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Grave of Prophet Musa: When and How He died

Question 186: At what age did Nabi Musa (as) die? Please, also Let us know the story of Prophet Musa and Malak al-Mawt?

Answer 186: When the Prophet Musa and Aaron (pbuth) passed away in the wilderness. It is narrated that the Malak al-Mawt (Azrael) shaped in the form of a human and digged the grave of the prophet. That’s why the Bani Israel don’t know the exact place where the prophet (peace be upon him) is buried. The holy Prophet (pbuh) was asked where is the grave of the prophet Musa? He said: it is on a great path by the way near the red sand hill (al-Kathib al-Ahmar). And there was a difference of 500 years between the prophet Musa and Dawood (David) (as) and 1100 years between Dawood and Prophet Isa (pbuth).

According to Imam Sadiq of Baqir (pbuth), the holy Prophet Musa (as) passed away at the age of 120 on the 21th night of the holy month of Ramadan.[1]

Arabic version of the Hadith:

مَاتَ هَارُونُ وَ مُوسَى عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَامُ فِي التِّيهِ فَرُوِيَ أَنَّ الَّذِي حَفَرَ قَبْرَ مُوسَى هُوَ مَلَكُ الْمَوْتِ فِي صُورَةِ آدَمِيٍّ وَ لِذَلِكَ لَا يَعْرِفُ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ مَوْضِعَ قَبْرِ مُوسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ وَ سُئِلَ النَّبِيُّ ص عَنْ قَبْرِهِ فَقَالَ عِنْدَ الطَّرِيقِ الْأَعْظَمِ عِنْدَ الْكَثِيبِ الْأَحْمَرِ قَالَ وَ كَانَ‏ بَيْنَ مُوسَى وَ بَيْنَ دَاوُدَ خَمْسُمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ وَ بَيْنَ دَاوُدَ وَ عِيسَى أَلْفُ سَنَةٍ وَ مِائَةُ سَنَةٍ.

 “أَخْبَرَنِي الشَّيْخُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ أَبَانٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَامُ) قَالَ الْغُسْلُ فِي سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ مَوْطِناً وَ سَاقَ الْحَدِيثَ إِلَى أَنْ قَالَ وَ لَيْلَةَ إِحْدَى وَ عِشْرِينَ أَيْ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَ هِيَ اللَّيْلَةُ الَّتِي أُصِيبَ فِيهَا أَوْصِيَاءُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَ فِيهَا رُفِعَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ (عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَامُ) وَ قُبِضَ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ”).[2]

It is also narrated that the prophet Musa died, (at the age of one hundred and twenty), three years after his brother Aeron dien at the age of 123.[3]

The Story of Musa and Malak al-Mawt

It is mentioned in some relaible authenitc hadiths that Imam Jaafar al-sadiq (as) said that when the end of Musa’s life approached and the angle of Death came and said: O kalimullah, Assalaamu Alaikum. Musa responded Wa Alaik al-Salaam. Who are you? The angle replied: I am the angle of death. He asked, Why have you come? He replied, To take your soul. Musa aksed, From where will you seize it? He replied, From your mouth. Musa asked, How will you seize it from the mouth when I have conserved with the Allah the Almighty with it? The angle replied, Alright, I will seize it from your hands, Musa exclaimed, How will you seize it from my hands when these hands held the Torah? He said, from your legs. Musa said, How, when I climbed up Mount Sinai with them. Malak al-Mawt said, from your eyes. Musa said, How, when I look towarss Allah, the Almighty in farfetched hopes with them? He said, then from your ears. Musa said, How, when I have heard the words of my Lord, the Glorified and Majestic is He.

So, Allah (SWT) told Malak al-Mawt, Do not take his soul, until he desires it to be taken.

The Malak al-Mawt left then. And Musa remained alive until Allah desired him to be alive, and He called upon Yousa bin Noon and he gave successorship to him. And he ordered him to guard his role and ordered to also later name a successor to guard his role.

Musa went to his occoultaton from his people. While in his occultation he passed a man was digging a grave. So, he said to him, Can I observe you with digging this grave? The man said, Yes. When the grave was dug to its completion, Musa lied down in it to see how it felt so that the veils where lifted and he saw his place in Heaven. He said then, ‘Oh my Lord, take me to you. So, the Malak al-Mawt took his soul and buried him in the grave. And put the dust upon him.

The man was digging the grave was Malak al-Mawt shaped in the form of a Human, and it was in the wilderness. A caller, then, gave a great call to the Heaven, Musa Kaleemullah has passed away.

A man asked The holy Prophet (pbuh), Where is the grave of the prophet Musa? He said: It is on a great path by the way near the red sand hill (al-Kathib al-Ahmar).[4]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Death of Asiya Bint Muzahim / Pharaoh ordered to kill her, answer 528.

Index: Egyptian Pharaohs / List of pharaohs, answer 246.

[1] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 13, Pg. 364, Chapter 12, death of the holy Prophet Musa bin Omran and Aaron (as), ahadith 1-18.

[2] . Al-Tahzib, Vol. 1, Pg. 114, H. 34; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 3, Pg. 307, H. 3718; Yaqoubi, Tarikh al-Yaqubi, Tehran, Cultural and scientific publisher, 1992, Vol. 1, pg. 51.

[3] . Tarikh al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 1, Pg. 62; Tarikh Tabari, Pg. 347; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 12, Pg. 368; al-Tahzib, Vol. 1, Pg. 32.

[4] . Ibid.

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Ghazwah and Sariyyah: Battles of the Holy Prophet

Question 587: As per the Shia history, did the prophet himself fight any battle?

Answer 587: All of the battles of the holy Prophet (pbuh) had been taken place after His Hegira to Medina during ten years. The battles are divided into three divisions. Ghazwah (battle), Sariyyah (battalion) and Ba’th.

It is noteworthy to firstly explain the difference between Ghazwah (battle) and Sariyyah (battalion). Ghazwah is the name of the battle in which the holy Prophet (pbuh) participated as the leader whether the battle is fought or not.

Sariyyah is the name of the battalion which the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent without participating in. [1]

If the Holy Prophet (pbuh) sends only one person to battle it is called Ba’th.[2]

All battles took place for propagandizing the Islamic teachings and social justice. According to the historians, seventy four battles had been happened during the time of the holy prophet after the Hegira to Medina. Twenty eight or seven of these battles were called Ghazwah and Forty seven were Sariyyah. [3]

Some of the most important Ghazwahs of the holy Prophet (pbuh) are as follows: Badr, Uhud, fat’h e Mecca, Khaybar, hunayn and Khandagh.[4] And the most important Sariyyahs were Mawtah and Zat al-Salasil.

The followings are 28 Ghazwah of the holy Prophet (pbuh):

  1. The battle of Abwa:[5] Month of Safar, in the year two of Hegira.
  2. The battle of Buwat, Month of Rabi al-Avval[6] or Rabi al-Akhar,[7] in the year two of Hegira.
  3. The battle of Ushayrah, Month of Jamadi al-Awla, in the year two of Hegira.[8]
  4. The battle of Badr –e- Awla (Safwan), Jamadi al-Aakhirah [9]or Rabi al-Awwal,[10] in the year two of Hegira.
  5. The battle of Badr –e- Kubra, 17th of Ramadan, in the year two of Hegira.[11]
  6. The battle of Bani Salim, Month of Shawwal, in the year two of Hegira.[12]
  7. The battle of Bani Qaynughaa’, Month of Shawwal, in the year two of Hegira.[13]
  8. The battle of Sawiq, Month of Dhil Hijjah, in the year two of Hegira.[14]
  9. The battle of Zee Amr (Ghatfan), happened in Najd Land.[15]
  10. The battle of Uhud, Month of Shawwal, in the year three of Hegira.[16]
  11. The battle of Hamraa’ al-Asad, Eighth day of Month of Shawwal (on Sunday)[17], in the year three of Hegira.[18]
  12. The battle of Bahran, in Hijaz, month of Rabi al-Aakhar, in the year three of Hegira.[19]
  13. The battle of Khandaq or Ahzab, month of Shawwal, in the year four[20] or five of Hegira.[21]
  14. The battle of Bani Nadir, month of Rabi al-Awwal, in the year four of Hegira.[22]
  15. The battle of Zat al-Riqaa’, in Nakhl Land, month of Jamadi al-oula or Rabi al-A’khar.[23]
  16. The battle of Badr al-Mawed, month of Sha’ban, in the year four of Hegira.[24]
  17. The battle of Dawmat al-Jandal, month of Dhi Qa’dah and Dhi Hijjah, in the year five of Hegira.[25]
  18. The battle of Bani Quraydhah, month of Zee Qaadah and Zee Hijjah, in the year five of Hegira.[26]
  19. The Battle of Bani Layhan, month of Jamadi al-oula, in the year six of Hegira.[27]
  20. The battle of Zee Qirad (Ghabeh), month of Rabi al-Awwal[28] or Rabi al-Aakhar, in the year six of Hegira.[29]
  21. The Battle of Bani al-Mustalaq (it is also called Muraysee), month of Sha’ban, in the year five[30] or six[31] of Hegira.
  22. The Battle of Hudaybiyyah, month of Zee Qaadah, in the year six of Hegira.[32]
  23. The Battle of Khaybar, month of Muharram, in the year seven of Hegira or year six of Dhil Hijjah.[33]
  24. The Battle of Fat’h –e- Mecca, month of Ramadan, in the year eight of Hegira.[34]
  25. The Battle of Hunayn, month of Shawwal, in the year eight of Hegira.[35]
  26. The Battle of Taayef, month of Shawwal, in the year eight of Hegira.[36]
  27. The Battle of Mawtah, in month of Jamadi al-oula, in the year eight of Hegira.[37] According to some historians, since the Holy Prophet (pbuh) didn’t directly participate in this battle they didn’t name this battle as Qazwah. According to them, it is called Sariyyah.[38]
  28. The Battle of Tabook, in the month of Rajab, in the year nine of Hegira.[39] The Battle of Tabuk (Arabic: غَزوَة تَبوك) is the final ghazwa of the Prophet (s). It took place During Rajab and Sha’ban of the 9/630 in the region of Tabuk.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was martyred by the poisoned lamb made by Zeynab bint Al-Harith after the Battle of Khaybar, answer 504.

[1] . Surah Bararah, verses 217-218; Surah Anfal, from the verse 5 onwards; Aale Emran. From the verse 125 onwards; Surah Ahzab, verses 10 onwards; Surah Tawbah, verse 25; Books: Quranic tales, translated by Zamani; Story of the Prophets, Rashedi; Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 2, Pg. 363; Muntahal Amaal, Sheikh Abbas Qummi; Tarikh al-Anbiya from Adam to Khatam.

[2] . Abul Faraj Halabi, Ali bin Ebrahim, Al-Sirat al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Pg. 213, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, second edition, 1426 A.H.

[3]. Masoodi, Ali bin Hussain, Muravij al-Zahab wa Ma’adin al-Jawhar, researcher: Daghar As’ad, Vol. 2, Pgs. 280-281, Dar al-Higrah, Qom, second edition, 1409 A.h.

[4] . Ayati, Tarikh Payambar Islam (The History of the holy Prophet), Tehran University Publication.

[5] . Tabarsi, Fadl bin Hasan, E’lam al-Wara bi Aalam al-Huda, Vol. 1, Pg. 164, Aalul Bayt (as) Institute, Qom, first edition, 1417 A.H. Ibn Hazm Andulesi, Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 76, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, Bita; Vaqedi, Muhammad bin Umar, al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Pgs. 11-12, Aalami, Beirut, third edtion, 1409 A.H.

[6] . Ibn Hisham, Abdul malik, al-Sirat an0Nabawiyyah, research: al-Saqa, Mustafa, al-Abyari, Ebrahim, Shibli, Abdul Hafidh, Vol. 1, Pg. 598, Dar al-Maarifat, Beirut, first edition, Bita; Suhayli, Abdul Rahman, al-Rawz al-Anf fee Sharh al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 5, Pg. 58, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, first edition, 1412 A.H.

[7] . Ealam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 164; Beihaqi, Abu Bakar, Ahmad bin Hussain, Dalael al-Nubuwwah wa Marifat Ahval Sahib al-Shariaat, research: Qala’ji, Abdul Mo’tee, Vol. 3, Pg. 11, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, first edtion, 1405 A.H’ Jawame al- Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 77.

[8] . E’lam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 164; al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 599; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 5, Pg. 469.

[9] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 601; Khalifah bin Khayyat, Tarikh Khalifah, Pg. 20, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, first edition, 1415 A.H.

[10] . Vaqedi, Muhammad bin Umar, Kitab al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Pg. 12, al-Aalami Institute, Beirut, third edtion 1409 A.H; Ibn Sayyid al-Naas, Oyoun al-Athar, Vol. 1, Pg. 263, Dar al-Qalam, Beirut, first edition, 1414 A.H; Amin Ameli, Sayyid Muhsin, Aa’yan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 246, Dar al-Ta’arof lil-Matbooaat, Beirut, 1403 A.H.

[11] . Eelam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 168; Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 240; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 86.

[12] . Dalael al-Nubuwwah, vol. 3, Pg. 163; al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pgs. 43-44.

[13] . Ee’lam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 175; Ibn Shahr Ashoub Mazandarani, Manaqib Aal abi Talib (as), Vol. 1, Pg. 190, Allamah Publication, Qom, first edition, 1379 A.H; al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Pg. 176; dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 3, Pg. 173; Oyoun al-Athar, Vol. 1, Pgs. 343&352.

[14] . Dalael a-Nubuwwah, Vol. 3, Pg. 164; al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 44; al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Pg. 182; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 121.

[15] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. s, Pg. 46.

[16] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. Pg. 60; Dalael al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 3, Pg. 177; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 140.

[17] . Al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Pg. 334; Aayan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 259.

[18] . Oyoun al-Athar, Vol. 2, Pg. 352.

[19] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 46; Oyoun al-Athar, Vol. 1, Pgs. 352&356.

[20] . Ee’lam al-wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 190; Tabari, Emad al-Din Hasan bin Ali, Manaqib al-Taherin, Vol. 1, Pg. 173, Publisher and Publication organization, Tehran, first edition; Qutb al-Din Ravandi, saeed bin hibat Allah, Qisas al-Anbiya (as), researcher and evaluator: Erfaniyan Yazdi, Ghulam Reza, Pg. 344, Islamic researcher center, Mashad, first edition, 1409 A.H.

[21] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 214; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 147; Al-Rawz al-Anf fee Sharh e al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 6, Pg. 206; Oyoun Al-Athar, Vol. 2, Pg. 83; Hamoodi, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Anis al-Momenin, Pg. 21, Bunyad Beathat, Tehran.

[22] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 191, Oyoun al-Athar, Vol. 2, Pg. 70; Al-Maqazi, Vol. 1, Pg. 363.

[23] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 203; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 145; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 3, Pgs. 369-370; Al-Rawz al-Anf, Vol. 6, Pgs. 221-223.

[24] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 209; Al-Rawz al-Anf, Vol. 6, Pg. 228.

[25] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 213; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 147; Al-Rawz al-Anf, Vol. 6, Pg. 260.

[26] . Al-Maghazi, Vol. 2, Pg. 496; Bilazari, Ahmad bin Yahya, Ansab al-Ishraf, Vol. 1, Pg. 347, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, first edition, 1417 A.H.

[27] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 279; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 159; Dalael al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 3, Pg. 364.

[28] . Ansab al-Ashraf, Vol. 2, Pg. 349; Ibn Saad Katib Waqedi, Muhammad bin Saad, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Pg. 61, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Beirut, second edition, 1418 A.H.

[29] . Al-Maghazi, Vol. 2, Pg. 537.

[30] . A’alam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 196; Dalael al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 3, Pg. 397; al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Pg. 404; A’ayan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 261.

[31] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 289; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 161.

[32] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 308; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 3, Pg. 397; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 164; Al-Rawz al-anf, Vol. 6, Pg. 452; Aayan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 268.

[33] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 328; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 4, Pg. 197; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 167; Al-Rawz al-anf, Vol. 6, Pg. 499.

[34] . Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 389, Al-Rawz al-Anf, Vol. 7, Pg. 49; Manaqib al-Taherin, Vol. 1, Pg. 265; Aayan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 274.

[35] . Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 5, Pg. 156; Al-Maghazi, Vol. 3, Pg. 892; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 192; Al-Rawz al-Anf, Vol. 7, Pg. 161; Aayan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 278.

[36] . E’lam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 233; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 5, Pg. 156; Manaqib al-Taherin, Vol. 1, Pg. 224.

[37] . Refer to: E’lam al-Wara, Vol. 1, Pg. 212; al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 373; Jawame al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Pg. 174; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 4, Pgs. 358-359.

[38] . Ibn Saad Katib Vaqedi, Muhammad bin saad, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Pg. 97, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Brirut, second edtion, 1418 A.H.

[39] . al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 515; Dalael al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 5, Pg. 469; Aayan al-Shia, Vol. 1, Pg. 282.

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Common and Specific A’amaal for three nights of Qadr

Question 637: What are the common and specific A’amaal we the Muslim can perform during the three Nights of Power (Laylatul Qadr)?

Answer 637: The Night of Power (Laylatul Qard) is the night, which is the most blessed and excellent of all nights. A prayer during this night is superior to the prayer of a thousand months.[1] The destiny for the year is decided (decreed) on this night.[2] That is why the Du`as for this night ask for special favours in the decree for the year. Believers are encouraged to stay awake the entire night, and pray for blessings and forgiveness. It is the holiest night of the year, and it would be unwise to be heedless of the tremendous benefits of this night. The Angels and Roohul Ameen (a highly dignified Angel) descend on this earth, with the permission of Allah (swt) & call on the Imam of the time, and what is ordained (by Allah) for everybody is presented before the Imam.[3]

The month of Ramadan has been singled out for special worship (`Ibadat) and exclusive favours. It is a month unlike other months. One reason for this, as defined by the Holy Quran, is because the Holy Quran was revealed in this month.[4] In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction Therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein And whoever is sick or upon a journey, then) he shall fast (a) like (number of other days Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and) He desires (that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the Greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks”.[5]

Common A`amaal for the three nights of Qadr

On all three nights of Laylatul Qadr, the 19th, 21st, and 23rd of Ramadhan, the following acts are recommended:

First: Perform Ghusl near sunset. It is better to offer your Maghrib and Isha prayers with the Ghusl you performed near the sunset, according to Allamah Majlesi (ra).

Second: Two rak`aat namaz; in each rak`ah after reciting Sura al­Hamd recite Sura al­Ikhlas 7 times. After the prayer say the following 70 times and according to a hadith in which the holy Prophet (pbuh) says, do not stand up after your prayer until Allah (SWT) forgive you and your parents.[6]

Astaghfirullaaha wa­atoobu ilayh

    استغفر الله وأتوب إليك

Translation: I seek forgiveness of Allah, and I turn (repentant) to Him.

Third: Open the holy Quran and say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّی أَسْأَلُکَ بِکِتَابِکَ الْمُنْزَلِ وَ مَا فِیهِ وَ فِیهِ اسْمُکَ الْأَکْبَرُ وَ أَسْمَاؤُکَ الْحُسْنَى وَ مَا یُخَافُ وَ یُرْجَى أَنْ تَجْعَلَنِی مِنْ عُتَقَائِکَ مِنَ النَّارِ

Translation: O Allah I ask You, for the sake of Your revealed Book, and what is in it, and in it is Your greatest name, and (all) Your beautiful names, and what is feared and hoped for, make me amongst those whom You have saved from the fire.

Then remember all your wishes and ask Allah, the Almighty to grant them.

Fourth: Place the holy Quran on the head and say:

اللَّهُمَّ بِحَقِّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ وَ بِحَقِّ مَنْ أَرْسَلْتَهُ بِهِ وَ بِحَقِّ کُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مَدَحْتَهُ فِیهِ وَ بِحَقِّکَ عَلَیْهِمْ فَلا أَحَدَ أَعْرَفُ بِحَقِّکَ مِنْکَ

Then repeat each of the following ten times:

For Your sake, O Allah,

(bika yaallahu)

for the sake of Muhammad (pbuh),

(bi-muhammadin)

for the sake of `’Ali (as),

(bi-`aliyyin)

for the sake of Fatima (as),

(bi-fatimata)

for the sake of Hasan (as),

(bilhasani)

for the sake of Hussain (as),

(bilhussaini)

for the sake of `’Ali bin (son of) Hussain (as),

(bi-`aliyyi bni alhussaini)

for the sake of Muhammad bin Ali (as),

(bi-muhammadi bni `aliyyin)

for the sake of Jaafar bin Muhammad (as),

(bi-ja`fari bni muhammadin)

for the sake of Musa bin Jaafar (as),

(bi-musa bni ja`farin)

for the sake of `’Ali bin Musa (as),

(bi-`aliyyi bni musa)

for the sake of Muhammad bin Ali (as)

(bi-muhammadi bni `aliyyin)

for the sake of `’Ali bin Muhammad (as),

(bi-`aliyyi bni muhammadin)

for the sake of Hasan bin Ali (as),

(bilhasani bni `aliyyin)

for the sake of Al Hujjat (the proof) (as)

(bilhujjati)

Then ask Allah, the Almighty to grant all you wishes.

Fifth: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain (as): It is reported that if a person visited the holy shrine of Imam Hussain (as) Allah, the Almighty would forgive all of his/her sins.

Sixth: Stay awake. It is reported in a hadith that Imam Musa bin Jaafar (as) said: Whoever keeps awake on the nights of Qadr shall have his/her sins forgiven even if they equal the number of the stars in the heaven. [7]

Seventh: It is also recommended to recite hundred rakaats (i.e. 50 namaz of 2 rak`aat each) on these three nights. The practice of performing Qadha prayers on these nights has no origin in the books of Hadith. However, it is emphasized to fulfil the Qadha prayers as soon as it is possible, and some believers use this opportunity to perform Qadha prayers of six days (i.e. 6 x 17 =102 rak`aats).

Eighth: Recite this following dua:

للَّهُمَّ إِنِّی أَمْسَیْتُ لَکَ عَبْدا دَاخِرا لا أَمْلِکُ لِنَفْسِی نَفْعا وَ لا ضَرّا وَ لا أَصْرِفُ عَنْهَا سُوءا أَشْهَدُ بِذَلِکَ عَلَى نَفْسِی وَ أَعْتَرِفُ لَکَ بِضَعْفِ قُوَّتِی وَ قِلَّةِ حِیلَتِی فَصَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْجِزْ لِی مَا وَعَدْتَنِی وَ جَمِیعَ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ وَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ مِنَ الْمَغْفِرَةِ فِی هَذِهِ اللَّیْلَةِ وَ أَتْمِمْ عَلَیَّ مَا آتَیْتَنِی فَإِنِّی عَبْدُکَ الْمِسْکِینُ الْمُسْتَکِینُ الضَّعِیفُ الْفَقِیرُ الْمَهِینُ اللَّهُمَّ لا تَجْعَلْنِی نَاسِیا لِذِکْرِکَ فِیمَا أَوْلَیْتَنِی وَ لا [غَافِلا [لِإِحْسَانِکَ فِیمَا أَعْطَیْتَنِی وَ لا آیِسا مِنْ إِجَابَتِکَ وَ إِنْ أَبْطَأَتْ عَنِّی فِی سَرَّاءَ [کُنْتُ‏] أَوْ ضَرَّاءَ أَوْ شِدَّةٍ أَوْ رَخَاءٍ أَوْ عَافِیَةٍ أَوْ بَلاءٍ أَوْ بُؤْسٍ أَوْ نَعْمَاءَ إِنَّکَ سَمِیعُ الدُّعَاءِ

This dua has been narrated by Kaf’ami from Imam Sajjad (as) I have passed the evening as a very humble servant of Yours I have no control over the gains and losses for myself and I cannot drive back any evil from myself. I testify to this against myself. To You Do I confess of my powerlessness and my feebleness. So, (Please do) send blessings to Muhammad and the Household of Muhammad and fulfill what You have promised me, as well as all the believing men and women; that is Your forgiveness at this night, and accomplish that which You have conferred upon me, for I am Your slave—the poor, the humble, the weak, the needy, and the humiliated. O Allah, (please) do not make me negligent of Your mention as regards that which You have bestowed upon me, do not make me inadvertent to Your favors to me as regards that which You have given me, do not make me despair of Your responding to me, even if such response is postponed, whether I be in prosperity, adversity, hardship, comfort, wellbeing, ordeal, misery, or bliss. Verily, You are the Hearer of prayers.

The Specific Amaal for the 19th night of Qadr:

  1. Say 100 times: “Astaghfirullaaha Rabbee Wa­atoobu Ilayh

اَستَغفُرِاللهَ رَبی وَ اَتوبُ اِلَیه

  1. Say 100 times: “Allahumma il­`an Qatalata ­ameeril mu’mineen”

اَللّهُمَّ العَن قَتَلَةَ اَمیرَالمومنینَ

  1. Recite this dua:

“يا ذا الَّذِي كانَ قَبْلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ثُمَّ خَلَقَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ثُمَّ يَبْقى وَيَفْنى كُلُّ شَيْءٍ، يا ذا الَّذِي لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِه شَيْءٌ، وَيا ذا الَّذِي لَيْسَ فِي السَّماواتِ العُلى وَلا فِي الأَرْضِينَ السُّفْلى وَلا فَوْقَهُنَّ وَلا تَحْتَهُنَّ وَلا بَيْنَهُنَّ إِلهٌ يُعْبَدُ غَيْرُهُ، لَكَ الحَمْدُ حَمْداً لا يَقْوى عَلى إِحْصائِهِ إِلاّ أَنْتَ، فَصَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلاةً لا يَقْوى عَلى إِحْصائِها إِلاّ أَنْتَ”.

  1. Recite this dua:

“اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ فِيما تَقْضِي وَتُقَدِّرُ مِنَ الاَمْرِ المَحْتُومِ وَفِيما تَفْرُقُ مِنَ الاَمْرِ الحَكِيمِ فِي لَيْلَةِ القَدْرِ وَفِي القَضاء الَّذِي لا يُرَدُّ وَلا يُبَدَّلُ أَنْ تَكْتُبَنِي مِنْ حُجَّاجِ بَيْتِكَ الحَرامِ المَبْرُورِ حَجُّهُمُ المَشْكُورِ سَعْيُهُمُ المَغْفُورِ ذُنُوبُهُمُ المُكَفَّرِ عَنْهُم سَيِّئاتُهُمْ، وَاجْعَلْ فِيْما تَقْضِي وَتُقَدِّرُ أَنْ تُطِيلَ عُمْرِي وَتُوَسِّعَ عَلَيَّ فِي رِزْقِي وَتَفْعَلَ بِي كَذا وَكَذا”

Instead of saying the words Kaza wa Kaza you are supposed to remember you wishes and ask Allah (SWT) to grant them.

The specific A’amaal for the 21st night of Qadr:

Ghus, stay wake, Ziyarat Imam Hussain a(as), prayer (recite surat al-Ikhlas 7 times after surat al-Hamd), place the holy Quran on head, offer 100 rakaats prayers, Dua Jawshan kabir and the like.

Then recite this dua:

“يا مُولِجَ اللَّيْلِ فِي النَّهارِ وَمُولِجَ النَّهارِ فِي اللَّيْلِ، وَمُخْرِجَ الحَيِّ مِنَ المَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجَ المَيِّتِ مِنَ الحَيِّ، يا رازِقَ مَنْ يَشاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسابٍ، يا الله يا رَحْمنُ، يا الله يا رَحِيمُ، يا الله يا الله يا الله، لَكَ الاَسماء الحُسْنى وَالاَمْثالُ العُلْيا وَالكِبْرِياءُ وَالآلاُء، أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَأَنْ تَجْعَلَ اسْمِي فِي هذِهِ اللّيْلَةِ فِي السُّعَداءِ، وَرُوحِي مَعَ الشُّهداء، وَإِحْسانِي فِي عِلِّيِّينَ، وَإِسائَتِي مَغْفُورَةً، وَأَنْ تَهَبَ لِي يَقِينا تُباشِرُ بِهِ قَلْبِي، وَإِيماناً يُذْهِبُ الشَّكَّ عَنِّي، وَتُرْضِيَنِي بِما قَسَمْتَ لِي، وَآتِنا فِي الدُّنْيا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخرَةِ حَسَنَةً، وَقِنا عَذابَ النَّارِ الحَرِيقِ، وَارْزُقْنِي فِيْها ذِكْرَكَ وَشُكْرَكَ وَالرَّغْبَةَ إِلَيْكَ وَالاِنابَةَ وَالتَّوْفِيقَ لِما وَفَّقْتَ لَهُ مُحَمَّداً وَآلَ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَيْهِمُ السَّلامُ”.

The specific Amaal for the 23rd Night of Ramadhan:

According to Hadith, Laylatul Qadr is either on the 19th, 21st or 23rd night of Ramadhan. More emphasis is laid on the 21st and the 23rd, particularly the 23rd.

First: recite Surahs Ankabout and Room.

Second: Recite Surah Dukhan.

Third: Recite surah Qadr 1000 times.

Fourth: Continuously recite dua Faraj:

اللَّهُمَّ كُنْ لِوَلِيِّكَ الحُجَّةِ بْنِ الحَسَنِ صَلَواتُكَ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلى آبائِه فِي هذِهِ السّاعَةِ وَفِي كُلِّ ساعةٍ وَلِيّاً وَحافِظاً وَقائِداً وَناصِراً وَدَلِيلاً وَعَيْناً حَتّى تُسْكِنَهُ أَرْضَكَ طَوْعاً وَتُمَتِّعَهُ فِيْها طَوِيلا

Fifth: Recite this dua:

للَّهُمَّ امْدُدْ لِي فِي عُمْرِي، وَأَوْسِعْ لِي فِي رِزْقِي، وَأَصِحَّ لِي جِسْمِي، وَبَلِّغْنِي أَمَلِي، وَإِنْ كُنْتُ مِنَ الاَشْقِياءِ فَامْحُنِي مِنَ الاَشْقِياءِ وَاكْتُبْنِي مِنَ السُّعَداءِ، فَإِنَّكَ قُلْتَ فِي كِتابِكَ المُنْزَلِ عَلى نَبِيِّكَ المُرْسَلِ صَلَواتُكَ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: ﴿يَمْحُوالله ما يَشاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِنْدَهُ اُمَّ الكِتابِ﴾

Sixth: Recite this dua:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ فِيْما تَقْضِي وَفِيما تُقَدِّرُ مِنَ الاَمْرِ المَحْتُومِ وَفِيما تَفْرُقُ مِنَ الاَمْرِ الحَكِيمِ فِي لَيْلَةِ القَدْرِ مِنَ القَضاء الَّذِي لا يُرَدُّ وَلا يُبَدَّلُ، أَنْ تَكْتُبَنِي مِنْ حُجَّاجِ بَيْتِكَ الحَرامِ فِي عامِي هذا المَبْرُورِ حَجُّهُمُ المَشْكُورِ سَعْيُهُمُ المَغْفُورِ ذُنُوبُهُمُ المُكَفَّرُ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئاتُهُمْ، وَاجْعَلْ فِيْما تَقْضِي وَتُقَدِّرُ أَنْ تُطِيلَ عُمْرِي وَتُوَسِّعَ لِي فِي رِزْقِي

Seventh: Recite this dua:

يا باطِنا فِي ظُهُورِهِ، وَيا ظاهِراً فِي بُطُونِهِ، وَيا باطِنا لَيْسَ يَخْفَى، وَيا ظاهِراً لَيْسَ يُرى، يا مَوْصُوفاً لا يَبْلُغُ بِكَيْنُونَتِهِ مَوْصُوفٌ وَلا حَدٌ مَحْدُودٌ، وَيا غائِبا غَيْرَ مَفْقُودٍ، وَيا شاهِداً غَيْرَ مَشْهُودٍ، يُطْلَبُ فَيُصابُ، وَلَمْ يَخْلُ مِنْهُ السَّماواتُ وَالأَرْضُ وَمابَيْنَهُما طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ، لا يُدْرَكُ بِكَيْفٍ، وَلا يُؤَيَّنُ بِأَيْنٍ وَلا بِحَيْثٍ، أَنتَ نُورُ النُّورُ وَرَبُّ الأَرْبابِ، أَحَطْتَ بِجَمِيعِ الاُمور، سُبْحانَ مَنْ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ، سُبْحانَ مَن هُوَ هكَذا وَلا هكَذا غَيْرَهُ

Then remember all your wishes and ask Allah (SWT) to grant them.

Eighth: Perform another Ghusl at the end of the night

Ninth: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain (as).

Tenth: offer 100 rakaats prayers.

Eleventh: Recite this following dua and ask Allah, the Almighty for his forgiveness and to grant your wishes.[8]

“يا رَبَّ لَيْلَةِ القَدْرِ وَجاعِلَها خَيْراً مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ، وَرَبَّ اللّيْلِ وَالنَّهارِ وَالجِبالِ وَالبِحارِ وَالظُّلَمِ وَالاَنْوارِ وَالأَرْضِ وَالسَّماء، يا بارِيُ يا مُصَوِّرُ يا حَنّانُ يا مَنّانُ، يا الله يا رحَمنُ يا الله يا قَيُّومُ يا الله يا بَدِيعُ، يا الله يا الله يا الله، لَكَ الاَسماء الحُسْنى وَالاَمْثالُ العُلْيا وَالكِبْرِياءُ وَالآلاُء، أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَأَنْ تَجْعَلَ اسْمِي فِي هذِهِ اللّيْلةِ فِي السُّعَداءِ، وَرُوحِي مَعَ الشُّهداء، وَإِحْسانِي فِي عِلِّيِّينَ، وَإِسائَتِي مَغْفُورَةً، وَأَنْ تَهَبَ لِي يَقِيناً تُباشِرُ بِهِ قَلْبِي، وإِيْمانا يُذْهِبُ الشَّكَّ عَنِّي، وَتُرْضِيَنِي بِما قَسَمْتَ لِي، وَآتِنا فِي الدُّنْيا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخرةِ حَسَنَةً، وَقِنا عَذابَ النّارِ الحَرِيقِ، وَارْزُقْنِي فِيْها ذِكْرَكَ وَشُكْرَكَ وَالرَّغْبَةَ إِلَيْكَ، وَالاِنابَةَ وَالتَّوْبَةَ وَالتَّوْفِيقَ لِما وَفَّقْتَ لَهُ مُحَمَّداً وَآلَ مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلامُ)

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following references and answers:

– Man La Yahduruhul Faqih, Vol. 2, Pg.s 506-508.

– Lavame’ Sahid Qirani, Vol. 6, chapter on the night of Qadr.

– Al-Fiqh al-Mansoob Ilal Imam al-Reza (as), Pg. 399, Chapter al-A’daab.

– Al-Kafi, Vol. 7, Pgs. 619-631.

– Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 18-288.

– Biharul Anwar, Vol. 94, Pgs. 1-391.

– Mafatih al-Jinan, The common and Specific Amaal for the three nights (Laylatul Qadr.

Index: The sign of Laylatul Qadr, the Night of Power, answer 065.

Index: Wisdom of placing the Holy Quran on our head, answer 112.

Index: Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession, answer 148.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index:  Satans are chained during the Holy Month of Ramadan, answer 061.

[1] . Al-Fiqh al-Masnsoob (attributed to) lil Imam al-Reza (as), Pg. 204; Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Furu Kafi, Ali Akbar Ghafari, Tehran, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, 1391 A.H, Vol. 4, Pg. 158.

[2] . Mafatihul Jinan, Pgs. 439; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 7, Pg. 258, H. 8; Tafsir Manhaj al-Sadeqin, Vol. 10, Pg. 303.

[3] . Surah Qadr, verses 1-5.

[4] . Tafsir al-Qummi, Vol. 2, Pg. 431.

[5] . Surah Baqarah, verse 185.

[6] . Mafatih al-Jinan, Pg. 439-441.

[7] . Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin al-Hasan, Wasael al-Shia, Abdul Rahim Rabbani Shirazi, Beirut, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1412 A.H, sixth edition, Vol. 7, Pg. 262.

[8] . Mafatih al-Jinan, Pg. 439-479.

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Wudu: Permissibility of touching the script of the holy Quran

Question 128: I know that one must perform Wudhu before you touch the Qur’an. What is the proper etiquette for handling the Qur’an and does it apply to the translations as well or just Qur’an in Arabic?

Answer 128: It is haraam to touch the script of the holy Qur’an with any part of one’s body, without performing Wudhu. There is no harm in touching the translation of the holy Qur’an, in any language, without Wudhu.

It is haraam, as an obligatory precaution, to touch the Names of Allah (SWT), without Wudhu, in whichever language it may have been translated. It is also haraam to touch, without Wudhu, the blessed names of the Holy Prophets of Islam, the Holy Imams and Hazrat Fatima Zahra (peace be upon them).[1]

It is makrooh (abominable) for a person in the state of Janabat to touch the cover, the margin or border of the holy Qur’an, with one’s body and keeping the holy Qur’an with oneself. In case, however, a person touches the Qur’an or holy names by mistake, there is no problem.

Note: It is Mustahab (recommended) to be in Wudhu for touching the margins of the Quran also.[2]

It is obligatory to perform Wudhu for the following six things:

For all obligatory prayers, except Namaz-e-Mayyit. As regards Mustahab prayers, Wudhu is a condition for their validity. For the Sajdah and Tashahhud which a person forgot to perform during the prayers, provided that he invalidated his Wudhu after namaz, and before performing those forgotten acts. It is not obligatory to perform Wudhu for Sajdatus sahw. For the obligatory Tawaf of the holy Ka’bah. If a person has made a Nadhr, or a solemn pledge, or taken an oath for Wudhu. If a person has made a Nadhr, for example, that he would kiss the Holy Qur’an. For washing and making Pak the holy Qur’an which has become najis, or for taking it out from lavatory etc. in which it has fallen, when he becomes obliged to touch the script of the holy Qur’an with his hand, or some other part of his body. But if t he delay by making Wudhu causes further desecration of the holy Qur’an, one should take it out from lavatory etc., or make it Pak, without performing Wudhu.[3]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Women: Obligatory of wearing Hijab to recite the Holy Quran, answer 358.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

Index: Number of things which invalidate Wudu (ablution), answer 556.

[1] . The Official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Islamic Laws, rules regarding Wudu, Things for which Wudhu is obligatory.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini ra), vol.1, pgs. 186-187-214.

[3] . The Official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Islamic Laws, rules regarding Wudu, Things for which Wudhu is obligatory.

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Obligatory of wearing Hijab to recite the Holy Quran

Question 358: Assalam o alaikum, I am a Pakistani and lived my whole life in a different society than the Arabs. So naturally few things I am seeing in this culture are quite different from mine. Today I picked out one such thing for my Question to improve my knowledge.

In subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) females usually cover their heads when they hear the sound of Azan or sound of recitation of Holy Quran.

But, here in my school the Arab teachers teaching Holy Quran never covers their head. They say it’s not necessary to cover the head for recitation of Holy Quran or Azan.

We only need to cover head in front of non-Mahram or for prayer.

Kindly explain is it necessary to cover head or not while recitation of Holy Quran and Listening Azan. Regards

Answer 358:  According to Islam, it is not obligatory on you to have Hijab while you are reciting the holy Quran, unless there is a non-Mahram can see you. So, it would be considered as wajib upon you to observe Hijab just because of the presence of non-Mahram.

It is mustahab to recite the holy Quran while you are lying in bed, however it has less rewards than sitting or standing. There is a tradition in which mentioned we are recommended to recite surahs Tawhid, last verses of Surah Kahf, those Surahs begin with the word Sabbaha (i.e. al-Hadid, Hashr, al-Saff, Jumu’ah, Taghabun especially surah al-Hashr) before we go to sleep.[1]

There are some traditions in which saying we should recite the holy Quran standing, lying, sitting or any state we are, however it would be makruh for a Haez (menstrual period) or Junub to recite verses of the holy Quran if they didn’t perform Wudu or Tayammum.[2] The meaning of Makruh in this state is that they would get less rewards if they recite the holy Quran.[3]

Those women who are in their menstrual period can read the Quran except for the those verses which include obligatory Sajdas. They cannot touch the verses of the holy Quran.[4]

Note: One of the forbidden acts for those who are in the state of Janabah or menstrual period is to recite those verses of the holy Qur’an on the recitation of which performance of Sajdah becomes obligatory.

It is obligatory to perform prostration (sajdah) for reciting four verses in four Sürats (Chapters of the Quran), namely, the last of the Sürat al-Najm (Chapter 53 of the Quran), Surah al-’Alaq (Chapter 96 of the Quran), Verse No. 15 of the Sürat Alif Lam Mim Tanzil (or Sürat al-Sajdah, Chapter 32 of the Quran), Verse No. 37 of the Surat Ha Mim al-Sajdah (Chapter 41 of the Quran).[5] It is also obligatory if a person listens to their recitation attentively, but most obliviously not in case he listens them recited inattentively, though in the latter case too caution must not be given up.

The prostration is obligatory only when a person recites or listens attentively to the whole of any of these four verses, but it is not rendered obligatory just by reciting a part of any of these verses, even the word “Sajdah” in them, though it is more cautious (to perform prostration in such case too). It is obligatory to perform the prostration immediately without any delay. If it is delayed, even though insubordinately, it shall be obligatory to perform the prostration, and its obligation shall not drop.[6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Philosophy of Hijab during prayer, answer 020.

Index: Men and Women: Covering body in prayers, answer 594.

Index: The best place for a woman to pray is at home or mosque, answer 015.

Index: Rules concerning touching the script of the holy Quran, answer 128.

[1] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 60, Pgs. 228-229.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 270; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 60, Pg. 246.

[3] . The Official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Women’s issues, Q&A.

[4] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A, Quran.

[5] . Briefly: Surah Alif Lam Mim as-Sajdah, 32:15 / Surah Ha Mim Sajdah, 41:38 / Surah an-Najm, 53:62 / Surah al ‘Alaq, 96:19; Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 212.

[6] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini ra, Vol. 1, chapter on The Two Prostrations of Recitation of the Quran & Expression of Thankfulness.

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Haram Fasts: Days when fasting is prohibited

Question 628: Can you please tell me the days on which it is forbidden to fast, according to Islam?

Answer 628: The followings are the days when fasting is prohibited:

  1. Fasts on the Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã.
  2. The fast on 30 of Sha’ban with the intention that it is a part of Ramadan
  3. The fast on the Day of Tashriq (i.e. on the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) for a person who is in Minã, regardless whether he is busy in performing the rites of Hajj or not.
  4. A votive fast kept for the performance of a sinful act
  5. A fast to keep silence, in the sense that the fast is kept with the intention of keeping silence, even if for a part of the day. There is no harm in keeping silence if it is not the intention of the fast, even if the person keeps silence throughout the day.
  6. The continuous fast. According to the stronger opinion it includes a fast with the intention of keeping it throughout the day and night until the morning or two days including the night. There is, however, no harm if breaking the fast is delayed until morning or the next night without such an intention for the fast, though it is more cautious to abstain from doing so.
  7. Similarly, it is also more cautious for the wife to give up a recommended fast without the permission of her husband. Rather, caution must not be given up in case it entails some trouble, rather generally in case the husband disallows it.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 1, Pg. 965; Tawzih al-Masael of Imam Khomeini (ra), Pg. 362; Tahrir al-Wasislah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on the Prohibited Fasts; Tawzih al-Masael of Sayyid Sistani, Rues of Fasting, Q. 1707-1715; The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), books, Islamic Laws, Fasting, Haram and Makrooh fasts.

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When to Break a fast: After Maghrib prayer or before?

Question 389: Salamualekum members. Please, in the month of Ramadan, is it always required to break our fast before magrib prayer or we should pray before breaking the fast?

Answer 389: In the holy Quran Allah (swt) says: And eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn Then complete the fast till night And have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques These are the Limits of Allah, so do not go near them Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).[1]

Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, from the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers up to Maghrib, avoid those things from which a person keeping fast must abstain.[2]

To further explain, just before dawn a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the prime time for Fajr prayers.[4] It is exactly the time to refrain from the things which invalidate the fast. Maghrib is the time when the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon.[5] This is the beginning of Maghrib time and the end of the time for imsak.[6]

According to maraja’ (ha), in order to get more rewards, it is mustahab to break your fast after Maghrib and Isha prayers, unless somebody is waiting for you or due to fasting you are not able to offer your prayers properly.[7]

It should be noted that Hudhur al-qalb in worshiping Allah, the Almighty means to not allow thoughts that have to do with material matters, whether they are personal or pertaining to others, and in general, thoughts that are in contradiction with the hereafter to enter one’s mind. But thoughts that conform to the nature of Ibadat (worship) do not disturb hudhur al-qalb in anyway.[8] So, if offering your Maghrib and Isha prayers while fasting cause to allow thoughts of material matters in your mind it would be better to break your fast and offer your prayers later.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Ruling of breaking the fast after disappearing the redness in the sky, answer 382.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

[1] . Surah Baqarah, verse 187.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomieni), Vol. 1, Pg. 880.

[3] –  Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg.88.

[4] – Ibid, vol.1, pg.411

[5] – Khomeini, Sayyid Rohullah Musavi, Tawzih al-Masail (by Imam Khomeini), pg.164, issue No.730, First, 1436 A.H;  Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 16, Pg. 384.

[6] . Adopted from answer 382. (Index: Ruling of breaking the fast after disappearing the redness in the sky).

[7] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 969; Tabatabaee, Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad Kazem, al-Urwa al-Wuthqa, Vol. 2, Pg. 213.

[8] . Adopted from answer 014 (Index:  Hudhur al-Qalb in worshiping Allah).

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Breaking our fast after disappearing redness in the sky

Question 382: What if someone has reverted to Shia Islam but due to his Parents, he has to break some of his fasts or all the fasts on Sunni time. He, somehow, manages to do Sehri on Shia time, but sometimes breaks his fast on Sunni time. Does Allah still accept it considering his problem of not letting his parents know about it or he has to give fidiya? If yes, how much fidiya? Or he has to fast again in future when he can easily, as a remedy of those broken on Sunni time? So, what is the ruling on Breaking our fast after disappearing redness in the sky?

Answer 382: Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, refrain, from the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers up to Maghrib, from the things which invalidate the fast.[1]

To further explain, just before dawn a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the prime time for Fajr prayers.[2] It is exactly the time to refrain from the things which invalidate the fast. Maghrib is the time when the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon.[3] This is the beginning of Maghrib time and the end of the time for imsak.

Therefore, as per the foregoing explanation, there is no imsak time other than the time between the Adhan for Fajr prayers and the Adhan for Maghrib prayers.

The grand jurists have said that in order to ensure that one has been fasting throughout this time, he should, as a matter of precaution, begin abstaining a little earlier than the Adhan for Fajr prayers, and continue to refrain for a little after Maghrib, from acts which invalidate a fast.

What follows below is an answer to a similar question from Grand Ayatollah Khamenei:

Question: Given that the cities are developing and becoming larger every day and it is not possible to ascertain the exact time of Fajr, kindly let us know about the exact time of imsak for Fast and Fajr prayer.

Answer: The believers are asked to exercise precaution about imsak and the time for Fajr prayer. So, they should refrain from invalidating things from Adhan time as declared by the media and should offer their Fajr prayers five to six minutes after the Adhan for Fajr prayers.[4]

Note: Ayatollah Bahjat (ra) said: according to a mustahab precaution, for breaking your fast you need to wait till the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon. This means, if you are unable, due to observing taqiyyah, to wait till the redness disappears and are compel to break your fast on that time, your fast would be considered as valid.[5]

According to most of maraja’, you have to break your fast when the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon. Therefore, if you break your fast under duress (as you are compelled by your parents) before disappearing the redness (i.e. according to sunni time) you have to compensate your fast later, however Allah (swt) would accept it and there is no need to give Kaffarah. But, according to Ayatollah Bahjat (ra), your fast performed in this state is treated as valid. As a result, if you are following another marja’ you are able to act only in this issue based on the Ayatollah Bahjat’s fatwa.

The following are some recommendations you are supposed to observe in order to break your fast after disappearing the redness in the sky (i.e. according to Shia time):

– As it is mutahab to break your fast after prayers you should try to offer mustahab or qadha prayers.[6]

– Try to recite some verses of the holy Quran specially Surah al-Qadr or duas, Salawat or any kinds of Dikr.[7]

– Making Wudu.

– Making any excuses in order to refrain eating or drinking on that time.

If there is no possibility to do the above mentioned or other recommendations you don’t have to cause any distress and discomfort to your parents as it is forbidden.[8]

For further information, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

Index: Rules concerning tooth brush (Miswak) during fasting, answer 391.

[1] –  Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg. 880.

[2] – Ibid, vol.1, pg.411

[3] – Khomeini, Sayyid Rohullah Musavi, Tawzih al-Masail (by Imam Khomeini), pg.164, issue No.730, First, 1436 A.H;  Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 16, Pg. 384.

[4] – Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg.440; Khamenei, Sayyid Ali, Answers to Jurisprudential Questions, pg. 73, Office of Grand Ayatollah Khamenei in Qom, Qom, Iran, First, 1424 A.H.

[5] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 1, Pg. 407, Q 735.

[6] . Wasael al-Shia, chapter 7, rules concerning fast;  Sayyid Sistani (ha), issue 1718; Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 969; Tabatabaee, Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad Kazem, al-Urwa al-Wuthqa, Vol. 2, Pg. 213.

[7] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 10, Pgs. 149-151;  Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 11, Pgs. 384-385.

[8] . Imam Sadiq, peace be upon him, said: “If there was anything less than “fie” to cause distress and discomfort to parents, he would prohibit it and “fie” is the lowest level of hurting parents. One of the instances of causing distress is to gaze at the parents. See: Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Usul-e Kafi (translated by Mustafavi), vol.4, pg. 50, Islamic Book Store, Tehran, 1st edition.

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Rules concerning tooth brush (Miswak) during fasting

Question 391: Salamualekum members. Please what is the view of ahlulbat on chewing stick (miswak) whiles fasting?

Answer 391: One of the things which is considered as makru for a person observing Fast is to clean his teeth with a wet toothbrush.

If a person, who is fasting, takes the tooth brush (Miswak) out of his mouth and then puts it back into his mouth, swallowing its liquid, his fast will be void, unless the moisture in the tooth brush mixes up with the saliva in such a way that it may no longer be called an external wetness.[1]

When one rinses his mouth with water because it has dried due to thirst or to get rid of a bad smell of mouth and the water uncontrollably goes down one’s throat and one has already known it that if he\she does so the water will go down his\her throat, qadha has to be given.[2]

A fast is not invalidated by swallowing the saliva which has gathered in the mouth, even if it has gathered due to recalling something. Likewise, according to the stronger opinion, (a fast is not invalidated) by swallowing the phlegm which has not yet reached the cavity of mouth, without there being any difference whether it has come down from the head or has emerged from the chest (or lungs). As regards the phlegm which has reached the cavity of mouth, caution must not be given up by abstaining from swallowing it. If the phlegm has come out of the mouth, and then a person swallows it, his fast shall thereby be rendered void. The same rule applies to saliva. Rather, (the same rule shall apply) if there is a pebble in the mouth of a person, and he takes it out, and there is some saliva on it, then the person puts it again into his mouth and swallows it. (The same rule shall apply), if a tailor wets a thread by his saliva, then puts it back into his mouth, and swallows it along with the moisture on it. (The same rule shall apply), if a person uses the tooth brush, and it comes out wet with saliva, and then he puts its back into his mouth and swallows the moisture etc., on it, and his fast shall be rendered void.

Of course, if the moisture on the tooth brush is mixed up with his saliva in a way that it may not be said that he has swallowed his saliva with something other in it, there shall be no harm. The same rule applies to tasting broth, chewing the food or the amount of water left after rinsing. Likewise, there is no harm in chewing the bark of a tree, according to the more valid opinion, even if its taste has remained in his saliva as long as it is not due to the scattering of its particles, even if they are absorbed in the mouth.[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding Fasting, Eating and Drinking.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 1, Pg. 892, Q  1573; Ibid, Pgs. 895-942, Q 1582&1690; the Official website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Fasting, occasions on which it is obligatory to observe the Qadha only;  Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 272.

[3] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Chapter on Things Which Must Be Refrained in a Fast.

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Masturbation and forget performing Ghusl in Ramadan

Question 141: If you masturbate during the night and forget to do ghusl, can you still perform ghusl when you wake up and fast that day?

Answer 141: The grand maraja’ answer in this regards is as follows: If one who becomes jonob during a night of the holy month of Ramadan and is sure or probably knows that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before morning Adhan (call to prayer) and do ghusl. So, if he falls asleep with the decision till Adhan, his fast would be considered as valid.

If one goes to sleep and wakes up later and knows or guesses that if he wants to go to sleep again he’ll wake up before morning adhan with the decision to do jinabat ghusl but he won’t wake up till adhan, then one must make his fast up.

There is no need to give Kaffarah even if he wakes up of the second sleep and goes to sleep for the third time and won’t wake up till adhan.[1]

Note: Masturbation is defined as self-stimulation of the sexual organ till one achieves emission of semen or orgasm. This applies to both men and women. This Self-satisfaction which is referred to as Istimna’ (masturbation) is a major sin and haram. It has a heavy punishment. If one has committed such forbidden act repentance and seeking God’s forgiveness would be sufficient for forgiveness.[2]

It should be noted that masturbation is one of the forbidden act which a person keeping fast must abstain. Ejaculation of the Semen, whether by masturbation, touching, kissing, rubbing (the male organ) on the thighs (of another person), or such other acts which are intended to cause discharge of semen. Rather even in case when the discharge of semen is not intended, but it was the usual consequence of the said act, in that case too it shall render the fast void. Of course, if ejaculation takes place without doing something which causes ejaculation in a person as a matter of his habit even without any intention on his part, it shall not render the fast void.[3]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Rules concerning Janabat during night or day time in the month of Ramadan, answer 394.

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

[1] . Tawzih al-masa’il (al-mohasha), vol 1, p 912, question 1627 . Ibid, p 914, question 1630.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding masturbation.

[3] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on Things Which Must Be Refrained in a Fast.