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Taking interest from government organization

Question 167: A Pakistani government organization offers interest to their employee in exchange for some money the employee should invest, but with a term in which the probability of returning back their investments is small. Is it permissible to take such interest?

Answer 167: According to some scholars, there would be no problem to take such interest if it is given under a valid legal contracts like Mudärabah (A contract, entered into by two persons on the condition that the stock or Rãs al-Mãl in trade shall belong to one of them, and the labor to another, and in case profit is accrued, it should be divided between both of them. If the whole profit is stipulated to go to the proprietor (of the stock) it is called “Bida’ah, Hibah (donation) moawaddah (exchange contract), advocacy for business or Musharakat (partnership). According to other scholars, it is an example of haram usury.

The grant maraja’ answer to this question is as follows:

Ayatollah Khamenei (ha): There is no problem in it if it is done under moawaddah contract or the like. If you lend it, you are not allowed to take this interest.

Ayatollah Safi Golpayegani (ha): It is impermissible to take interest if you stipulate a condition by which they have to pay back its interest. If they themselves give you the interest there would be no problem to take it.

Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (ha): Given the supposition made in the questions, taking this interest is considered as haram.

Ayatollah Noori Hamadani (ha): It is considered as a haram act if it is not done under any kind of valid Islamic contracts like Mudarabah and the like.[i]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Rules on taking an interest-based loan before reverting to Islam, answer 293.

Index: Bank Interest / Investment in the Stock Market, answer 604.

[i] . This question has been sent to the office of grand Ayatollahs Khamenei, Safi Golpayegani, Makrarem Shirazi and Noori Hamedani (May Allah grant them long life).

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Conditions for non-Iranian ladies who want to study in Hawzah

Question 152: Is there an age cut off for people attending hawzas? i heard in some sunni universities..they only allow people in their early 20s to attend

Answer 152: Non-Iranian ladies who want to study in Hawza (Jami’at al-Zahra) should have the following conditions:
1) Valid Iranian Visa. 2) Diploma (academic degree). 3) Be at the age of 16+ years of age and less than 36 years of age. 4) A father or husband will live with you in the Holy City of Qom. 5) Pass the exam (scientific interview).[1]

According to Jami’at al-Zahra (the international affairs section), if a female wants to attend the Hawzah and study there she will be able to Email us and send her request via this following address: (paziresh@jz.ac.ir)

They also said: we would ask one who wants to study here in Hawzah about religion (e.g. which religion do you believe in) and the like. Btw, you will be able to email them in any language you speak. They will evaluate your request and reply to your email ASAP.

There are two ways of registration for foreign woman who want to study in the Holy City of Qom:

  1. Daily (There are no dormitories available for them. The father or husband is required to live with the female student in the Holy City of Qom).
  2. Nightly (Dormitories are available for them if they are single. They should not exceed the age of 22 years old. However if an older woman wishes to study, she can email the institution and explain their situation in order to be considered).

Note: If special conditions exist, they are able to contact the International Affairs via email address: paziresh@jz.ac.ir.

The above stipulations are for Jami’at al-Zahra. There is another place of study, called al-Mustafa International University and they can be contacted via this address: (http://en.miu.ac.ir/) or http://en.miu.ac.ir/index.aspx?siteid=4&fkeyid=….

As for men who want to study in Hawzah, they need to contact al-Mustafa International University, as well.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The curriculum of Hawzah / the first Shia Marja, answer 543.

[1] . Related Link: http://paziresh.jz.ac.ir/. http://support.jz.ac.ir/index.php?a=add&catid=3&language=English

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Who is Sayyid? Rules concerning Sehme Sadaat

Question 352: Assalam o alAikum. Who are syed? According the Holy Quran?

I asked this question because of the concept circling in India and Pakistan about Masoom syed and non Masoom syed. As per my understanding Imam Mehdi as is the last know syed of Hazrat Fatima as blood line.
I do not understand the concept of non Masoom syed blood line.

Regards

Answer 352: In Arabic, the word ‘Sayyid’ simply means Mister, Honorable and Head. In Islamic terminology, it is an honorific title denoting those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim through the Daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), Hadhrat Fatimah Zahra (sa) and Imam Ali (as).[1]

Those who are descendant of Imam Ali (as) through Hadhrat Abbas (as) or Muhammad Hanafiyyah are respectfully called Sayyid. The same way is for those Hashemis who are accepted as descendant of Ja’far al-Tayyar and Aqil.[2]

Although, those who are descendants of Laday Fatimah Zahra (sa) through their mothers are Sayyid, but the term Sayyid is not exclusively related to the children of Hazrat Zahra (sa), because those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim and His generations are also considered as Sayyid. What the only difference is in regards to some rules like Khums that are considered as haram to those whose mothers are Sayyida, only. This means that those children of Sayyida mothers are surely descendant of the Holy Prophet (pbuh),[3] but a non Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza.

According to this following verse of the Holy Quran “Assert their relationship to their fathers; this is more equitable with Allah” it is prevalent and customary that a childs name and race are followed by his father, however ascribing the child to his mother is certainly true as well.[4]

One of the important thing we should take into consideration is that a child whose mother is sayyida but non Sayyid father is only allowed to use Sadaqa, though Khums is not given to him.[5]

Note: Khums should be divided into two parts. One part is Sehme Sadaat, it should be given to a Sayyid who is poor, or orphan, or who has become stranded without money during his journey. The second part is Sehme Imam (A.S.), and during the present time it should be given to a Mujtahid, who fulfils all conditions, or be spent for such purposes as allowed by that Mujtahid. As an obligatory precaution, that Mujtahid must be Aalam, and well versed in public affairs.[6]

Sayyid and non-Sayyid on the Day of resurrection:  1) There is no difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid in doing their duties and canonical responsibilities as they are equal without having any superiority over each other. Because, the Holy Quran says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”.  2)  Sayyids due to their descendant ascribed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) have more responsibility toward observing their Islamic responsibilities and duties.[7]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The difference between Sayyid and Mirza, answer 562.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

Index: Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid, answer 041.

Index: Khums in the Holy Quran and Traditions / Things on which Payment of Khums is Obligatory, answer 043.

[1] . Qurashi, Sayyid Ali Akbar, Qamous Quran, Vol. 3, Pg. 350, Dar al-Kutub al-Islmaiya, Tehran, sixth edition, 1992;  Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn, majma al-Bahrain, Vol. 3, Pg. 71, Murtadhavi Bookstore, Tehran, third edition, 1996;  Arabic and Farsi Farhang Abjad, Pg. 507.

[2] . Khamenei, Sayyid Ali, Ajwabat al-Istiftaat, Pgs. 216-217;  Golpayegani, Saayid Muhammad Redha, Majma al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 392, Dar al-Quran al-Karim, Qom, eighth edition, 1409 A.H.

[3] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir Biharul Anwar, vol. 10, Pg. 349, H 9, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, 1404 A.H. Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 2, Pg. 89, Q 1009.

[4] . Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[5] . Kulayni, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 539, H. 4, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran, 1986;  Kulayni, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 539, H. 4, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran, 1986;  Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[6] . The Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Khums, issue 1843.

[7] . Surah al-Hujurat, verse 13;  Majma’ al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 393.

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Obligatory of paying Khums or Zakat upon Goldsmith

Question 328: Asalamualaikum. Dear Sheikh,If I am a goldsmith ,is it halal/haram for me to give zakat from my earning from such business(i.e.gold)? Thank you

Answer 328: This question has different assumable cases:

1- If gold meets the criterion of being made into coins, and is in currency for transactions, is in one’s possession, and reach the taxable limits, zakat will apply.[1] But if these coins are made into ornaments and used by women as ornaments, e.g., necklaces and bracelets, then zakat will no longer apply.[2]

Note: Zakaat [obligatory charity] must be paid on gold if it reaches the Nisaab [i.e. the minimum amount liable for Zakaah], which is 20 Mithqaal [a measure which equals 70 grams of pure gold, according to most of scholars], this means that one should pay ½ a Mithqaal as Zakaat, i.e., 2.5% of the value of gold. If 4 Mithqaal is added to the previous mentioned value, 2.5% of gold should be paid again as the liable amount of Zakaah.[3]

2- If gold do not meet the criteria mentioned above, like in the case where they aren’t used as currency in transactions, then zakat will not apply. [4] Based on this, since the gold used today isn’t used as currency, zakat does not apply to it.[5]

However, if a khums year passes and you have other required conditions (which have been mentioned in Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (ha)), you are just supposed to pay Khums.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

Index: How to calculate Khums on a house purchased with Sahm e Sadat, answer 046.

Index: Khums in the Holy Quran and Traditions / Things on which Payment of Khums is Obligatory, answer 043.

Index: Obligatory of paying knums on wife’s dowry, answer 042.

Index: Obligatory of paying Khums on a plot of land you have the intention to sell it, answer 567.

Index: Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid, answer 041.

Index: Khums on household items received from parents, answer 038.

Index: Obligatory of Khums on savings exceeds a person’s expenditures, answer 559.

Index: Zakat of Fitrah, Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies), answer 045.

Index: Things on which Payment of Zakàt is Obligatory or Recommended, answer 044.

Index: Zakat of Gold and Silver and its criterion, answer 039.

[1] . An inquiry from the office of the Supreme leader; Imam Khomeini, Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), researched and corrected by: Bani Hashemi Khomeini, Sayyid Mohammad Hosein, vol. 2, pp. 128-132, Islamic Publications Press, Qum, eighth edition, 1424 AH.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 2, Pg. 129.

[3] . Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pg. 131; Sistani and Saafi Golpaygani (inquiry from their offices); Zanjani: “Gold and silver coins used as currency that women use as ornaments, if are still commonly used in transactions as currency, are subject to zakat, but if they aren’t commonly used in transactions as currency, zakat will not apply, but it is still a recommended precaution to pay their zakat as well.” Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pg. 130.

[4] . Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pp. 128-132.

[5] . Makarem Shirazi (inquiry from office).

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Wilayat e-Takwini in Sunni traditions

Question 351: Salam Maulana, Can wilayat e takwini be explained by sunni hadith’s?

Answer 351: Wilayah Takwini means guardianship over all things in this world and to have control over them and to be able to render change in them in any way; such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but can also be attributed to the prophets and infallible imams (pbuth) and complete individuals secondarily.[1]

The word Takwin is derived from “Kawn” meaning “Be” or “Being”. Considering the Saying of Allah is the Act of Him not His Words, Voice and the like, in the Holy Quran the meaning of Takwin is: “Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth And when He decrees an affair, He only says to it: Be, so there it is”[2]

بَدیعُ السَّماواتِ وَ اْلأَرْضِ وَ إِذا قَضی أَمْرًا فَإِنَّما یَقُولُ لَهُ کُنْ فَیَکُونُ.

The Holy Quran says: “What is in the heavens and the earth is Allah’s Surely Allah is the Self-sufficient, the Praised”[3]

لِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَميد.

The Holy Quran also says: “Then are they sent back to Allah, their Master, the True One Now surely His is the judgment and He is swiftest in taking account”[4]

ثُمَّ رُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلاهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَ هُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحاسِبينَ.

Wilayat al-Takwini can have three meanings as follows:

  1. Having Wilayat over creation of the world: This means that Allah (swt) gives one of His creation an ability by which he can create or emit a world. Although, it is not impossible for Allah to do so, as He is surely able to do anything and give such ability to anyone He prefer, but verses of the Holy Quran show that Surely Allah has power over all things and He is the only Creator.
  2. Wilayat Takwini is a path towards Allah’s grace: This means that every blessing, grace and power of Allah has been giving to the human by awleyââ­allâh (the friends of Allah) and the special servant of Allah. This type of Wilaya is one of main of belief that Shia believe in.

In forth volume of the book Sharh e Nahjul Balagha Ibn Abi al-Hadid narrated the Lady Fatimah Zahra’s (sa) sermon regarding Fadak in the presence of Muhajir and Ansar in which Hazrat Zahra (sa) under the verse 25 of Surah Maeda has said: “O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to)  Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” She said: I praise Allah that whoever is in the heavens and the earth makes obeisance to Him only, … and We are means among the creations.[5]

و الحمد الله الذی لعظمته و نوره یبتغی من فی السموات و الارض إلیه الوسیله و نحن وسیلة فی خلقه

  1. Having Wilayat in a certain scale like giving life to the dead and curing the sick by the Prophets and the friends of Allah (pbuth). There are many traditions regarding this type of Wilayat al-Takwini in which the Holy Prophet and the Infallibles Imam (pbuth) did so.

The following are some examples of such Wilayat about the prophets (as) that have perfectly mentioned in the Holy Quran:

A: Surah Ale Imran, verses 48 & 49: “And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom and the Tawrat and the Injeel. And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord That I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s Permission And I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allah’s Permission And I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses Most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers”.

So, such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but it is attributed to the prophet (as) secondarily.

وَ يُعَلِّمُهُ الكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَ التَّوراةَ وَالانْجيلَ- وَ رَسُولًا الى بَنى اسْرائيلَ انّى قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِآيةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ انّى اخْلُقُ لَكُمْ مِنَ الطِّينَ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَانْفُخُ فيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْراً بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْرِءُ الاكْمَهَ وَ الابْرَصَ وَ احْيِى الْمَوْتى بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ انَبِّئُكُمْ بما تَأكُلُونَ وَ ما تَدَّخِرُونَ فى بُيُوتِكُمْ انَّ فى ذلِكَ لآيَةَ لَكُمْ انْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤمِنينَ‏.

  1. Surah al-Naml, verse 40: “The one who had knowledge of the Book said,” I will bring it to you in the twinkling of an eye.” So when he saw it set near him, he said,” This is by the grace of my Lord, to test me if I will give thanks or be ungrateful. And whoever gives thanks, gives thanks only for his own sake. And whoever is ungrateful [should know that] my Lord is indeed all-sufficient, all-generous.”

قالَ الَّذى عِنّدَهُ عِلّمٌ مِنَ الّكِتابِ انَا آتيكَ بِه قَبْلَ انْ يَرْتَدَّ الَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَما رَآهُ مُسْتَقِراً عِنْدَهُ قالَ هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبّى لَيَبْلُوَنى أَاشْكُرُ امْ اكْفُرْ وَ مَنْ شَكَرَ فَانَّما يَششْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَانَّ رَبّى غَنىٌّ كَريم

Wilyat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:  During the Battle of Khaybar, when several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combats failed, that night the Holy Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed, “By Allah, tomorrow I shall give it [the banner] to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, whom Allah and His Messenger love. Allah will bestow victory upon him.” That morning, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) called out for Ali ibn Abi Țalib (as) while His eyes were painful. Ali (as) came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh), who cured him of his ophthalmia, an inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva in them. The holy Prophet (pbuh) sent him with his flag and Ali (as) attacked the Khaybar and conquered it.

According to the tradition, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has cured Imam Ali’s (as) ophthalmia by His Wilayat al-Takwini.[6]

The Infallible Imams’ (pbuth) Wilayat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:

  1. Ibn Abbas narrated: Abdullah ibn Salam along with a few of Muslims went to the house of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) around noon and shared his problems with Him. The Wilayat verse of the Hoy Quran has sent down at that time. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse to them, they said: We are satisfied with the Wilayat of Allah, His Messenger and Believers, then Bilal performed Adhan and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque. People have been offering their prayers, some were at ruku, some sujud and others at the state of qiyam. The holy Prophet (pbuh) saw a beggar circulating around people. The Prophet (pbuh) called him and asked: Did anyone give you anything? Yes, the man said. The Holy Prophet asked: What did he give you? A silver ring, the man replied. Who gave you the ring? The Prophet (pbuh) asked. That man who is standing, the man replied. The holy Prophet looked at that man ad saw He is Ali ibn Abitalib (as). The Prophet asked again: At which state He gave you the ring? He gave me the ring while He was bowing down, the man replied. And then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse of the Holy Quran: “Only Allah is your Vali) Friend or Guardian (and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow”.[7]

In Durrul Manthour So’youti narrated this issue and in the end he writes: When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked the man, Who gave you the ring? And the mand replied, the one who is at the state of Qiyam and pointed Imam Ali by his hand, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: He is Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), said Takbir and then recited this verse of the Holy Quran:  “And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the Party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant”[8]

وَ مَن یَتَوَلَّ اللهَ وَ رَسُولَه وَ الَّذینَ آمَنوا فَاِنَّ حِزْبَ اللهِ هُمُ الْغالِبُونَ

  1. In Shawahid al-Tanzil Hakim Haskani narrated 24 traditions under the Wilaya verse of the Holy Quran. Some of the people he narrated hadith from are, Ibn Abbas, Ammar bin Yaser, Jaber ibn Abluddal Ansari, Ami al-Momeneen Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), Miqdad ibn Aswad Kenedi and Abuzar Ghifari.[9]
  2. In Tafsir al-Kabir, Fakhr Razi narrated three hadith and he also narrated a hadith from Abuzar in which he has proven the Wilyah al-Takwini by the verse of the Holy Quran that has send down for Imam Ali (as).[10]

For further information regarding other traditions narrated in this regards from Ahlul Sunna sources, please refer to the Book Al-Ghadir by Allama Amini, 52-2/53, Book Ahqaq al-Haq. 409-2/399 and Ruh al-Ma’ani, 6/167.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

[1] . Refer to: https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/631006433717334/

[2] . Surah al-Baqara, verse 117.

[3] . Surah Luqman, verse 26.

[4] . Surah al-Anaam, verse 62.

[5] . Sharh e Nahjul Balagha, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 4, Pg. 79. For further information regarding Intercession, please refer to the following answer:

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/583488091802502/) 

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/511560225661956/)

[6] . Kamil, ibn Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 219;  Shia sources: Allama Majlesi, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 21, Pg. 298.

[7] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 55;  Ma Nazala min al-Quran fee Ali (as), n 66.

[8] . al-Durrul Manthour, 2/520;   Surah Maedah, verse 56.

[9] . Shawahed al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Pg. 209, H 216.

[10] . al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. 2, Pgs. 52-53.