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Miss Sunni Imam in Ruku in congregational Prayer

Question 270: assalam alaykum. when a shia is in a sunni jamaat prayer And lifts his hands for Qonoot in the second rakaat as they go for rokoo is it still considered as a jamaat prayer?

Answer 270: If you know that if you complete qunut, you will not be able to join the Imam in his Ruku, yet you purposely recite qunut, and miss the Imam in Ruku, your congregational prayer will be void, and should act accordingly to the rules of Furada prayers.

Otherwise, if you are sure that if you recite qunut you will not miss the Imam in Ruku, but when you recite qunut and miss the Imam in Ruku, your congregational prayer is in order.

As you know it is Mustahab that qunut be recited in all obligatory and Mustahab prayers before the Ruku of the second Rak’at. So, if you don’t recite it there would be no problem in it and your prayers would be in order.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index: Qualification of an Imam of congregational prayers, answer 021.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Offering prayer behind a Sunni Imam, answer 237.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/612343082250336/

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), obligatory acts relating to Namaz, issues 1452&1453;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, issues 1117-1121.

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Cut ties with family who constantly commit sins

Question 138: I am a Muslim who has a relative that is an admitted alcoholic. According to Ayatollah Sistani what are the laws about keeping a relationship with this relative in this state? Is it permissible to tell others that he is a medically documented alcoholic? What are my rights to him as he falls under the category of a sibling to one of my parents?

Answer 138: It is obligatory to temporarily cut ties with family who constantly commit sins and that pay no attention to what Allah (SWT), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Infallible Imams (pbuth) have said. If discarding this relationship can possibly cause him to avoid committing sins. This is a type of al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf (bid what is right) wa-n-nahy ʿani-l-munkar (forbid what is bad). Otherwise, you are not allowed to do so.[1]

There is a hadith of Imam Zain al-A’bedeen (a.s) as He recommended His son Imam Baqir (as) to avoid establishing communication with those who commit sins and Islamic laws don’t make sense to them.[2]

However, he committed such sin, but try all your best to help him find the right path and leave drinking alcohol, if you can. Also, try not to abandon him and leave him in this situation where he stymied.

It is recommended to restrict your relationship with him in a way that you just say Salam to him and let him know why you make such decision.

Imam Baqir and Imam Sadiq (pbuth) said, “Maintaining good relations with the relatives (Arham) purifies the deeds, increases the wealth, prevents calamities, makes the accounting easy (on the Day of Judgment) and delays death.[3]

For further information, please read the following answer:

Index: Estrangement from people or being with them, answer 060.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masaiel of Maraja’, Vol. 2, Pg. 772, question 1058; Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 76.

[2] . Al-Kafi, Muhammad ibn Ya’qubal-Kulayni, Vol. 2, Pg. 376, H 7.

[3] . Usul al-Kāfī, vol. 2, pg.150 & 151.

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Going for Hajj or Ziyarat of Imam Hussain or Imam Reza

Question 124: Has anyone heard that you have to go for Hajj before you go for ziyarat? Someone advised me of this and I’ve never heard it before. So, tell me sholud I Going for Hajj or Ziyarat of Imam Hussain or Imam Reza?

Answer 124: If a wajib hajj become obligatory upon you, you would have to go for Hajj, first. If you are dubious whether to go for Hajj or visit the holy shrine of the Infallibles Imams (pbuth) you are supposed to act based on the few traditions, as follows:

There is a wonderful hadith narrated from Aisha. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was carrying Imam Hussain (as) on His shoulders, Aisha asked Him (pbuh): Do you love him? The Holy Prophet replied: Woe are you, how I don’t love and like him while he is the light of my eyes, however my Umma will kill him! Whomever visit him after his martyrdom Allah, the Almighty would grant him a reward of one of my Hajj. Aisha wandered and said: One of your Hajj? He (pbuh) said: even two Hajj of mine. Aisha wandered again. He (pbuh) said: even four Hajj. Aisha was continuously wandered until the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: the reward of vising Imam Hussain (as) is equal to the reward of my nighty Hajj![1]

What the most important reason for Imam Hussain (as) that unfinished His Hajj in order to go to Kufa is to disgrace Yazid’s regime and to uphold and put into practice (Amer bil Maroof and Nahi anil munkir), to order the correct and right and to stop and refrain from the evils and to stand up against the brutality and cruelty. This was the mission Allah, the Almighty had entrusted him. That’s why He (as) is Thar Allah (possessor of the blood venerated by Allah). And if we visit His holy shrine with the pure intention and to remember this sacrifice of protecting the pure Islam of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), we would be granted the reward of many mustahab Hajj. In sha Allah.

Ziyarat of Imam Reza (as) is preferable to visit the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (as):  Ali bin Mahziyar asked Imam Jawad (as): Which holy shrine is preferable to be visited, Ziyarat of Abi Abdellah (as) or Imam Reza (as)? The Imam said: Ziyarat of my Father (as).

Ali bin Mahziyar also asked: why? The Imam said: Because, all people visit the holy shrine of Imam Hussain (as), but only Shia Muslims visit my father’s holy shrine![2]

Therefore, visiting the holy shrine of our Infallible Imams (pbuth) especially Imam Reza (as) is preferable to go for mustahab Hajj.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala, answer 057.

Index: Importance of Marifat Imam / Definition of Marifat, answer 283.

[1] . Kamel al-Ziyarat, Pgs. 68 & 210.

[2] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 9, Pg. 335, Daral-Hadith Publication; Lawame’ Saheb Qerani, Vol. 8, Pg. 548.

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A Shia woman cannot marry a Sunni man?

Question 612: Salam, I am a sunni Muslim and married too, I am in love with one girl she is Ahle Tashi, can you tell me what is the process of doing Muta? Please keep in mind she doesn’t have father or any other Wali over here, she is alone living with her mother and sister. Please guide me.

Answer 612: Islam has introduced temporary and permanent marriage as the legitimate ways of fulfilling one’s needs and desires. Temporary marriage refers to the marriage of a man and woman who have no barriers for doing so.  It takes place with the consent of both sides of the contract and a specified dowry and timeframe. According to Islam, the validity of temporary marriage is contingent upon certain criteria being met, namely getting the father’s (and in the case of not having a father, the paternal grandfather’s) consent if the girl is a virgin.  If the girl isn’t a virgin and has lost her virginity through legitimate marriage, her father’s consent is no longer a condition, but if it has been lost as a result of shubhah intercourse (mistaken/confused/accidental intercourse) or illegitimate intercourse (adultery), it is a preferred precaution to get the father’s consent[1] (although it still isn’t mandatory).  Also, if a girl wants to get married (temporarily or permanently) and neither has a father nor a paternal grandfather, there will no longer be any need for permission from anyone else (regardless of whether she is a virgin or not).[2]

Nevertheless, the marriage of a virgin girl who hasn’t reached rushd (the stage in which one can distinguish between good and bad and can tell what is to his/her benefit) without the permission of her father is void.”[3]

Ayatollah Sistani (ha) says: If a woman is over thirty years of age, and still virgin, and she is not independent, it is obligatory on her to seek the permission of her guardian for marriage. Rather, even if she is independent, she must seek his consent, as a matter of compulsory precaution.[4]

As for the marriage of Shia men with Sunni women, there are different viewpoints on the issue in fiqh; the famous verdict being that it is permissible,[5] especially when there are chances of the guidance of the woman to Shiism and the Ahlul-Bayt’s school of thought.

The viewpoints of Shia scholars regarding the marriage of Shias with Sunnis are as follows:

Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra): The marriage of a Muslim woman with a Non-Muslim man is batil (void), the marriage of a Shia woman with a Sunni man is makruh, the marriage of a Muslim man with a Non-Muslim woman is also void unless the marriage is a temporary one (mutah), and the marriage of a Shia man with a Sunni woman is okay.

Ayatollah Bahjat (ra): Temporary marriage with the People of the Book (Ahlul-Kitab) is correct and as an obligatory precaution it isn’t permissible to perform the marriage contract of a Shia girl or woman and Sunni man.

Ayatollah Sistani (ha): Getting married to the People of the Book isn’t permissible as an obligatory precaution.  On the other hand, it is okay to get married with Sunnis if there isn’t any fear of going astray and losing Shia beliefs as a result.

Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (ha): It isn’t permissible for a Muslim to get married to a Non-Muslim, while it is okay for Shia men to get married to Sunni women, but taken into consideration that there are chances of going astray for Shia women getting married to Sunni men, such a marriage isn’t permissible.

Note: Marriage between Shias and some “Muslim” sects such as: The Ghulat, The Nasebis and The Khawarij, who falsely claim themselves Muslim, but in reality are Kafirs, isn’t permissible.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Permanent or Temporary marriage of a married man without the permission of his wife, answer 565.

Index: Rules regarding temporary or permanent marriage with people of the book, answer 080.

Index: Premarital relation with non-Mahram is impermissible, answer 082.

Index: Looking at non-Mahram Body for Marriage, answer 611.

Index: A Shia Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim man, answer 342.

Index: Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam, answer 515.

Index: A Muslim Woman Cannot Marry a Non-Muslim Man, answer 576.

[1] Tawdihul-Masa’ele Maraje’, vol. 2, pg. 459, issue 2377.

[2] Tawdihul-Masa’ele Maraje’, vol. 2, pg. 387, issue 2376.

[3] Question 1483 (website: 1530).

[4] . The official website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Permanent Marriage.

[5] Naser Makarem Shirazi (kharej fiqh lessons on nikah [marriage], academic year 1381-1382 on his official website); Seyyid Sadiq Rohani, Fiqhul-Sadeq, vol. 21, pg. 469, from the software of this book from the institute of Al-Imam Al-Rohani.

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Rules of Transgender according to Shia

Question 381: A/S. One of my boss is transgender and she has locker in ladies locker room. I ve never seen her changing there but she does her makeup there. I usually change as fast as I can since I am very particular about changing in female locker room. My nightmare is what if I am changing and she walks in? What is the fiqh ruling in this situation? If I have no other choice, & im trying to change as quick as possible into uniform, is she still considered a male? What is the rules of Transgender according to Shia?

Answer 381: There are four types of people can be imagined for Transsexual people that each has special rules that has been explained in Islamic Laws. If you are not sure which type your boss is you are supposed to observe hijab in front of it. Otherwise, if you know that your boss is really a woman you would be allowed to change your clothes even in front of her. For further information, please refer to the detailed answer.

Most of Islamic laws are for men and women. In other word, some of rules are specialized for men and others for women. There is no doubt that most of people are men or women. The following are four types of sexuality can be imagined for the human being.

  1. Transsexual: These types of people experience a gender identity in a way that they see themselves in a transition between being women or men. In other word, some men psychologically or mentally identify themselves as a woman and some women mentally as men. Although, they don’t have any deficiency or defect about their physiological body, but they are mentally and psychologically ill. They sometimes, don’t know which they are, women or men.

In response to a question that what is the criteria for such types of people about their sexuality? Are they considered as men or women? We can say that the basis on determining sexuality is its physical appearance. So, if they have male sexual organs, they would be men, however they mentally belong themselves to opposite gender. If they have female sexual organs they would be women, however they are mentally or intellectually men.

Rules concerning them: They have to observe hijab and other rules related to women if they have female sexual organs, however they are mentally men.

Note: We must observe the rules relating to woman or man if we encounter with them. E.g. we would be able to get married to such people after getting the confirmation of a physician who approved which are they women or man. If they are considered as women according to the doctor confirmation we can get married to them.

  1. Hidden gender: Some people have hidden gender. This means that they have male sexual organs inside of his stomach, but apparently considered as women. And even they have long hair, breast, having no hair on face and generally looks like a woman.

According to scholars, the sexual criteria for such people is its real organs not apparent.

Therefore, if a person’s gender is hidden and one itself is aware of such circumstances, one has to observe Islamic laws according to its real gender (which is hidden). E.g. if they have male sexual organs inside of their body they are considered as men and then must act like men. Otherwise, they are women and have to act like woman. For instance, they have to observe hijab in front of non-mahram.[1]

  1. After changing gender (Sex Reassignment Surgery): If one seek medical assistance and aligned its body in order to identify its sex or gender, has done such surgery and become a man or woman the sexual gender criteria would be determined after the surgery. For example, if it becomes man he must act like a man and observe rules relating to men.
  2. Hermaphrodite (Khuntha): They are of two types: 1. Have both male and female sexual organs. 2. Have none of the both organs. The second type is known as Mamsooh.

According to physicians, the medical assistance can help them align their body with their identified sex or gender, including: Hormone replacement therapy, Sex reassignment therapies, mentally factors and sexual organs.

According to scholars, the criterion by which they can be determined as men or women is sexual gender. That’s why, there have been declared some signs in order to make sure which they are. For example, if one has both male and female sexual organs but urinate from one of the both it would be considered as the criterion. Therefore, if one urinates from male organs it would be considered as man.

There are other solutions have been explained in Islamic laws in order to identify their sex and gender as follows:

Urination (that just explained),  overtaking urination of female or male canal, interrupted urine delay in male or female urination canal and finally to be cautious and act like men and women if the previous mentioned criterions didn’t work and observing the rules of men and women are not beyond their capacities.[2]

Conclusion: Since, you are not sure to which of the above mentioned types your boss belong, you are supposed to observe hijab as well as the other rules in this regards if you see it.

[1] . In this regards, refer to Mutahhari, Ahmad, Mustanad Tahrir al-Wasila (al-Masael al-Mustahdathah), Pgs. 191-192;  Tahrir al-Wasila of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol 2, Pg. 559, Q 2.

[2] For further information in this regards, please refer to Sadr, Sayyid Muhammad, Mawara al-Fiqh, Vol. 6, Pg. 135.

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Observing Hijab in Muharram

Question 286: One thing that am disagree and as am faild to justify my views against this, is unveild women coming in the jaloses of men in moharram and chehlam. As this called bepardgi which is not Mission e Imam Hussain as. At all. Please answer me regarding this issue. Thanks

Answer 286: The philosophy behind the hijab for woman in Islam is that she should cover her body in her associations with men ‘whom she is not related to according to the divine law’ (na-mahram) and that she does not flaunt and display herself.

The verses of the Holy Quran which refer to this issue affirm this and the edicts of the religious jurisprudents confirm it. The concept of hijab is to create a healthy environment in the family and society.

If we study hijab from a Quranic perspective, we will see that the Quran sorts out hijab into different kinds one of which is the modest covering of the body. In order to clarify the discussion, we will enumerate the different kinds of hijab from the perspective of the Holy Quran:

1) Modesty in looking as the Quran says: “Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty” and also, “And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty,”[1]

2) Hijab in utterance: Women have advised how to speak to strangers (males outside of their family): “O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women; If you will be on your guard, then be not soft in (your) speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease yearn; and speak a good word.”[2]

3) Hijab in conduct: Women have been guided how to conduct themselves when in front of strangers. They have been ordered not to attract strangers’ attention by showing their ornaments and beautifications: “…and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.” [3]

Note: It is necessary to mention that one of the main missions of Imam Hussain (as), by which he himself along with his followers and families have been killed by their enemies for, was to revive the pure Islam of the Holy Prophet (saws) by “Amr bil Maroof wa Nahi ‘anil Munkar,” which means recommending us the Maroof (lawful acts) and forbidding us the Munkar (unlawful acts). Hijab is an obligatory (wajib) act that a woman must observe, but mourning for Imam Hussain (as) is a recommended (mustahab) act. Therefore, they are supposed to mourn for Imam Hussain (as) if they have a proper hijab.
As a result, if a woman doesn’t observe her hijab deliberately and comes in the majlis of Imam Hussain (as) in this state, her azadari wouldn’t be considered as sahih.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Philosophy of Hijab during prayer, answer 020.

Index: Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa), answer 492.

Index: Men and Women: Covering body in prayers, answer 594.

[1] . Al-Noor, 30: قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصارِهِمْ،; Al-Noor, 31: قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِناتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصارِهِنَّ،.

[2] . Al-Ahzab, 32: فَلا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ.

[3] . Al-Noor, 31 وَ لا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ ما يُخْفِينَ مِنْ زِينَتِهِنَّ.

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A Shia Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim man

Question 342: A/S. Is it permissible for a shia divorced woman to marry a non-Muslim. If she married a Catholic and she will not be deterred to practice her shia faith, is it allowed?

Answer 342: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “… And do not give (believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe And certainly a believing servant is better than an idolater, even though he should please you These (idolaters) invite to the Fire And Allah invites to the garden and to forgiveness by His will And makes clear His communications to men, that they may be mindful”.[1]

According to all maraja’ (ha), as for a Muslim woman, she is not allowed to marry a non-Muslim man at all. In this regards, there is no difference in permanent or temporary marriage, weather the man allows her practicing Shia faith or not.

If a Muslim woman has realized that her husband is non-Muslim their marriage contract is void and she must separate from him.[2]

Index: Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam, answer 515.

Index:  Rules regarding temporary or permanent marriage with people of the book, answer 080.

Index: A Muslim Woman Cannot Marry a Non-Muslim Man, answer 576.

[1] . Surah Baqara, verse 221.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 2, Pg. 254;  Minhaju ‘s-Saliheen, vol. 2, Pgs. 263- 265; Ibid, Vol. 3, Pg. 67, Q 205; Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 479, Q 2357; Ibid, 1381, Pg. 476, Q 2393; Istiftaat of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 3, Pg. 128, Q 131 & 132; In this regards, a question has been sent to the office of Grand maraja Ayatollahs Khameni, Sistani and Makarem Shirazi (ha).

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Shia answers: Al-Kafi is an authentic book

Question 290: Asslamo alakaum. Is Kafi an authentic book? I get confused, im still trying to learn about Islam, then there comes a shia who says that “this book is not very authentic but it’s powerful though”!? I seriously want to know whether books that I touch are going to guide me to the right path, I already read 1 volume of this book.

Answer 290: The Shia school is very rich in terms of reliable hadith collections thanks to the ahadith of the Holy Prophet (s) and his pure progeny. The infallible Imams, peace be upon them, are the closest people to the Holy Prophet (s) in terms of position and time. They are inerrant and infallible and there are profuse narrations quoted from them in Shia’s hadith books.
Some of Shia’s major hadith collections that are considered to be reliable are the following:

  1. Al-Kafi authored by Theqatul Islam, Muhammad bin Ya’qub Kulayni (329 A.H.),
  2. Al-Tahzib authored by Shaykh Tusi, may Allah bless him (460 A.H.)
  3. Al-Istibsar authored by Shaykh Tusi, may Allah bless him (460 A.H.)
  4. Man La Yahzuruhu al-Faqih authored by Shaykh Saduq (r.a.) (381 A.H.)
  5. Wasail al-Shi’ah authored Shaykh Hurr Amili, may Allah bless him (1104 A.H.)
  6. Behar al-Anwar authored by Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (r.a) (1110 A.H.)
  7. Jami’ al-Ahadith al-Shi’ah authored by Ayatollah Ismail Mu’ezzi Malayeri (1429 A.H.)
  8. Jami al-Ahadith Software (Noor) prepared by Islamic Computer Sciences (Noor) which comprises most of Shi’ah hadith books.

Although these books are very valuable and there are a great many authentic traditions in them, but we do not consider all of the hadiths in these books as authentic. That is why, the Shia scholars examines the authenticity of each and every hadith and act on only those traditions that are verified as correct. For this reason, we believe that the only authentic and truly reliable book is the Holy Quran. Unfortunately, the Sunnis consider their books (Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim etc.) as authentic whereas their books are replete with fabricated traditions and stories.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Al-Kutub al-Arba’ah, The Four Books: Kafi, Man la yahduruhu, Tahdhib and Istibsar, answer 064.

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Kumeil, Salman Farsi, Bilal and Miqdad in Karbala

Question 378: Why did not Kumayl join the mission of Imam-al Hussain (a) in Karbala and where were Salman al-Farisi and Miqdad in the same time?

Answer 378: After the martyrdom of Imam Ali (as) in the holy month of Ramadan (40 A.H), Kumeil along with the people of Kufa gave allegiance to Imam Hasan (as). According to Majlesi (ra), Kumeil was one of the Imams (as) companions.[1]

Kumeil like Qanbar, the servant of Imam Ali (as) were imprisoned by Mu’āwīyya (la) due to his love and affection toward Ahlul Bayt (pbuth), during the time of Imam Hussain (as). He was freed from prison right after the day of Ashura.[2]

Kumeil was martyred by Hajjaj (la) at the age of ninety and was buried in Thawiya (between Najaf and Kufa).[3] 

Miqdad passed away at the age of seventy in Jurf in 33 A.H, while the Story of Karbala happened in 61 A.h. Therefore, it is natural that he couldn’t be in Karbala with Imam Hussain (as) as he had passed away 28 years before Ashura.[4]

There have been mentioned some different opinions about the date of Salman al-Farsi’s demise. Some say he passed away in 36 A.H.[5]

In some sources it is mentioned that he had a long life and even some have considered his lifespan about 350 years.[6]

After Salman had passed away, Ali bin Abi Talib (as) travelled to al-Mada’in to bathe and enshroud his body, and then he performed funeral prayer on his body, before burying him in a grave. Imam Ali (as) returned to Medina that night.[7]

Salman had written this poem on his enshrouding cotton:  I am heading toward the Munificent, lacking a sound heart and an appropriate provision.  While taking a provision (with you) is the most dreadful deed, if you are going to the Munificent.[8]

Bilāl b. Rabāḥ known as Bilāl al-Ḥabashī: According to most history sources, his death was in 20 A.H in Damascus, however 17, 18 and 21 have mentioned as well.[9]

Some sources have specified plague as the cause for his death.[10]

It is widely ascribed that he is buried in Bab al-Saqir cemetery, in Damascus.[11]

He was older than sixty when he died, however the ages 63, 64, and 70 were also noted in some sources.[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

Index: The number of soldiers who came to Karbala to fight against Imam Hussain (as), answer 568.

[1] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 44, Pg. 111;  Al-Manaqeb, Vol. 4, Pg. 41.

[2] . Kumeil Mahram Asrar Amir al-Momeneen (as), Hussain Heidar Khani, Pg. 145;  The Story of Karbala, Pg. 358, narrated from Al-Mofid Dhikri al-Sebt al-Shahid, Pg. 115.

[3] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 42, Pg. 149;  Muntaha al-A’mal, Vol. 1, Pg. 255.

[4] . Tabaqat, ibn Sa’d, Beirut, Dar Sader, Bita, Vol. 3, Pg. 163;  Muhammadi, Muhammad, Simaye Miqdad, Pg. 123.

[5] . Ibn Asakar, the History of Medina and Damascus, Vol. 21, Pgs. 458-459.

[6] . Khatib Baqdadi, History of Baghdad, Vol. 1, Pg. 176.

[7] . For further information, please refer to: Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 22, Pg. 380.

[8] . Noori, Nafs al-Rahman fee Fadhael Salman (ra), Pg. 139.

[9] . Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Pg. 238;  ibn Qutaiba, Book of al-Maaref, Pg. 88;  Tabari, Tarikh (history), Vol. 4, Pg. 112;  Khatib Baghdadi, History of Baghdad, Vol. 1, Pg. 184;  Tusi, Rijal, Pg. 8;  ibn Abd al-Birr, al-Istiaab, Vol. 1, Pg. 179;  ibn Asakar, History of Medina and Damascus, Vol. 10, Pgs. 432-476-479;  ibn Athir, Asad al-Ghabah, Vol. 1, Pg. 244.

[10] . Tusi, Rijal, Pg. 8, ibn Asakar, History of Mediana and Damascus, Vol. 10, Pg. 476;  Tahzib al-Kamal, Vol. 4, Pg. 290;  ibn Hajar Asqalani, al-Isaba, Vol. 1, Pg. 327.

[11] . Tusi, Rijal, Pg. 9;  ibn Sad, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Pg. 238.

[12] . Ibn Abd al-Birr, al-Istiab, Vol. 1, Pg. 179;  Tahzib al-Asma’, part 1, Pg. 137;  Tahzib al-Kamal, Vol. 4, Pg. 290.

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Receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Quran

Question 126: Is it allowed to make money off of teaching Qur’an?

Answer 126: There would be no problem to receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Qur’an, except those Surahs that we recite in our prayers like Surah al-Fatiha and Ikhlas, according to Ayatollah Bahjat and Fazel Lankarani[1].

Some scholars have issued a fatwa that it is abnormal (makrooh)[2].

The following is ahadith that blames us if we want to receive wages for training the Holy Qur’an: Imam Ali (a.s) has said, “Those who want to receive wages for training of the Holy Qur’an they will be given on the Day of Judgment as whatever they have received in this world[3].”

According to the above mentioned hadith, receiving wage for training the Holy Qur’an is abnormal[4].

Imam Ali (a.s) didn’t say you are not allowed to receive a wage in this regards, he said, “You will reward on the Day of Judgment as whatever you are given in this world. This means, you will never be rewarded on that Day! As a result, it is suited with abnormal! We can figure out from other traditions in which there would be no problem to receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Qur’an as the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, “The lawful wage you can ever be given is the wage for training the Holy Qur’an[5].”

In conclusion, it is appropriate to provide training of the Holy Qur’an with the intention of gaining proximity to Allah (SWT). We should consider the spiritual and heavenly remuneration if we want to provide training of the Holy Qur’an, instead of receiving a worldly wage, however, there would be no problem to receive it. The wages we are given in this regards should be considered as gift.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Taking wage for reciting holy Quran or eulogy, answer 451.

[1] . Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi, Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Question 1447; Fazel Lankarani, Muhammad, book of Jemeul Masail, Vol. 1, Pg. 591, Question 2211.

[2] . Makarem Shirazi, Nase, new Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 521, second edition.

[3] . Sheikh Sadouq, Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh, Vol. 3, Pg. 178, second edition, 1413 AH.

[4] . Hilli, Hasan bin Yousef, Tadkiratul Foqaha, vol. 12, Pg. 136, first edition; Ardabili, Ahmad bin Muhammad, Majmaul Faidah walburhan fi, Sharhe Ershadel Adhan, Vol. 8, Pg. 18, first edition, 1403 AH; Majlesi, Muhammad Taqi, Rawzatul Muttaqin Fi Sharh e Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh, reasercher Moosavi Kermani, Sayyid Hussain & Estehardi, Ali Panah and Tabatabaee, Sayyid Fadhlulllah, Vol. 6, Pgs. 511 and 512.

[5] . Ibn Abi Jomhoor Ihsaee, Muhammad bin Ali, Awalial Layali al-Azizah Fi al-Ahadith al-Diniyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 176, Dar e Sayyid al-Shohada LialNashr, Qom, first edition, 1405 AH. «إِنَّ أَحَقَ مَا أَخَذْتُمْ عَلَیهِ أَجْراً كِتَابُ اللَّه»

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The Imams named their kids Uthman, Umar and Abu Bakr

Question 115: Ahlul bayt (pbuth) named their kids Usman, Umar, and Abubakr! why these days we (Shia) don’t give our children such names? is it part of our faith is to hate them?

Answer 115: With a quick glance at historical books we see that Abu Bakr ibn Ali, Umar bin Ali and Usman bin Ali were the children of Laila the daughter of Masoud Thaqafi, Um Habib and Ummul Banin, respectively. When reflecting on the similarity of name between these children and the Khulafa it can be said:

The public mindset at that time was in such a way that these names were not significant and subject to attention and accordingly didn’t posses approving or disapproving connotations. As a matter of fact these names would not remind anyone of the Khulafa and it was through the passing of time and history that the names of these three people were bolded, but back then these names were so common that if Ali (A.S.) or anybody else chose the name Abu Bakr for their child it wasn’t reminiscent of the first Khalifa. Moreover there were great companions of the prophet (A.S.) that had these names like Usman bin Maznun and others.

These names were in that era and, as witnessed in historical books, later on used commonly in the time of the other Imams. Besides these names weren’t hated and condemned by the Shiites as Mu’jam Al-Theqat has listed nearly 60 pages of narrators that had the name Umar or Usman bin Saied which was one of the four special representatives of Imam Zaman (A.S.) in the time of the minor occultation.

One must know that the names of the three khalifas were not confined to them, but actually frequently used before and after Islam, among Arabs. This naming could not be a reason for friendship and liking. For example, the last king of Iran, named Muhammad Reza, was the most despised person in the country, but at the same time this didn’t change the fact that this name was commonly used among people. There were others among the great Sahabah (The Companions) of the Prophet (A.S.) that had the same name as the Khulafa too such as Usman bin Maznun and others so how can someone claim that these names weren’t for the remembrance of these great companions. You can check the names of the Sahaba that were named Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman in Al-Isti’aab by Ibn Abdul Birr and Asad Al-Ghabah by Ibn Athir.

It is useful to note that nowhere in our historical books (that have been studied) has it been mentioned that Imam Ali directly chose these names, hence there is a possibility that these names were picked by his respected spouses or others which the Imam respected and wouldn’t argue with their decisions.[1]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

[1] . Arbali, Ali, Kash al-Ghumma an Ma’rifat al-A’immah, vol. 2, pg. 66; Ibid and Al-Irshad, pg. 167; Mu’jam al-Khu’i, vol. 21, pg. 66; Ibid and Al-Irshad, pg. 167; Mu’jam al-Khu’i, vol. 13, pg. 45; Mu’jam al-Thuqat, vol. 21, pg. 66; Al-Irshad, pg. 484; Mu’jam al-Thuqat, vol. 13, pg. 45; Muntahal-Amal, vol. 1, pg. 220.

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Ascribing lies to Allah and his Prophet while fasting

Question 113: I was wondering, I know that ascribing lies to Allah acc the infallible (a) breaks ones fast, but is this only if someone says it to someone else? For instance what if someone kept a journal only for himself during Ramadan and then it turned out something he wrote was incorrect, would this break his fast? What if he ascribed a lie intentionally by writing?

Jazak Allah

Answer 113: Ascribing lies to Allah (SWT) and His Prophet (pbuh) is one of the things which invalidate our fast.

If a person who is observing fast, intentionally ascribes something false to Allah, the Almighty and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and his vicegerents (a.s.), verbally or in writing or by making a sign, his fast becomes void, even if he may at once retract and say that he has uttered a lie or may repent for it. And, as a recommended precaution, he should refrain from imputing lies to Bibi Fatema Zahra (a.s.) and all the Prophets and their successors.

If a person intentionally ascribes to Allah or the Holy Prophet or the successors of the Holy Prophet a falsehood fabricated by some other person, his fast becomes void. However, if he quotes the person who has fabricated that falsehood, his fast will not be affected.

As a result, if he wrote something false to Allah and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) while he is fasting, his fast becomes void. Otherwise, if he wrote it in other months (excluding the holy month of Ramadan or a day he is fasting), his fast doesn’t become void. He must only repent to Allah (SWT), with sincere repentance! Maybe his Lord will absolve him of his misdeeds.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Fasting » Ascribing lies to Allah and His Prophet.

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Wisdom of placing the Holy Quran on our head

Question 112: What is the wisdom and narrations of placing the Holy Qur’an on top of your head? When are the appropriate times during the year to do this?

Answer 112: As we Shia follow the traditions of the Infallibles (as), we all follow whatever they have been told us in this regards.
Ali bin Yaqteen narrated from Imam Kadhim (as) that the Imam (as) said: “Take the holy Quran in your hand and place it on top of your head and then say:

اللَّهُمَّ بِحَقِّ مَنْ أَرْسَلْتَهُ إِلَى خَلْقِكَ وَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ هِيَ فِيهِ وَ بِحَقِّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مَدَحْتَهُ فِيهِ وَ بِحَقِّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَ لَا أَحَدَ أَعْرَفُ بِحَقِّهِ مِنْكَ يَا سَيِّدِي يَا سَيِّدِي يَا سَيِّدِي

Then say “یا الله” (O Allah) for ten times, “بحق محمد” (by the right of Muhammad (pbuh)) ten times, and then continue saying each name of the Infallible Imams (pbuth) ten times. After all has been mentioned ten times, beg Allah whatever you want. So, Allah, the Almighty will grant all your wishes.

It is said (in traditional resources) that whenever you face any problems try to offer two Rakats, place the holy Quran on top of your head and mention the name of Allah (SWT), Holy Prophet (pbuh) and ahlul bayt (pbuth) ten times, so Allah. The Almighty will grant your wishes. [1]

While placing the qur’an on the head. Remind yourself that true salvation can only be achieved by always keeping the rules of qur’an ahead of us to follow. The fact that we put the Qur’an on our head is a sign of respect and reverence. We beseech Allah by the thaqalayn – the speaking and the silent Qur’an.[2] Pray for Aql/Intelligence to be Kamil (complete), it is Kashe (submits) to quran & acquires Noor (light) from it.

O Allah! I appeal to Thee in the name of this Qur’an and the Rooh that was sent along with it, and in the name of the Momin (believer) whose praise is contained in this Book and The obligation that is on them. No one else recognizes the right and truth more than Thee

Transliteration:

“Allaahumma be haqqe haazal Qur’an we be haqqe man arsaltahoo beh, Wa be haqqe kulle momenin madahtahoo feeh, we be haqqeka alaihim fa-laa ahada a’arafo be haqqeka mink”[3]

Note: There are no restrictions limiting the times of placing the holy Quran on top of our head. However, it is more recommended to do so during these holy Nights of Power (19th, 21st or 23rd or 27th night of Ramadan / or 15th night of Shaban).

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The sign of Laylatul Qadr, the Night of Power, answer 065.

Index: Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession, answer 148.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

[1] . Sheikh Hurr Ameli, Wasail al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 125-126; Sayid bin Tawoos, Radhi al-Din Ali, al- Al-Iqbāl bi l-aʿmāl al-hasanah, Vol. 1, Pg. 186-187.

[2] . Holy Qur’an (39:56).

[3] .Refer to: http://duas.org/.

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Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession

Question 148: Sometimes when I’m looking up or finding dua’as to be said for special reasons, I get frustrated. I don’t get why shia dua’as are so different than Sunni dua’as. They aren’t including caliphates or anything, they are all just supplications to God. Like I was looking up dua’as to remove worry and anxiety. There was no common one between Sunni and Shias. The Sunni dua’as are said to be told by the Prophet (SWT) and some Shia dua’as are said to be done by the Imams (AS). Does it really matter if its a supplication just between you and Allah?

Answer 148: Dua or supplication is a relationship out of need between the servant and his lord, for worldly and otherworldly needs. Just like every other phenomenon, the answering of one’s supplication has conditions and formalities that when met and observed, will result in the answering of the dua, and in the case of the dua lacking them, or in the case of other barriers not allowing the dua to be answered that we aren’t aware of, even the best duas known for being answered quickly and certainly can be ineffective.

Means: When it comes to the meaning of ‘means’ in the holy verse “O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” Allamah Tabatabai explains the term as such, “The reality of the means of nearness to Allah is to comply with demands of His path with knowledge and worship, pursuit of virtues and fulfillment of recommended acts. It is a sort of joining together, (i.e.) a spiritual joining which connects the slave with his master; there is no link that connects man with his Lord except the submissiveness of worship and veneration. Therefore, the means of nearness means ensuring the reality of veneration and turning the face of humility and poverty to His direction – therefore, Wasilah (means) in the above verse refers to the link that joins the servant to his Lord.

Intercession: The concept of imploring or interceding with the Prophet (SWT) or Imams (AS) or Allah’s saints is to make recourse to the high position of these great people because they are dear and near to God and if their intercession is sought, God will, for their sake, grant His servants the position of proximity.

We can’t bring the text of the duas here, but here we will only list them without mentioning their texts:

(1) The dua of Tawassul. (2) The dua of Faraj. (3) The dua of Ism A’dham. (4) The dua of Muqatil bin Suleyman from Imam Sajjad (AS). (5) A dua with the name of “Sari’ul-Ijabah” (which literally means ‘quickly answered’) by Imam Kadhim (AS) which reads, “اللهم انی اطعتک فی احب الاشیاء الیک و …”

(6) A dua from Imam Sadiq (AS); the imam (AS) says whosoever says “Ya Allah” (یا الله) ten times, will be told [by Allah (SWT)]: “Here I am! What is your wish?” (7) Imam Sadiq (AS) has been narrated saying: “Whosoever repeatedly says “Ya Rabb Ya Allah” until he runs out of breath, will be told: “Yes! What is your wish?!”

These duas have been mentioned in the book of Mafatihul-Jinan, under the title of “Quickly Answered Duas” or “Sari’ul-Ijabah Duas”.

It is said we can make dua without interceding with the Holy Prophet (SAWS) and the infallible Imams (AS) (i.e.) just between us and Allah (SWT).

How to make Dua: There are some conditions for one who wishes to make dua’a should observe, in order that Allah (SWT) will grant his\her dua as follows: things we ask God mustn’t be haram; recite salawat before and after each dua’a, we shouldn’t hurry up, so that Allah (SWT) grant our duas anytime He wants; all dua’as that are not in contrary with the Shia belief, are considered as valid.

We ought not to accept all Sunni dua’as nor to reject them. There is a rule which says those dua’as that aren’t in contrary to the Shia belief are accepted, whether or not it is narrated or not. This means, if it doesn’t include haram things and other conditions that have been mentioned above, there would be no problem to apply it.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer and link:

Index: Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman, answer 150.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index: Seeking one’s need from someone other than Allah, answer 005.

Index: Intercession and calling Imam Musa al Kadhim Bab al Hawaij, answer 159.

http://duas.org/

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The daughters of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Question 291: Aslammuelaikum… Thank you admin for approving my request… I have a question regarding daughters of Prophet (p.b.u.h) Is Hazrat Fatima(SA) is the only daughter of Prophet??other sects believe that Prophet has more than one Daughter.. and they justify their believe with the reference(ayat) given from Quran.. JazakAllah

Answer 291: The holy Prophet (pbuh) had seven children from Khadeejah (sa) and one son from Maariyah.

His three sons were born from Khadijah (sa): Qasim (from whom he took his kunya Abu’l-Qaasim), Tahir and Tayyib. Qasim was the oldest son.

His four daughters were born from Khadijah (sa): Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, Roqayyah and Fatimah (sa). The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had another son was born from Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah named Ibraaheem. It is said he was died when he had only 16 or 18 months of age.

All of His sons were died before the bethat, but the daughters perceived His prophetic mission. They were: 1) Zaynab, the oldest daughter who got married to her cousin Abul A’as, before bethat. 2) Roqayyah who got married to Otbah, the son of Abu Lahab. 3) Umm Kulthoom who got married to Otaybah, the other son of Abu Lahab (the Holy Prophets (pbuh) uncle).

Note: when the Surah Masad was sent down by Allah, the Almighty Abu Lahad and his wife wanted their sons to abandon their wives (the holy Prophets (pbuh) daughters. So, Roqayyah remarried to Uthman and migrated to Habashah. When Roqayyah died (after second years of Hegirah) Uthman remarried to other daughters of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) named Umm Kulthoom. As a result Uthman was called Zul Noor (whom has two lights).

4) Hazrat Fatima (sa) was born five years before Bethat, when Muhammad (pbuh) was about 35 years old and her mother Khadija (sa) was about 50 years of old. She has many other titles. Zahra (Lady of Light) and Sayyidatun Nisa al Alamin (Leader of the women of the worlds). The Date of her birth was 20th Jamad al Akhar. After the death of her mother Khadija, she looked after her father the Prophet of Islam so devoutly that Muhammad (S) used to call her “Umme Abiha”, i.e. the mother of her father.[1]

So, the sons and daughters of the Prophet (PBUH) were all born to him from his wife Umm al-Mu’mineen Khadeejah (sa), apart from Ibraaheem, who was born from Maariyah (May her soul rest in peace), who was given to him as a gift by al-Muqawqis, the king of Alexandria and the leader of the Copts. According to the most correct opinion, he had seven children, three boys and four girls. The boys were:

1- al-Qaasim 2- ‘Abd-Allaah 3- Ibraaheem And the girls were: 1- Zaynab 2- Ruqayyah 3- Umm Kulthoom 4- Fatimah (sa) All of his children died during his lifetime, apart from Fatimah (sa) who died after him.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Titles of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) mentioned in the Holy Quran and Traditions, answer 025.

[1] . Islamic encyclopedia, regarding Umm Kulthoom; Loghat Nameh Dehkhoda; Fatimah, Ihyagar Shakhsiyyat Zan, Faridah Mostafavi (Khomeini), and Fatimah Jaafari, Tehran, Ajor Publication, forst edition, 2005.

[2] . Qorbul Asnad, Pg. 27, Imam Baqir (as) has said: the holy Prophet (pbuh) had children from from His wife Umm al-Mu’mineen Khadeejah (sa) as follows: Qasim, Tahir, Umm Kulthum, Roqayyah, Zeinab and Fatimah (sa); Khisal, Vol. 2, Pg. 37, Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the Holy Prophets (pbuh) children were: Qasim, Tahir (Abdellah), Umm Kulthum, Roqayah, Zeinab and Fatimah (sa). Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 421.

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Intercession: calling Imam Musa al Kadhim Bab al Hawaij

Question 159: In a dua’a made at the Shahadat of Imam al Kadhim (AS), a reference to was made calling him ‘Bab al Hawaij’. Someone explaining it to me stated it meant he is a door to dua’as or prayers being heard or granted. When we are making dua’as after salah and try to call on the intercession of the Imams (AS), after saying salawat of course, are we to name the Imams (AS) and Rasullah (SAWS) by name for the ones that we want to intercede for us? Can we generally say “Ya abwab (doors) al Hawaj (in referencing that any of the imams that are referred to or known to intercede for dua’as to be answered)?

Answer 159: The believers have been asked to practice this method of tawassul in the Qur’an,[1] “Oh you who believe! Be wary of Allah (swt) and seek a means of nearness to Him…” Therefore, there is no contradiction between asking the Imams (AS) and Allah’s (SWT) apostles (SAWS) for something. The doctrine of tawhid, keeping in mind that if the Imams (AS) do something, it is with the permission of Allah (swt). Thus it is okay to say ‘Ya Ali Madad’ or ‘Abwab al Hawaj’ with such a mindset.

‘Bab al Hawaij’ means the door to fulfilling people’s needs. Many hadiths allow us to ask the Imams (AS) for help and a means of livelihood, making no difference between asking them during their lifetime and after. They are the mediators of Allah’s (SWT) grace and it is through them that Allah’s (SWT) grace flows to the rest of His creation, and they are of great respect to Him. The nickname of ‘Bab al-Hawaij’ is one of the most famous nicknames of Hadrat Abalfadl al-Abbas (PBUH) amongst the Shiites. All the Imams (AS) referred to ‘Bab al-Hawaij’ too.

When we make dua’as, instead of calling on the Imams (AS) by individual names can we just refer to any of them as ‘Bab Al Hawaij’ and ‘Abwab al Hawaij’, because the Imams (AS) are infallible and ‘Bab al-Hawaij’.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Name, Titles and Lineage of Imam Musa Kadhim (AS), answer 030.

Index: The unmarried daughters of Imam Kadhim as / Fatima Masumah sa, answer 027.

Index: Seeking one’s need from someone other than Allah, answer 005.

[1] . Surah Maidah, Verse 35.