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Spiritual and Material Beauty and the Light of Faith

Question 245: There are hadith that state that you can recognize a mumin by characteristics of his face. Are these physical characteristics or more of the metaphysical realm that only one on the same level could recognize? I have heard that praying fajr prayer on time causes a light/glow to emit from one’s face. Is this referring to the energetic attraction we feel towards others as their spirit uplifts ours?

Answer 245: According to Islam, beauty is divided into two divisions: Spiritual and material. Getting the spiritual beauty has been more emphasized by Islam, though the material beauty has also been recommended.

An important thing that should be taken into consideration is that the spiritual beauty can be accessible by spiritual affairs like prayers and the material beauty would be available by some material affairs.

The following are some recommendations our Infallibles (pbuth) have suggested us to observe:

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “The beauty of a man can be seen in his patience, because, the patience gives our soul tranquility by which our ethics and behavior would become beautiful and brilliant if it is faced with afflictions and difficulties.”[1]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “The beauty of a believer is his\her self-restraint, virtue and piety.”[2]

– The Holy Prophet of Islam (saws) has said, “Whomever offers Salatul Tahajjod, his\her face would become brilliant in the day.”[3]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “Night prayer (salatul tahajjod) makes the face brilliant.”[4]

– Imam Sadiq (as) has said, “The night prayer can make our face look bright.”[5]

– Imam Sadiq (as) has said, “The repetition of performing wudu, upon the last wudu is like the light (noor) upon light.”[6]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “If you sleep less at night and worship Allah (swt) the Almighty during the night, your face would become brilliant.”[7]

– The Imam (as) has also said, “The believers brilliant face is because of the kindness that Allah (swt) has given him. If you seek Allahs (swt) goodness, you have to worship Him by doing the righteous deeds and avoiding forbidden acts.”[8]

Note: The Holy Qur’an says, “Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly [white] star lit from [the oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by fire. Light upon light. Allah guides to His light to whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is knowing of all things.”[9]

There is a special light that Allah (swt) gives believers in order to become brilliant if they do the righteous deeds. This light is the light of knowledge. The method in which we can get such divine light, is to do what Allah (swt), the Almighty bids us and avoid of what Allah (swt) forbids us.[10]

When Muslims want to describe the spiritual characteristics of a believer, they say we see the light of faith in his face. According to this definition, it doesn’t matter which color your skin is, if you are white or black, red or yellow, if you act based on the above recommendations, your face would get the light of faith.

This is not physical light that we can see easily. This is the light of knowledge that anyone with any skin color can have, if given by Allah (swt), the Almighty. Anyone, even those who have the lowest level of faith, can recognize it.

As you know, Hazrat Adam and the Holy Prophet (pbuth) had tawny skin. Luqman Hakeem from Ethiopia was a black man and Imam Jawad (as) had dark-colored skin, however all people became captivated when they saw them. It’s because of the light of faith.

Let’s mention some recommendations of Practical Irfan that Imam Ali (as) has suggested us to observe:

– Imam Ali (as) explained the concept of spiritual wayfaring with such words, “The true arif is the one who has enlivened his intellect and who has mortified his desires, till the point where his coarseness has become broken and his severity has been softened. A luminous light is lit for him which illuminates the path towards God for him and under its guidance he goes forward…”[11]

– Imam Ali (as) has also said, “O’ creatures of Allah! The most of Allah is he whom Allah has given power (to act) against his passions, so that his inner side is (submerged in) grief and the outer side is covered with fear. The lamp of guidance is burning in his heart. He has provided provisions for the day that is to befall him.”[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl (Tahajjud, Night Prayer), answer 234.

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu, answer 274.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

[1] . Tamimi Amedi, Abdul Wahed bin Muhammad, Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 285, H. 6392, office of Tablighat publication, Qom, 1987.

[2] . Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 269, Hadith 5862.

[3] . Toosi, Abu Jafar, Muhammad bin Hasan, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, Vol. 2, Pg. 119, Hadith 217, Darel Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H. «مَنْ صَلَّى بِاللَّيْلِ حَسُنَ وَجْهُهُ بِالنَّهَارِ».

[4] . Shaeeri, Tajuddeen, Jame’ al-Akhbar, Pg. 72, Radhi Publication, Qom, 1984.

[5] . Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 151 – 152, Hadith 10278.

[6] . Ibn Babawayh, Muhammad bin Ali, Man la Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 1, Pg. 41, Office of Islamic Publication, Qom, second edition, 1413 A.H.

[7] . Mustadrak al-Wasael, Vol. 6, Pg. 340.

[8] . Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 346.

[9] . Surah Noor, verse 35.

[10] . Tafseer al-Mizan, Vol. 15, Pg. 168.

[11] . Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 210.

[12] . Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 86.

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Islam answers: How to get Rid of Prejudice

Question 125: How do I find a way to get rid myself of prejudice?

Answer 125: 1. Since some people influenced by the belief that other are inferior because they belong to a particular race, color and tribe, Racism and Racial discrimination had existed among them before the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) and even during the time of the Prophet.

When Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) sent on a mission as a Prophet, all racisms and prejudices has been condemned by Allah the Almighty. “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is The Informed Owner of Knowledge.” Allah the Almighty said.

Therefore, nowadays if someone presented himself as a Muslim and a follower of the Islamic religion he/she must stop discriminating against others and avoid racisms and prejudices and then obey Allah’s orders without any delay. In addition, the one must knows that the criterion of the superiority over others is only based on the faith in Allah and fear of Him. Otherwise, they disobey Allah’s orders and thus the Islamic religion doesn’t approve their actions and manners. As a result they will punish in The Hereafter.

  1. It should be noted that Hazrat Adam and the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) had tawny skins. Also, Luqman Hakeem from Ethiopia was a black man with thick lip and Imam Jawad (a.s) had a dark-colored skin. Therefore, color skin cannot be the criterion of the superiority over others and give us the privilege in our life including our marriage to make it a distinction between us and people.

The first important thing we should take into consideration and concern about in our life especially marriage is the piety, faith and moral. Which means our joint life can be desirable and beautiful if we try our best to be concerned about our faith, piety and moral in every aspect of our life. However, there are many people with white faces who couldn’t bring happiness and prosperity for their wives, but make their life full of angry instead.

In other hand, there are many black men with their faith and good moral who made their wives’ life so pleasant and provided the opportunity in which they can reach their wish, happiness and prosperity as well.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Prophet Noah cursed Blacks (as) / The Story of Noah’s Sons, answer 198.

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu, answer 274.

[1] . «إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقاكُمْ», Surah Hujorat, verse 13.

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Shia answers: Necessity of Taqlid

Question 172: Is Taqleed wajib according to all mujtahideen or is there any difference of opinions?

Answer 172: It is obligatory (Wajib) on a (Muslim) who is a Mukallaf (a sane and adult person bound to fulfill religious duties) and one who has not attained the status of a Mujtahid (a religious scholar who is competent to exercise his individual judgment on theological issues) to be a Muqallid (a Follower of a Mujtahid) or be a Muhtät (one exercising caution),provided that he has the knowledge about the cases in which caution is to be exercised, in matters other than essentials (Daruriyyat) belonging to ibàdãt (matters of purely religious nature as prayers, fasting, Zakãt, Khums and Haj) and Muãmalat (matters relating to public dealings),even if they belong to the category of Mustahabbät (Desirable acts) or Mubãhãt (Permissible acts), although there are a few who have knowledge of the cases of caution. So the acts of a person belonging to laity who has no knowledge of the cases where caution is to be exercised, except by way of following a Mujtahid, shall be void.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ways to obtain the verdict of a Mujtahid, answer 555.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 11; Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khoeini, Pg. 14.

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General appearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf)

Question 267: Hi assalamualikum, This about Imam al mahdi(as), that there is a video in detail a documentry on physical charecteristics of imam mahdi(as) by harun yahya,a turkish. He had explained well in details about how we can identify imam mahdi by looking at his physical charecteristics when he appear…its a long video and available on youtube so that i kindly request you to have a look on to get in details..( video titled : The holy appearance that will identify imam mahdi(as). By harun yahya.

http://m.harunyahya.com/…/245…/the-holy-appearance-that-will

The question is, How accurate are those information and are they authentic when compared to the shia point of view?

Thanks

Brief Answer 267: According to some traditions, Imam Mahdi (ajtf) is the most similar person to the holy Prophet (PBUH). Some of his general appearance is as follows: youthful appearance with a brilliant face, curved eyebrows, a broad forehead, a nice stature, long straight nose, a small black spot on his right cheek, a face glowing like a shining star and had an appearance that no one has ever seen more beautiful, calm and pious complexion.

Answer 267: Imam Mahdī (ajtf) was born in 15 Sha‘bān 255 A.H. Since we are in the year 1438, the Imam (as) is said to be 1183 years old. After the death of His father (Imam Hasan al-Askari), Imam Mahdi (ajtf) were presented to offer prayer for the dead. All of the people that were presented there saw his face. He had a wheatish complexion, curly hair and a spacing with between his front teeth. [1]

There are two different types of traditions narrated in regards to the characteristic and general appearance of Imam Mahdi (as) as follows:

A: Traditions in which the Imam (as) is said to be youth without mentioning how old he is:

  1. He is young, though he is aged.[2]

Arabic version:

شابٌ بعد كبر السن

  1. He will appear at the best age of youth.[3]

رجوعه من غیبته بشرخ الشباب

  1. He is very old but with youthful appearance.[4]

فی سن الشیوخ و منظر الشباب

B: Traditions that rely on the both age and youthful appearance of Imam Mahdi as follows:

  1. with a complete youthful complexion and at the age of 30.[5]

Arabic version:

فی صورة فتیَ موفق ابن ثلاثین سنه

  1. Youthful complexion and less than 40 years old.[6]

فی صورة شاب دون اربعین سنة

  1. He is old, but with youthful complexion in a way that people think he has less than 40 years old. One of his signs is that he won’t be aged till the time of death.[7]

Sheikh Tusi quoted from those whom met the Imam (as) during the minor occultation that He was a handsome youth with fragrant smell and magnificent appearance. The narrator said: When he was delivering speech, we have never seen anyone can speak like him. [8]

It is narrated in other tradition that he is of medium height. He has a rounded head, broad forehead, long strait nose, shine cheeks and a small black spot on his right cheek.[9]

It is quoted from Imam Ridha (as) that he has said: One of his signs is that he is aged but with a youth appearance that when anyone look at him he is seemed to be at the age of 30 or less. He won’t grow old until he will die.[10]

When it comes to having long life, it is not specialized for Imam Mahdi (ajtf). Some individuals like the Prophet Noah (as) that lived long life (2500 years old), Prophet Khidhr (as) with thousands years old that he is still alive, Loqman bin Aad (3500 years old), Loqman Hakim or the Prophet Jesus (as) that he is still alive.

In order to justify it scientifically we can say that since getting old and death are because of some attrition factors. Therefore, if there are no attrition factors one would remain young.[11]

Know that Imam of the time (as) is the very beautiful and good-looking person among people. Because, he is the most similar person to the holy Prophet (PBUH).[12]

Jaber bin Abdullah Ansari narrated that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said: Mahid (as) is one my children. His name is my name, his Kunyah is my kunyah. He is the most similar person to me.[13]

Ibrahim bin Mahziyar whom met Imam Mahdi (ajtf), quoted: The Imam (as) was young with a brilliant face, his eyebrows were curved, he had a broad forehead, a nice stature, long straight nose, a small black spot on his right cheek, a face glowing like a shining star and had an appearance that no one has ever seen more beautiful, calm and pious complexion like him.[14]

Meeting with the Imam of Time (‘atf) during the period of occultation:

It is possible to meet with the Imam of Time (‘atf) during the period of occultation. Many scholars who is believed to be honest and just (‘adil) and who can be trusted in such matters have narrated stories of people meeting with Imam Mahdi, may Allah hasten his reappearance. These stories can be found in their books along with names of people who have been blessed with the opportunity to meet with him. Such meetings have taken place both during the period of minor occultation and major occultation.

It is inferred from narrations that the Imam of Age (May Allah hasten his reappearance) is not living far away from people and society. In fact, he is living with people and in their midst. He attends public congregations but people do not recognize him.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Possibility of Establishing Relationship with Imam Mahdi, answer 513.

Index: The Signs of the Re-Emergence, according to ibn Mahziyar Ahwazi, answer 072.

Index:  The Benefits of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) during His occultation, answer 026.

Index:  When appear: Imam Mahdi (ajtf) brings a new order, Method or Shari’ah with Him, answer 022.

Index: For how long Imam Mahdi will rule the whole world, answer 231.

Index: Proving the Ghaybah of Imam Mahdi, answer 252.

[1] . Refer to: Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 437.

[2] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 51, Pg. 217, chapter 13 (ما فيه ع من سنن الأنبياء).

[3] . Gheibat Tusi, Pg. 421.

[4] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 2, Pg. 376.

[5] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 287, chapter 26 (يوم خروجه و ما يدل عليه).

[6] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 1, Pg. 316.

[7] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 2, Pg. 652;  Ibid, chapter 57, Pg. 558, H. 12.

[8] . Refer to: Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 437.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 555.

[11] . Refer to: Edalat Gostar Jahan, Ibrahim Imani.

[12] . Haeri Qazwini, Mikyal al-Makarem, Vol. 1, Pg. 132.

[13] . Sheikh Sadouq, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’amat, translated by Mansoor Pahlawan, Vol. 1, chapter 25, Pgs. 534-535, H. 1.

[14] . Ibid, Vol. 2, chapter 43, Pgs. 180-181.

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Ashra Mubashra, the ten Sahaba Promised Paradise

Question 221: Assalamu alikum, what u think about ashabs esp Abu bakr, umer n usman? Why u call them bidati, did prophet consider them as munafiq. And also explain your views regarding ashr-e-mubashara. thank you.

Answer 221: According to Shia school of thought, such traditions are classified into da’if (weak) and are considered as fake. The following are some reasons by which these ahadith have been rejected.

There are some traditions have been narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd and Zubair in which both but Imam Ali (as) were mentioned among those ten sahaba’s promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra). A question is now raised that how’s it possible that Imam Ali (as) was among them, but they refused allegiance to (like Abi Waqas) and fought against him?

The following hadith was narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd in which the Prophet (saws) said: “10 sahaba’s are promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra) are: Abu Bakr in paradise, Omar in paradise, ‘Uthman in paradise, Ali in paradise, Talha in paradise, Al-Zubair Bin Al-‘Awwam in paradise, Abdul Rahman Bin ‘Awf in paradise, Saad Bin Abi Waqqass in paradise, Saeed Bin Zaid, and Abu ‘Ubaida Bin Al-Jarrah in paradise.”[1]

The Arabic version of this tradition is as follows:

«حَدَّثَنَا صَالِحُ بْنُ مِسْمَارٍ المَرْوَزِی قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِی فُدَیكٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ یعْقُوبَ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعِیدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ حُمَیدٍ، عَنْ أَبِیهِ، أَنَّ سَعِیدَ بْنَ زَیدٍ، حَدَّثَهُ فِی نَفَرٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَیهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: عَشَرَةٌ فِی الجَنَّةِ: أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُمَرُ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُثْمَانُ وَعَلِی وَالزُّبَیرُ وَطَلْحَةُ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ وَأَبُو عُبَیدَةَ وَسَعْدُ بْنُ أَبِی وَقَّاصٍ

During the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (as) called Zubair and Talha, “O Aba Abdillah and Talha come here. I administer an oath to both of you. Do you know that the companions of the battles of Jamal and Nahrawan have been cursed by the Holy Prophet (saws)?”

Zubaid said: “How is it possible that we were cursed, whereas we are among the 10 sahaba’s promised paradise?” The Imam (as) said, “If I knew you were among the dwellers of the heaven, I would never have fought against you!” Zubair said, “Didn’t you hear that the Prophet (saws) said, on the day of the Uhud battle, “Talha deserves heaven?” The Imam (as) said, “Name those who are promised paradise for me?” Zubair told him the names of nine people. The Imam (as) said, “Who is the tenth person?” Zubair replied, “You are the tenth one!” The Imam (as) said, “You confess that I am one of the dwellers of the heaven, but I deny those sahaba you named. They will be dwelled in a coffin at the lowest place of the Hell.” The Imam (as) said, “The Holy Prophet (saws) said it to me.” Zubair went back to his armies while he was crying![2]

The Holy Prophet (saws) variously promised so many believers heaven: E.g. Imam Ali (as) and His followers will be dwelled in the heaven.[3]He also said, “Heaven will eagerly anticipate four persons to come: Ali bin Abi Talib, Ammar, Salman and Miqdad, however none of these four persons except Imam Ali (as) were mentioned in that hadith![4] Those who narrated these (Ashra Mubasharah) tradition have only tried to justify the hadith as sahih by mentioning the name of Imam Ali (as). How is possible for those who have cruelly fought against Imam Ali (as) to be dowelled in the heaven, while we know that the Holy Prophet (saws) has said, “Anyone who fight against Ali, fight against me?”[5]

Conclusion: Although, this tradition has been mentioned in Sunni sources, it is classified as da’if (weak), according to the above mentioned reliable sources.

This hadith is contrary to the Holy Qur’an as Allah (swt) has never mentioned any names of the dwellers of the heaven. In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) always say, “And (as for) those who believe and do good deeds, these are the dwellers of the garden, in it they shall abide.”[6]

Some of the sahaba mentioned in the hadith have been considered as unbelievers by each other, such as Othman who is considered an unbeliever by Talha and Zubair. Both (Talha and Zubair) have issued a fatwa, by which Othman has deserved to be killed, as he is Kafir. That’s why Othman has been killed by such fatwas!

If this hadith is sahih, after choosing Abu Bakr as the first caliph, why did Omar order that anyone of the six persons that participated in the council, who may disagree with the decision, would be killed?[7]

If this hadith is sahih, why did Abdullah ibn Umar who has narrated this hadith deny allegiance to Imam Ali (as).[8] Thus, this hadith due to the above mentioned reasons is not considered as sahih. It is such a fake and da’if one which has no reliable sources.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha, answer 180.

Index: The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida, answer 028.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Al-Tirmidhi, Muhammad bin Isa, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Pg. 648.

[2] . Ibn Uqdah Kufi, Ahmad bin Muhammad, the virtues of Amirul Momenin (as), researcher and editor: Hirzuddin, Abdul Razzaq Muhammad Hussain, Pgs. 166-167; Tabarsi, Ahmad bin Ali, Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl e al-Lujaj, researcher and editor: Khorasan, Muhammad Baqir, Vol. 1, Pg. 162, Murtadha Publisher, Mashhad, first edition, 1403 A.H.

[3] . Tabari Amoli Kabir, Muhammad bin Jurair bin Rostam, al-Mostarshed fee Imamat Ali bin Abi Talib (as), researcher: Mahmoodi, Ahmad, Pg. 401, Kooshanpoor, Qom, first edition, 1415 A.H; Bahrani, Sayyid Hashim, al-Borhan fee Tafseer al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 347, Bonyad Be’sat, Tehran, first edition, 1416 A.H.

[4] . Sheikh Sadouq, al-Khisal, researcher: Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Vol. 1, Pg. 303, office of Islamic publication, first edition, 1983; Ibn Kathir Basari, Esmaeel bin Omar, Jame’ al-Masanid wa al-Sonan al-Hadi, Vol. 3, Pg. 495, Dar e Khizr liltaba’at wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzei, Beirut, second edition, 1419 A.H.

[5] . Khazaz Razi, Ali bin Muhammad, Kifaya al-Athar fee al-Nass ala al-A’imma al-Ithna Ashar, researcher: Hussaini Koohkamari, Abdul Latif, Pg. 181, Bidar, Qom, 1401 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, etigadat al-Imamiyah, Pg. 105, Sheikh Mofid Congress, Qom, second edition, 1414 A.H.

[6] . Surah Baqarah, verses: 25- 82.

[7] . Amini, al-Ghadir, Beirut, Dar al-Kotob al-Arabi, 1397 A.H, Vol. 10, Pgs. 156-157.

[8] . Ibid, Pgs. 149- 161.

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Adding the third testimony in Tashahud

Question 268: Why do Usooli Shia Muslim consider Tashood cannot be changed with 3rd Sahada of Imam Ali AS. If azaan is added with Ali Un Wali Ullah.

Answer 268: As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do. Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[1]

There are different narrations regarding zikr (recital) of Tashahhud. However, all jurisprudents consider what they have mentioned in their Manuals of Islamic Laws (Resalah) as sufficient. When it comes to reciting more azkar (plural of zikr) in Tashahhud, if one recites them without the intention of wurud (i.e. doing an act which has no religious origin or validation), there is no problem in it but if he recites with the intention of wurud, some scholars have allowed reciting an additional zikr keeping in view that some of the narrations have been accepted and others have not.[2] However, most of the jurisprudents have sufficed to the zikr that has been mentioned in the Manuals of Islamic Laws.

Fatawa:

Makarem Shirazi (ha): The precaution is that Tashahhud has to be recited as usual.

Saafi Gulpaigani (ha): Tashahhud has to be recited in the same way that has been prescribed in the book of Islamic Laws.

Noori Hamedani (ha): There is no objection in reciting the azkar without intention of wurud.

Sayyid Sistani (ha): The third testimony must not be recited in Tashahhud, as an obligatory precaution. It is recommended to recite the following zikr the second testimony in Tashahhud: “Arsalahu bil haqqi bashiran wa naziran bayna yada yis sa’ah, wa ashhadu anna rabbi ne’mar Rab wa anna Muhammadan ne’mar Rasul and then recite the salawat.”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Facebook.

[1] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

[2]  Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha).

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“Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah

Question 276: Can someone provide the Sahih riwayahs from the Shi’i books which mention of Ash’hadu anna Ali’ un wali Ullah and the other phrase not included in conventional Aa’dhan?

Answer 276: In order to give a precise answer to the question, we shall follow up the discussion in three parts:

1) Is it basically okay to recite “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” in Adhan or is it totally wrong and false?

2) If it is supposedly correct, is it a part of Adhan or not?

3) If it is not a part of Adhan, is there any problem in reciting it in Adhan without considering it as a part?

In order to reply to the first part of the question, it would first be necessary to deal with the meaning and import of the word “wali”.

Meaning of “wali”:

  1. A) Wali in the sense of being a guardian or custodian: There are many Quranic verses in which the word “wali” has been used in the same meaning e.g. “You have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor”.[1]
  2. B) Wali in the sense of being a close friend[2]: There are also verses in the Quran with the word “wali” meaning friend. One of those verses is the following: “The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! he, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.”[3]
  3. C) Wali in the sense of helper and aide[4]: The Holy Quran says, “And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.”

Without doubt, there is no objection or problem in using “Waliullah” for believers in the second and third meaning (friend and helper). In fact, there are traditions transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni narrators with the word “wali” used in these meanings.[5]
As for the first meaning, it should be said that there are many narratives in which Ali (a.s.) has been introduced as the guardian, master and more entitled to be in authority in the same way as Holy Prophet (pbuh) was. Of course, Ali is a divinely-appointed leader; he was appointed as guardian and master of the Ummah by God in the same way as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was appointed as the Messenger of God.

As for whether “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is a part of Adhan or not, there are narrations from the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) which expressly state that Adhan consists of eighteen sentences. Those sentences are the following:

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah, Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah, Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah, Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal, Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal ; Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah; La ilaha illal lah.[6]

Thus, “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is not a part of Adhan. Shia jurists have issued verdicts on the basis of these narrations saying that the third testimony is not a part of Adhan.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu’minina ‘Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.[7]

Imam Khomeini (may Allah bless him) says in this regard: “Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences: Allahu Akbar four times; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal; Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah each two times.” Then he says, “Ash hadu anna Aliyyan Waliullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah.”[8]

The next question that has to be dealt with is: Does reciting “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” affect the prayers or not?
Obviously, there is a problem in reciting the third testimony as a part of Adhan. Some have said that if it is recited in such a way that it does not sound to be like one of the sentences of Adhan, there would be no problem.[9] At the most, the spurious argument that is likely to be raised is that reciting the third testimony is a mere bid’ah (innovation).

Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, if someone considers this sentence to be a part of Adhan and recites it with such an intention, it is bid’ah and forbidden. However, since none of the Shiite jurists and grand scholars considers it as a part of Adhan and if someone recites it in a way such that it does not turn out to be like one of the sentences of Adhan and Iqamah, it would not be bid’ah and there would be no problem in it.

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.

In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also. Therefore, whenever someone testifies to the oneness of God and prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he will also testify to the wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and this does not at all imply that the third testimony is a part of Adhan.

Also, there are special narrations which confirm the validity of reciting the third testimony in Adhan.[10] Hence, considering the lofty rank and position of the Commander of the Faithful, there would be no problem in reciting “Ali waliullah” in Adhan and in the Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body with the intention of Qurbat (seeking nearness to God) or Tabarruk (as a blessing), not as a part.

It is to be noted that many Sunni scholars admit that the sentence “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” (prayer is better than sleep) is not a part of Adhan and it is one of the innovations of the second caliph. It has been reported from Malik bin Anas that the Muezzin (one who calls for prayers) went to Umar to wake him up for Fajr prayers. He saw Umar sleeping. Then he said, “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm”. Umar then ordered him to recite this same sentence in Adhan also.[11]

The question is that what justifies the recitation and inclusion of this sentence (i.e. al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the Adhan for Fajr prayers by Sunnis? Is it comparable with what the Shiites are reciting and which has many narrations authenticating and confirming it?

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

-1 Facebook.

-2 Facebook.

[1] . Al-Sajdah: 4.

[2] . Tabari Kiyaharasi, Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad, Ahkaamul Quran (Al-Kiyaharasi), vol.3, pg.83, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1405. A.H.

[3] . Fussilat: 34.

[4] . Ibn Mazur, Muhammad bin Mukram, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, pg.407, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 3rd edition, 1414 A.H.

[5] . Ibn Abi Hatam, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad, Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim (Ibn Abi Hatam) vol.2, pg.675, published by Maktabat Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 3rd edition, 1419 A.H.

[6] . Saduq, Man La-yahzuruhul Faqih, vol.1, pg.289-291, Jame’ah Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[7] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah.

[8] . Tauzihul Masail (with connotation), vol.1, pg.519, issue No.918.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Vide: The Third Testimony in Adhan, Iqamah and Prayers.

[11] . Malik, Muwatta, vol.1, pg.210, al-Islam website: www.al-islam.com.

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What happened to Zuljanah in Karbala?

Question 166: What happened to Imam Hussein’s horse (Zuljanah) in Karbala?

Answer 166: The writers of books on what happened on Ashura (these books are referred to as ‘maqatil’) have not mentioned much about what happened to Zuljanah. What is mentioned is that he made his mane bloody with the blood of the Imam and returned to the tents neighing very highly.[1]

When the household of the Imam heard Zuljanah they came out of the tents and found out that the Imam had been martyred.[2] But, some of the later maghatel like Nasekhul-Tawarikh have extended saying that Zuljanah banged his head to the ground so much that he died[3], some say that Zuljanah had been killed before the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (as) and Imam himself fought against Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad till has been martyred[4] or that Zuljanah threw himself in the Furat (the river in Karbala that Imam Hussain was denied water from).[5]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

Index: The Wedding of Hadrat Qasim in Karbala on the Day of Ashura, answer 605.

Index: Enemies killed by Imam Hussain (as) in Karbala on the Day of Ashura, answer 598.

[1] . Biharul Anwar, Majlesi, Vol. 44, Pg. 321, A.H. 1404.

[2] . Qummi, Muntaha al-Amaal, Vol. 2, Pg. 910.

[3] . Ibid, Pg. 909.

[4] . Refer to: Tahqiq wa Pegouhish dar Tarikh Zendegani Imam Hussain (as), Pg. 684.

[5] . The ziyarah of Nahiyah Muqaddasah; Amaliyy of Sheikh Saduq, pg. 163; Mirza Muhammad Taqi Sepehri, Nasekhul-Tawarikh, vol. 6, pg. 2.

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Permissibility of using JJH for the Imams (pbuth)

Question102: Is it permissible to use JJH with Imam’s names whereas it has been always attached with Almighty but nowadays some groups have started this new issue?

Answer 102: Some of these names and attributes are only suitable be applied for Allah (SWT) the Almighty, according to traditions and common law. All Muslims and even our Infallibles (PBUTH) have only applied the JJh (Jalla jalālahu: meaning May His glory be glorified) for Allah (SWT), only. There is no tradition in which our Infallibles have applied it for themselves.[1]

(1) Considering the meaning of such names, there would be no problem to use this name (JJh) for our infallible Imams (PBUTH), however, we are forbidden to exaggerate about them (AS) by using some names and attributes which are specialized for Allah (SWT), only. In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says, “Say [O, Messenger!]: “I am only a human Being like you; it is revealed to me that Allah is the only God to be worshipped.”[2]

(2) According to a tradition, we are recommended not to put ourselves in a position of accusation. Thus, if we use such names and attributes for the Imams (PBUTH) those disbelievers would accuse us.[3]

(3) In this regards, in the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says, “O, you who believe! Do not say: “Raena” to the Messenger, but say: “Unzurna” listen to this admonition And [know that] for the disbelievers There is a painful Torment.” ((Yââ ayyohalladhêna ââmanô lâ taqôlô râ’enâ waqôlônẓor­nâ was­ma’ô Walel­kâferêna ‘adhâbon alêm)).[4]

(4) Since, the word Raena has had a bad meaning (curse) according to Jewish people of that time, Allah (SWT) has said Do not say Raena to the Holy Prophet, Say Unzorna (Watch over us) instead.

(5) In other verse of the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “Some of Yahudis [the Jews] Deliberately displace words from their Original places] to alter the meaning [And] for example [they say] to The Messenger [:” We heard your word And we disobeyed”] or they say: [” Hear And let you hear nothing!” Or they say:” Raena” with a twist of their tongues And a taunt to Islam; and if] instead [Only they had said:” We hear and obey”, And] had said: [” Do have consideration For us to understand what you recite”, it Would have been better for them and More proper; Allah has cursed Them for their disbelief; so they will Not believe except a few of them.”[5]

(Menalladhêna hâdô yoḥarrefônal­kalema ‘ammawâḍe’ehê wa yaqôlôna same’­nâ w’aṣay­nâ was­ma’­ghay­ra mos­ma’ew­warâ’enâ layyam bel­senatehem waṭa’­nan feddên Walaw annahom qâlô same’­nâ wa aṭa’­nâ was­ma’­wanẓor­nâ lakâna khay­rallâhom wa aq­wama walakella’anahomollâho bekof­rehem falâ yo­menôna ellâ qalêla)

Conclusion: According to above mentioned verses of the Holy Qur’an and those traditions, we are not recommended to use such divine names and attributes for the Infallibles (PBUTH).

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[1] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 498, H 12.

قال الصادق (علیه السلام): قال الله عزوجلّ يابن ادم اذكرنى فى ملاء، اذكرت فى ملاء خير من ملئك”

[2] . Surah Kahf, verse 110 and Surah Fussilat, verse 6.

قُلْ إِنَّما أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ يُوحى إِلَي

[3] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 33, Pg. 510.

اتَّقُوا مَوَاضِعَ التُّهَمِ

[4] . Surah Baqarah, verse 104.

يا أَيُّهَا الَّذينَ آمَنُوا لا تَقُولُوا راعِنا وَ قُولُوا انْظُرْنا وَ اسْمَعُوا وَ لِلْكافِرينَ عَذابٌ أَليم.

[5] . Surah Nisa, verse 46.

مِنَ الَّذينَ هادُوا يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَواضِعِهِ وَ يَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنا وَ عَصَيْنا وَ اسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَ راعِنا لَيًّا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَ طَعْناً فِي الدِّينِ وَ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قالُوا سَمِعْنا وَ أَطَعْنا وَ اسْمَعْ وَ انْظُرْنا لَكانَ خَيْراً لَهُمْ وَ أَقْوَمَ وَ لكِنْ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلاَّ قَليلا.

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Wearing Gold and Silk is forbidden for a Male Muslim

Question 485: Assalamu alaikum! Could you please advise if wearing gold-plated (only surface of the watch is covered by gold dust) watch is halal or haram.

May Allah bless you!

Answer 485: According to maraja’, it is not permissible for men to adorn themselves with whatever is called gold irrespective of whether the gold is yellow or red or white.[1]

There is no objection in making the frame of gold for a watch, and keep it with oneself (while offering prayers).[2]

But, if it is a gilt watch, maraja have different opinion about it as follows:

Khamenei (ha), if it is considered as gold it would be impermissible for men to wear it.

Sistani (ha), there is no objection in it.

Safi Golpayegani (ha), if it really contains gold it is impermissible.

Note: If there is a little gold used in it that it is not considered to be gold in the common view (Urf), there would be no problem in wearing it.[3]

If it is not hanging, though it may be in pocket, there is no objection in it! [4]

Regarding other metal, if it is known through checking a metal with an expert that it is white gold, it is haram (forbidden) for men to wear it. As for wearing silver, there is no problem in wearing it.

If a metal is called white gold, it is in fact the yellow gold which becomes white when a white metal is blended with it; therefore it is haram. In case, however, there is so little gold in it that it is not considered to be gold in the common view, there is no problem in wearing it. As for wearing platinum, there is also no objection in wearing it.[5]

Silk: The garment of men, while offering prayers, should not be made of pure silk, rather it is not lawful for men even when they are not offering prayers, although, according to the more cautious opinion, it is something which alone is not sufficient for offering prayer, as a waistband or a cap or the like. Pure silk also includes what is made of raw silk, such as a waistband or a cap or the like. Pure silk also includes what is made of raw silk, though it is permitted for women, even when offering prayers, and for men in the event of necessity or war.

What is for bidden for men is wearing garments made of silk, but there is no objection in making silken carpets or bed sheets and lie on them or blankets etc. and cover themselves with them when sleeping. So also there is no objection in stitching buttons of garments with silk, or decorate the garments with braids and laces made of silk, in the same way as it there is no objection in making the covers for wounds, abscesses and preventives for those suffering from incontinence of urine.

Rather, there is no objection even in patching garments with silk or making the borders of the garments with silk, provided that they are not to the extent that they may be called silken, and in case of borders for garments, it is more cautious that they should not exceed four fingers when joined together in width. Rather it is more cautious to observe this measurement even in case of the patches of silk on the garments.[6]

If a person doubts whether a garment or ring is made of gold or anything else, it shall be permissible to wear them, and offer prayers wearing them.[7]

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[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini) Vol. 2, Pg. 927, Issue 443.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasila of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 168 (English version), issue 14;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini) Vol. 1, Pg. 462.

[3] . Ajwabat al-Istiftaat (in Farsi language), Pg. 90;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 140, Q 255.

[4] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 169; Tawzih al-Masael of maraja, Issue 833, Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra), Q 846.

[5] . Ajwebat al-Istiftaat (Farsi Answers to Religious Queries), pg.90, Tawzih al-Masail (with annotations by Imam Khomeini), vol.2, pg. 927, issue No.443.

[6] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 169.

[7] . Ibid, Pg. 170.