. 424, chapter 10, Abwab ma Yohramo Bil Kufr, H. 4.

[5] . Surah al-Baqarah, verse 221.

[6] – Rayshahri, Muhammad, Mizanul Hikmah, vo.4, pg.280, Darul Hadith Publication.

[7] – Nahjul Fasahah, pg. 37, hadith No.193.

[8] – Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasail al-Shi’ah, vol.20, pg.79, Aalulbayt Publications.

[9] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 534, H. 4, # 26275.

[10] . Tahril al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 2, Kitab al-Nikah, Pgs. 254-258.

[11] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, Marriage » Questions and Answers.

[12] . Tawzih al-Masael (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 2, Pg. 468. The official website of the office of Ayatollah Makarem.


Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr

Question 384: Salam Alaikum! There is someone who lives in Stockholm and they work there too. But they decided during The Month Of Ramadhan to live outside the city, which that city is 50 km aways from Stockholm .But I know they can fast if they travel after Salat Aldhur ; here is the question, will the traveler’s Salat be Qasar or tamam?

My Marja: Ayatollah Al-Udhma Sayed Ali Al-Sistani

Answer 384: If they travel after Dhuhr (noon) their fast is treated as valid. If they have decided to stay in that city for 10 days they would have to offer their prayers tamam and fast till they are there for 10 days. Otherwise, they should offer their prayers Qasr and not to fast other days in this state.

According to Sayyid Sistani (ha), if a fasting person travels after Zuhr, he should, as a precaution, complete his fast. If he travels before Zuhr and had an intention from the previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that day. As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day even if he had no intention to travel from the previous night. In both the cases, he cannot break the fast till he has reached the limit of Tarakkhus. If he does, he will be liable to give Kaffarah.

If a traveller in the month of Ramadhan, regardless of whether he was travelling before Fajr, or was fasting and then undertook the journey, reaches his hometown before Zuhr or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, and if has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, he should fast on that day. But if he has committed such an act, it is not obligatory on him to fast on that day.

If after covering a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, the traveller abandons the journey, and if he decides to remain at that place, or to return after 10 days, or is undecided about returning or staying there, he should offer full prayers.

If a person abandons the journey after reaching a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, and decides to return, he should offer shortened prayers even if he wants to stay there for less than 10 days.

For the shar’i distance needed to travel in order for one’s prayer to become shortened, the fuqaha (Jurisprudents) have various rulings. Some say the distance necessary is approximately 22.5 kilometers.[1] Others say that the distance is approximately 21.5 kilometers.[2] Another group says that it is approximately 22 kilometers.[3]

A Farsakh is equal to three miles, while a mile is equal to four thousand cubits, whose length is equal to the breadth of twenty four fingers, and each finger is equal to the width of seven grains of barley, and each barley is equal to the breadth of seven average hair of a Turkish horse (or a pony). If the distance is less than that, even if to a minimal extent, the person on journey shall offer unreduced prayer.[4]

Note: A traveler for whom it is obligatory to shorten a four Rak’ats prayers to two Rak’ats, should not fast. However, a traveler who offers full prayers, like, a person who is a traveler by profession or who goes on a journey for a haram purpose, should fast while travelling.[5]

[1] Imam Khomeini, Ayatullahs Bahjat, Khamenei, Fadhil Lankarani, Safi and Nouri. Tawdhihul-Masa’el (of Marja’s), vol. 1, issue 1272.

[2] Makarem Shirazi, Tawzihul-Masa’el (of Maraji’), vol. 1, pg. 684.

[3] Tabrizi, Sistani and Vahid Khorasani, Minhajul-Salehin, issue 884.

[4] . The Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Prayers of a traveller » Prayers of a traveller (Musafir) & Fasting by a traveler; Tahrir al-Wasila of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on a Traveler’s Prayers and its Relevant Rules.

[5] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Fasting » Fasting by a traveller.


Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast

Question 575: Does using an asthma inhaler break your fast? It’s a puff of medicine that you breathe into your lungs.

Answer 575: Since, the puffer uses a compressed gas that is used by the patient, which reaches the lungs via the trachea to expand the lungs, is not food or drink or anything resembling them there would be no problem for a person observing fast to use asthma inhaler during the day. His fast is not broken by using this kind of medicine, according to all maraja’.[1]

Note: There are many kinds of medication for asthma, some of which invalidate the fast and some do not. The most well-known of these medicines and treatments are puffers, oxygen, vaporizers and capsules that do not break the fast.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 892, Issue: 1576; Ibid, Pg. 893, Sistani; The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Dialogue on miscellaneous issues.


Rules concerning Janabat during the holy month of Ramadan

Question 394: What is the ruling on Ehtelam in Ramadan? If a person doesn’t perform ghusal before Imsak then what about the Fasting? And if a person is taking a nap afternoon, and something like this (2-3 drops not sperms) happens, what is he supposes to do, is ghusal wajib on him? and what about that fasting, is it makrooh, haram, batil? A friend needs help 🙂 Jurisprudent: Ayatollah Sayed Khamenai or Sistani I guess.

Answer 394: If a person enters the state of Janabat during a night in the month of Ramadhan, and does not take Ghusl intentionally till the time left before Adhan is short, he/she should perform tayammum and observe the fast. However, it is a recommended precaution that its qadha is also given.

If a person in Janabat in the month of Ramadhan forgets to take Ghusl and remembers it after one day, he should observe the qadha of the fast of that day. And if he remembers it after a number of days he should observe the qadha of the fasts of all those days, during which he is certain to have been in Janabat. For example, if he is not sure whether he was in Janabat for three days or four, he should observe the qadha of three days.

If a person who does not have time for Ghusl or performing tayammum in a night of Ramadhan gets into state of Janabat, his fast will be void and it will be obligatory upon him to give qadha of that fast, as well as Kaffarah.

If a person investigates whether or not he has enough time at his disposal, and believing that he has time for Ghusl, goes into state of Janabat and when he learns later that actually the time was short, he performs tayammum, his fast will be in order. And if he presumes without any investigation that he has enough time at his disposal and gets into Janabat and when he learns later that the time was short, keeps the fast with tayammum, he should, as a recommended precaution, observe the qadha of that fast.

If a person investigates whether or not he has enough time at his disposal, and believing that he has time for Ghusl, goes into state of Janabat and when he learns later that actually the time was short, he performs tayammum, his fast will be in order. And if he presumes without any investigation that he has enough time at his disposal and gets into Janabat and when he learns later that the time was short, keeps the fast with tayammum, he should, as a recommended precaution, observe the qadha of that fast.

When a person in Janabat goes to sleep in a night of Ramadhan and then wakes up, the obligatory precaution is that if he is not sure about waking up again, he should not go to sleep before Ghusl, even if he has a faint hope that he might wake up before Fajr if he sleeps again.

If a person in Janabat in the night of Ramadhan feels certain that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before the time of Fajr prayers, and is determined to do Ghusl upon waking up, and oversleeps with that determination till the time of Fajr prayers, his fast will be in order. And the same rule applies to a person who, though not absolutely certain, is hopeful about waking up before the time of Fajr prayers.

Ihtilam During Day Time: If a person observing fast becomes Mohtalim during day time, it is not obligatory on him to do Ghusl at once.

When a person wakes up in the month of Ramadhan after the Fajr prayers and finds that he has become Mohtalim his fast is in order, even if he knows that he became Mohtalim before the Fajr prayers.

Note: There are three characteristics of semen as follows: 1) A sticky liquid that smells like dough. 2) Its color is milky with a hint of either green or yellow. 3) It is ejaculated when orgasm is reached, after which the body feels relaxed.

There must exist three characteristics for it to be called semen. They are: Sexual desire, ejaculation, and resultant relaxation of the body. In sick people, however, sexual desire is sufficient. So, if you saw the drops (as you are sure it is not sperm) that has not the above mentioned sings of the three characteristics it would not regarded as sperm and then no need to perform Jinabat ghusl. As a result, your fast is in order.

When one cannot ascertain whether the fluid emitted from one’s body is semen, urine or something else, it will be treated as semen if it is thrown out with lust and if the body is slackened. If all or some of these signs are not present the fluid will not be treated as semen. In the case of illness, the fluid may not come out with sudden swiftness and the body may not slacken; but if the emission takes place with lust, it will be treated as semen.

So, if he becomes sure the drop is semen or any other najas thing the clothes is treated as impure. Otherwise, it is considered as clean. As a result, if it is not semen performing ghusl is not obligatory upon him.[1]

For further information regarding Kaffarah, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

[1] . Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Fasting, Remaining in Janabat or Haidh or Nifas till Fajr time;  Ayatollah Khamenei (ha), Ajwabat al-Istiftaat, Q 180; Ibid, Istiftaat, rules concerning Jinaba ghusl, Q 177, Pg. 229.


Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam

Question 196: If a person reverts to Islam and they were unaware of fasting during their first Ramadan and missed the obligatory fasting, what should be done? Should they make up the fasts (qada) and pay kaffarah or can they just pay the kaffarah?

Answer 196: If it was not done deliberately and willingly there would be no obligatory on him to give Kaffarah. He must observe the Qada only. Because, commission of the things which invalidate fast are a cause of expiation in the same way as they make it obligatory to compensate for it, when it is done deliberately and willingly without any coercion.

According to Ayatollah Sistani (ha), it is obligatory on him to observe the Qada only.[1]

If an unbeliever becomes Muslim, it is not obligatory on him to offer qada for the fasts of the period during which he was an unbeliever. However, if a Muslim apostatises and becomes Muslim again, he must observe qadha for the fasts of the period during which he remained an apostate.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

[1] . Tawzihul Masael of maraja, Vol. 1, Pg. 891, question 1572; Tahrirul Wasilah of Imam Khomeni (English version), Pg. 324; This question has been asked the Office of Sayyid Sistani (ha) by

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, Rules regarding the Qadha fasts.


How to Repent from Sins committed in the month of Ramadan

Question 139: I have done a very bad sin in the month of Ramadan. I went to the masjid for fajr on drugs. Everyone knew I was high. How do I repent from this sin and how do I stay on the straight path?

Answer 139: There are several aspects to your question that need to be addressed including the following:

  • Method of Repentance
  • Medical Issues of Addiction
  • Issues Related to Fasting
  • Public vs. Private Sins
  • The Issue of Hopelessness

Method of Repentance: There are some elements necessary to achieve repentance. One of the methods is knowledge. “…those of His servants only who are possessed of knowledge fear Allah Surely Allah is Mighty, Forgiving.”[1]

Realization of the serious sinful nature of intoxication and its consequences is an important element. Substance abuse is particularly dangerous to one’s soul because it can lead to a host of other sins, lead to bad deeds becoming more fair-seeming, afflict one’s ability to feel the weight of ones sins, and contribute to hopelessness in Allahs (swt) mercy. Imam Al-Ridha (as) said, “Allah (swt) forbade the drinking of wine, since it causes corruption, disturbance and intoxication of the mind and becomes the cause of all the sins including: murdering, falsely accusing chaste woman of adultery, committing adultery, lessening abstinence, and refraining from forbidden deeds.[2]

Consuming intoxicants is mentioned as one of the greater sins, “They ask you about intoxicants and the games of chance. Say, in both of them there is a great sin and means of profit for men, and their sin is greater than their profit.”[3]

Another method is regret or remorse, as it states in the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) says, “And He it is who accepts repentance from His servants and pardons the evil deeds and He knows what you do”.[4] Another method is a strong will and intention. Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (as) said, “A man never gets weak if he is strengthened with a firm intention (will).”[5]

Another method is doing extraordinary good deeds which cause forgiveness of bad deeds. Just as it states in the holy Quran, “And keep up prayer in the two parts of the day and in the first hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds. This is a Reminder to the mindful.”[6]

To set these elements in place, one must continually work for and pray for his/her increase in correct knowledge of the straight path. Upon realizing one’s sin one should feel sincere regret and remorse over the action, not just in getting caught at it, and one should make a clear intention, resolve and plan to reform.

Once someone said in front of Imam Ali (as), “Astaghfirullah” (I ask Allah’s forgiveness), then Imam Ali (as) said, “Your mother may lose you! Do you know what ‘istighfar’ (asking Allah’s forgiveness) is?”[7]

‘Astighfar’ is meant for people of a high position. It is a word that stands on six meanings:

To repent over the past.

To make a firm determination never to revert to it.

  • To discharge all the rights of the people so that you may meet Allah quite clean with nothing to account for.
  • To fulfill every obligatory act which you ignored (in the past) so that you may now do justice with it.
  • To aim at the flesh grown as a result of unlawful earning, so that you may melt it by grief (of repentance) till the skin touches the bone and a new flesh grows between them.
  • To make the body taste the pain of obedience as you (previously) made it taste the sweetness of disobedience. On such occasion you may say: ‘astaghfirullah’.[8]

Medical Issues of Addiction: In the case of drug abuse, in addition to sincere repentance, one may have another issue to address. Several substances commonly abused by drug users may cause addiction. Addiction can be very powerful and may in some cases not be addressed through strength of will alone. One who is sincerely resolved to quit drug abuse may need to pursue medical and/or psychological assistance to achieve success. Without knowing individual details of this case, it is not possible to recommend particular resources but only to suggest that they might be needed. If such steps are needed, fulfilling them would be a necessary part of true and successful repentance.

Issues Related to Fasting: There may be concern about the validity of one’s fasts when under the influence of a drug. If a person eats or drinks something during the time period of fasting, this breaks one’s fast and requires both Qada (making up the fast) and kaffarah:

If a person eats or drinks something intentionally, while being conscious of fasting, his fast becomes void.[9]

In the following situations, both Qada and Kaffarah become obligatory, provided these acts are committed intentionally, voluntarily and without any force or pressure, during the fasts of Ramadan: (i) Eating and (ii) Drinking. If one committed such acts but didn’t know the rules concerning those acts which void his\her fast there would be no need to pay Kaffarah.

Making his\her fast up is sufficient in this matter. (Note: if one was able to know and learn the rule but didn’t, one must compensate and pay Kaffarah as well, according to Ayatollah Sistani (ha).

The kaffarah of leaving out a fast of Ramadan is to: (a) free a slave, or (b) fast for two months or (c) feed sixty poor to their fill (or give one mudd 3/4 kg.) of food-stuff, like wheat or barley or bread etc. to each of them. If it is not possible for him to fulfill any of these, he should give sadaqa according to his means and seek divine forgiveness. And the obligatory precaution is that he should give Kaffarah when he is capable to do so.[10]

If a person breaks his fast with something haram, whether it is haraam in itself, like wine or adultery or has become haram due to some reason, such as any food which is normally permissible but it is injurious to his health, or if he has sexual intercourse with his wife during haidth, he will have to observe all three Kaffarah, as a recommended precaution. It means that he should set free a slave, fast for two months and also feed sixty poor to their fill, or give one mudd of wheat, barley, bread etc. to each of them. If it is not possible for him to give all the three Kaffarah, he should perform any one of Kaffarah which he can possibly give.

Islamic Laws / Smoking during the time of fasting: It is an obligatory precaution not to allow the smoke of cigarettes and tobacco and the like to reach the throat while fasting.

Ayatullah Khamenei: As an obligatory precaution, smoking isn’t permissible while fasting.

Ayatullah Makarem Shirazi: It is an obligatory precaution that one who is fasting abstains from smoking cigarettes and all tobacco products, in addition to not allowing thick smoke reach his throat. Going to the shower where there is steam is okay.

Ayatullah Bahjat: The fast not being broken by dust or smoke that isn’t thick, isn’t a substitute for food and isn’t tonic, isn’t devoid of reason, although abstaining is ahwat (in accordance with precaution).

Ayatullah Nouri: The fasting individual must abstain from thick steam that changes back to liquid in the mouth and also, as per obligatory precaution, must not allow the smoke of cigarettes and tobacco products and the like to reach his throat.

Ayatullah Zanjani: In the holy month of Ramadan, smoking and using tobacco products openly in a way that is disrespectful to the fast is impermissible, and if it isn’t disrespectful, it is still impermissible as per precaution. In the case of an individual smoking, he should still abstain from all other invalidators of the fast until Iftar, and also must perform the Qada (make up for) that day.[11]

Ayatollah Sistani: Smoking during the time of fasting invalidates the fast. Injections do not necessarily break one’s fast unless the substance being injected is in place of food, for hydration, or is in itself the intoxicant.

Keeping all this in mind, if the drug was consumed during the period of fasting, it is possible that the fast was voided and Qada and Kaffarah may be called for. If the drug was consumed during the night, it is possible the fast is still in order unless ones intoxication resulted in something else that voids one’s fast. If one has questions about a specific case, a follow-up question may help clarify.

Public vs. Private Sins: Committing a sin in public can be of particular concern if it contributes to corruption of others. If one is inviting others to join in the sin, this is a further sin upon the first sin. Although the drug was not consumed publicly, being under its influence publicly provides evidence of the sin to others. Absent the condition of other persons knowing of the sin, then the public sin is the same as a private sin.

It is important to remember that Allah (swt) is Omnipresent and we cannot in truth, hide our sins. We should be more concerned about Allah (swt) witnessing our sins. We must strive to increase dhikr (remembrance) of God at all times, and remember that it is His opinion that matters, not the opinion of people. Good deeds performed so that others will notice are of little benefit and sometimes even harmful to one’s soul. In some cases where people are more concerned about the opinion of other people, instead of God’s, this can be a form of shirk (polytheism).

The Issue of Hopelessness: Hopelessness or despair can often be associated with addiction or drug abuse because of the great effects it has on one’s soul and the difficulties many experience in conquering it. It is known as the second greatest sin after polytheism. Amirul-Mu’minin (as) said to the man who was prevailed by despair of God’s mercy out of his many sins, “You, to despair of the mercy of Allah is the greatest sin that you have ever committed.”[12] “…and despair not of Allah’s Mercy; surely none despairs of Allah’s Mercy except the unbelieving people.”[13]

In conclusion, we have tried to address in detail the question, how to repent and avoid such a situation in the future and include resources for further assistance.

In some situations, some outside help may be necessary to overcome drug, alcohol, and tobacco addiction, in addition to the spiritual and repentance measures that must be taken, for the sake of your soul and Allahs (swt) pleasure. There might also be some underlying psychological issues stemming from either clinical or situational depression or other issues with mental health, in which case a licensed professional could be utilized to deal with those underlying issues. You will be able to find such help in your local areas by the suggestion or referral of your primary care physician.

Warding off Bad Thoughts: The relationship is always mutual. Our relationship with God is sometimes severed and cut off or tend to become weak; but He is always everywhere with us. God, the Exalted says, “And He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah sees well all that ye do.”[14] Hence, if our connection with God becomes weak, we must look for the cause or setback. It has been said that the best way to get friendly with someone is to be in touch with them more often. Psychologically, this point has been considered to be undeniable and without a shred of doubt.

We must try to find what has created a distance between us and God. Sometimes arrogance, haughtiness, jealousy, feeling of needlessness and other sins which originate in the mind, create a distance between us and God. That is to say, the thinking power has been paralyzed in the sense that it cherishes only bad thoughts. Sometimes, some sins are committed by organs and limbs causing an obstruction (barrier) between us and God.

As you have stated in your message, it is likely that your separation from God may originate in those thoughts. Since, there is a thought behind every action, and an action beyond knowledge, we should control the mind and not let everything enter it. Although such an action seems to be difficult, the results are very positive.

Sometimes, the thoughts that enter the mind come from the Shaitan which should be warded off and repelled immediately because they force man into action. God, the Exalted says, “And most surely the Shaitans suggest to their friends that they should contend with you.”[15] Therefore, one should prevent satanic thoughts from entering his mind.

One of the biggest and most important factors that leads man away from God and causes him to become negligent are unwanted memories.”[16]

Some of these ungodly memories have so much influence on the individual that he loses his concentration amid performing the best act of worship i.e. prayer. It is therefore necessary to prevent the growth and development of such memories. The memories develop gradually as a result of talking and speaking with someone, listening, being in some gatherings, reading some magazines etc. When they get profuse and accumulated, they create some sort of enthusiasm. Finally, they become part of a man’s secondary habit coming easily to his mind and causing him to be oblivious of God. For this reason, those who have a materialistic mindset are constantly seeking worldly pleasures.[17]

As was said earlier, it is necessary to prevent such thoughts from entering the mind and one should endeavor to ward off those thoughts that are coming to his mind. The Qur’an gives a solution; (one should guard himself against evil things and remember God. He should be careful as to where he goes, what he reads, listens, eats and wears. When he takes care of all these, gradually, zikr (remembrance) of God will be instilled in his heart and thereupon, good memories will be formed in his mind. For this reason, the Qur’an suggests “remembering God” as a way for coming out of negligence and for seeking proximity to the Truth).[18]

God, the Exalted says, “O you who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.[19] When remembrance increases in one’s heart, he starts to get interested in Him and this interest becomes his secondary habit so much that he remembers God in all situations.

Having said that, one should, therefore, pave the way for purifying and cleansing his heart and mind from bad memories and from impurities by remembering God and preventing the evil influences of negative and tormenting thoughts.

Note: Some of the answers have adapted (with a lot of changes have been made on) from:;;;;;

[1] . Holy Qur’an, 35:28.

[2] . Wasail-Shia – Volume 17, Page 22.

[3] . Surah al-Baqarah 2:219; Refer to the book of Ayatollah Dastghaib wrote about this in detail, Vol. 1&2.

[4] . Surah Shoura, verse 25.

[5] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 67, Pg. 211; Biharul Anwar, Vol. 67, Pg. 205, hadith 14.

[6] . Surah Hud, verse 114.

[7] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 93, Pg. 285.

[8] . “الجنة محفوفة بالمکاره و جهنم محفوفة باللذات و الشهوات” Wasa’ilul-Shia, vol. 15, pg. 309, section 42 (the section that speaks of refraining from haram desires and pleasures).

[9] . Tawzihul Masael of maraja, Vol. 1, Pg. 891, Q 1572.

[10] . Tawzihul Masael of maraja, Vol. 1, Pg. 931.

[11] . (Araki, Golpaygani, Khu’i, Fazel, Tabrizi, Sistani, Safi) the rest of the issue hasn’t been mentioned; Ajwibatul-Istifta’at (in Farsi), inquiries 744 and 760; Tawdihul-Masa’el (annotated by Imam Khomeini), vol. 1, pg. 903, issue 1605.

[12] . Al-Mahjatul baida’i, Vol. 7, Pg. 253.

[13] . Surah Yūsuf 12:87.

[14] . Surah Al-Hadid, verse 4.

[15] . Surah An’am, verse 121.

[16] . Javadi Amuli, Abdullah, Stages of Morality in Quran, pg.30.

[17] . Ibid, pg.32, with minor modifications.

[18] . Stages of Morality in Quran, pg.34 and 35.

[19] . Surah Al-Ahzab, verse 41.


Four of the Prophets are Alive / two are in the Heavens and tow are in Land

Question 277: Assalamu alayka ya dear brothers and sisters wa rahmatullahi wa barakatoh. Can someone briefly relate me what states have Hazrat Idris (a.s.), Hazrat Khidr (a.s.), Hazrat Iliya (a.s.) reach, if there are differences between each of theirs states, how they reach these states, and what is their present and future relation with our 12th Imam (mAhhr) ?

I ask this because, I heard that there are five persons that literaly elevated to heaven before death and taken to unknown celestial realm and continue to live there, each one of them are in different state, until the reapparenc oh the Mahdi (mAhhr).

May Allah reward you.

Answer 277: Four of the prophets are alive two of whom are in the heavens: Jesus and Edris, and two of them are in the land: Khidr and Elias, Ilyas (Elias). As for Khidr, he is in the sea but his companion is in the land.”[1]

Prophet Jesus: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says about the Prophet Jesus (as) as follows: “and for their saying,” We killed the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the apostle of Allah” though they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but so it was made to appear to them. Indeed those who differ concerning him are surely in doubt about him: they do not have any knowledge of that beyond following conjectures, and certainly they did not kill him”.[2]

In other verse of the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “When Allah said,” O Jesus, I shall take you] r soul [, and I shall raise you up toward Myself[3]”.

According to the previous verses of the holy Quran, we can come to the conclusion that the Prophet Jesus (as) is still alive. He is in the Heaven, though, considering the meaning of the word ‘Mutawaffika‘’ mentioned in the verse, the Prophet’s soul had been taken and He brought back to Allah, according to some interpreters of the holy Quran. [4]

Prophet Ilyas: It is said that Prophet Ilyas (Elias) is in the Heaven, too. He had been inviting people of the Baalbek to the Prophet Musa’s Shariah Law for 22 years. Some say that Prophet Ilyas is Prophet Idris (Enoch). They say: He was one of the Harun’s children and the Prophet Khidr’s brother.[5]

Prophet Khidr: Khidr is one of the four prophets recognizes as being alive. It is said that He drank from the water of life and is alive forever. He is at the Sa’sa’ah and Sahlah Mosques. Sayyid ibn Tawus narrated that when Imam Ali (as) martyred Prophet Khidr participated in the funeral. He went to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth) condoled them and showed them the place of the Prophet Noah’s (as) grave.[6]

Some hadiths and verses of the Quran imply that he was a prophet and messenger of Allah (swt) to his tribe and people, to invite them to tawhid (the oneness of God) and accepting Allah’s (swt) prophets and the divine books. His miracle was that whenever desired, he could revive any dead and dry branch or dry and barren land, making it green again, thus being given the title “Khidhr”. His real name is Talya ibn Malekan ibn Aber ibn Arafkhshad (ارفخشد) ibn Sam ibn Nuh.

As for the prolonged life of this prophet, we would like to draw your attention to a hadith from Imam Sadiq (as): “… As for the servant of Allah (swt) Khidr, Allah (swt) extended his life, but not because of his prophetic mission, nor in order to reveal a book onto him, nor to nullify through him, the religion of the past prophets, nor for him to become leader to a nation following him, nor for the obedience that Allah (swt) had made obligatory upon him, but He (Allah (swt)) extended his life because He chosen to lengthen the occultation of the Qa’im (Imam Mahdi (as)) and knew that some of the people would begin doubting about him as a result, so He lengthened the life of this good servant of His in order for it to be reason for accepting the long life of the Qa’im and so that his life would be compared with the imam’s, rejecting the objection and criticism of the enemies and the bad-minded.[7]

He is, without a doubt, still alive and is currently more than six thousand years old.[8]

Prophet Idris: According to the following verse of the Holy Quran in which Allah (SWT) says about the Prophet Idris, He is still alive. “And mention in the Book Idris. Indeed he was a truthful one, a prophet”.[9]

The two Prophets who are in the Heaven, Prophet Idris and Jesus. And the two are still alive and are in the land, Prophet Khidr and Ilyas.

Prophet Idris’ name mentioned twice in the Quran, he has revered and celebrated as truthful, prophet, patient, righteous etc. Prophet Idris is among the grandsons of Prophet Seth reaching Adam (a.s.) through five intermediaries. One of his grandfathers is Prophet Noah (a.s.). Most historians have said that he lived 365 years before his ascension, or his death according to another report. Based on narrations, four of the prophets are still alive two of whom i.e. Prophet Khizr and Prophet Ilyas (Elias), peace be upon them, are living on earth and the two others i.e. Prophet Idris and Prophet Jesus, peace be upon them are in the heavens.

Allamah Tabatabai (RA) interpreting the verse 65 of Surah al-Kahf (Then they found one from among Our servants whom We had granted mercy from Us and whom We had taught knowledge from Ourselves[10]) appertained to Prophet Moses (AS) and Prophet Khidr (AS) quotes narrations from a number of Sunni and Shia sources about some prophets being alive.

Among the narrations he has quoted is a tradition from Jalaluddin in his Al-Durr al-Manthur which is narrated from Shahin from Khasif that says:[11]

«أربعة من الأنبیاء أحیاء اثنان فی السماء: عیسى و إدریس، و اثنان فی الأرض الخضر و إلیاس- فأما الخضر فإنه فی البحر و أما صاحبه فإنه فی البر»

It is noteworthy that this narration is also available in Shia sources but it is narrated from Sunni sources.[12]

Those Prophets and Imams (pbuth) who will return and accompany Imam Mahdi’s (ajtf) reappearance: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: “When the Twelfth Imam (aj) appears and leadership is passed on to him, at that time, the Prophet (pbuh) and Amir al-Muminin (as) shall appear. Amir al-Muminin will carry with him a cane and a branding iron.[13]

Upon the cane there is a figure which reads ‘bismillah’ (in the name of Allah), which he will use to mark the foreheads of those who are believers. The figure upon the branding iron reads ‘bismilkafir’ (in the name of disbelievers), which he will use to brand the foreheads of the disbelievers. This way, believers and disbelievers will once again be distinguished. At that time, all of the Imams (as) shall return to assist Amir al-Muminin (as) and Imam Mahdi (aj). Prophets who endures much hardship and strife in the way of Allah, such as Zakariyyah (Zachary), Yahya (John), Hizqil (Ezekiel), and other Prophets which were injured or killed at the hands of the disbelievers shall also return to this world. Verily, news has been given to me of their reappearance to bring about swift retribution to their killers and oppressors as well as seek justice from those who spilt the blood of Hussain (as).”[14]

Narrations pertaining to the reappearance of the Twelfth Imam (aj) state that Prophet Isa (Jesus) (as) shall be once again sent to this world at the permission of Allah. He shall appear before everyone as one of the companions of Imam Mahdi (aj) and shall stand in prayer behind the Imam. It is narrated that the Holy Prophet said: “I swear by that which has instated me as a bearer of the truth, if there remains but one day to this world, Allah shall prolong that day until my son Mahdi (aj) reappears. After his reappearance, Prophet Isa (Jesus) Ruhollah (as) will descend to this world and will stand in prayer behind the Imam. It is then that Allah shall light up the world with His Light, and the government of Imam Mahdi shall encompass everywhere from east to west.”

Imam Sadiq (as) says: The first Imam to return is Imam Hussein (as), after which he will govern [the Islamic nation] for a lengthy period of time. He will govern for so many years that his eyebrows will cover his eyes as a result of old age.[15]

[1] . Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Hussein, Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol.13, p. 353, Islamic Publications Office, Qom, fifth edition, 1417.

[2] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 157.

[3] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 55.

[4] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 2, Pg. 431.

[5] . Emad Zadeh Esfahani, Qasas Qurani, Pg. 680.

[6] . Ibid.

[7] . Kamaluddin, vol. 3, pg. 357; Biharul-Anwar, vol. 51, pg. 222.

[8] . Yawmul-Khalas, pg. 157.

[9] . Surah Maryam, verse 56.

[10] . Surah Kahf, verse 65. «فَوَجَدا عَبْداً مِنْ عِبادِنا آتَیناهُ رَحْمَةً مِنْ عِنْدِنا وَ عَلَّمْناهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا عِلْماً»

[11] . Suyuti, Jalaluddin, al-Durr al-Manthur fi Tafsir al-Ma’thur, vol.4, p. 239, Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi Library, Qom, 1404 A.H.

[12] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwar, vol13, p. 402, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, second dition, 1403 A.H; Ibn Tavus, Ali bin Musa, Sa’ad al-Saud Lil-Nofus Mandhud, p. 163 – 164, Dar al-Dhakhaer, Qom, first edition (date missing).

[13] . In Arabic: میسم.

[14] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharul-Anwar, translation of 13th volume by Davani, pg.1165.

[15] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharul-Anwar, vol. 53, pg.46.