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Rules concerning tooth brush (Miswak) during fasting

Question 391: Salamualekum members. Please what is the view of ahlulbat on chewing stick (miswak) whiles fasting?

Answer 391: One of the things which is considered as makru for a person observing Fast is to clean his teeth with a wet toothbrush.

If a person, who is fasting, takes the tooth brush (Miswak) out of his mouth and then puts it back into his mouth, swallowing its liquid, his fast will be void, unless the moisture in the tooth brush mixes up with the saliva in such a way that it may no longer be called an external wetness.[1]

When one rinses his mouth with water because it has dried due to thirst or to get rid of a bad smell of mouth and the water uncontrollably goes down one’s throat and one has already known it that if he\she does so the water will go down his\her throat, qadha has to be given.[2]

A fast is not invalidated by swallowing the saliva which has gathered in the mouth, even if it has gathered due to recalling something. Likewise, according to the stronger opinion, (a fast is not invalidated) by swallowing the phlegm which has not yet reached the cavity of mouth, without there being any difference whether it has come down from the head or has emerged from the chest (or lungs). As regards the phlegm which has reached the cavity of mouth, caution must not be given up by abstaining from swallowing it. If the phlegm has come out of the mouth, and then a person swallows it, his fast shall thereby be rendered void. The same rule applies to saliva. Rather, (the same rule shall apply) if there is a pebble in the mouth of a person, and he takes it out, and there is some saliva on it, then the person puts it again into his mouth and swallows it. (The same rule shall apply), if a tailor wets a thread by his saliva, then puts it back into his mouth, and swallows it along with the moisture on it. (The same rule shall apply), if a person uses the tooth brush, and it comes out wet with saliva, and then he puts its back into his mouth and swallows the moisture etc., on it, and his fast shall be rendered void.

Of course, if the moisture on the tooth brush is mixed up with his saliva in a way that it may not be said that he has swallowed his saliva with something other in it, there shall be no harm. The same rule applies to tasting broth, chewing the food or the amount of water left after rinsing. Likewise, there is no harm in chewing the bark of a tree, according to the more valid opinion, even if its taste has remained in his saliva as long as it is not due to the scattering of its particles, even if they are absorbed in the mouth.[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding Fasting, Eating and Drinking.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 1, Pg. 892, Q  1573; Ibid, Pgs. 895-942, Q 1582&1690; the Official website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Fasting, occasions on which it is obligatory to observe the Qadha only;  Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 272.

[3] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Chapter on Things Which Must Be Refrained in a Fast.

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Masturbation and forget performing Ghusl in Ramadan

Question 141: If you masturbate during the night and forget to do ghusl, can you still perform ghusl when you wake up and fast that day?

Answer 141: The grand maraja’ answer in this regards is as follows: If one who becomes jonob during a night of the holy month of Ramadan and is sure or probably knows that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before morning Adhan (call to prayer) and do ghusl. So, if he falls asleep with the decision till Adhan, his fast would be considered as valid.

If one goes to sleep and wakes up later and knows or guesses that if he wants to go to sleep again he’ll wake up before morning adhan with the decision to do jinabat ghusl but he won’t wake up till adhan, then one must make his fast up.

There is no need to give Kaffarah even if he wakes up of the second sleep and goes to sleep for the third time and won’t wake up till adhan.[1]

Note: Masturbation is defined as self-stimulation of the sexual organ till one achieves emission of semen or orgasm. This applies to both men and women. This Self-satisfaction which is referred to as Istimna’ (masturbation) is a major sin and haram. It has a heavy punishment. If one has committed such forbidden act repentance and seeking God’s forgiveness would be sufficient for forgiveness.[2]

It should be noted that masturbation is one of the forbidden act which a person keeping fast must abstain. Ejaculation of the Semen, whether by masturbation, touching, kissing, rubbing (the male organ) on the thighs (of another person), or such other acts which are intended to cause discharge of semen. Rather even in case when the discharge of semen is not intended, but it was the usual consequence of the said act, in that case too it shall render the fast void. Of course, if ejaculation takes place without doing something which causes ejaculation in a person as a matter of his habit even without any intention on his part, it shall not render the fast void.[3]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Rules concerning Janabat during night or day time in the month of Ramadan, answer 394.

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

[1] . Tawzih al-masa’il (al-mohasha), vol 1, p 912, question 1627 . Ibid, p 914, question 1630.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding masturbation.

[3] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on Things Which Must Be Refrained in a Fast.

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Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan

Question 627: Is it necessary for a person to pass the niyyat for fasting through his mind or to say that he would be fasting on the following day?

Answer 627: Intention (Niyyat) is a condition in fasting, so that a person intends to perform that ‘Ibãdat (devotional service) prescribed by Shari ah, and determines to keep himself away from all those things which invalidate it with the intention of obtaining closeness (to Allah).

If a person intends to abstain from all those things which vitiate a fast, but does not know that some of things have such effect, as, for example, enema, or considers that they have no such effect, but does not practice them, his fast shall be valid.

Similarly, if he intends to abstain from things which he knows are included among those which invalidate the fast, according to the stronger opinion, his fast shall be valid.

In a fast, after the intention of closeness to Allah and sincerity of purpose, there is no further condition in the intention except specifying the fast which one intends to keep in obedience to the command of Allah.

While keeping fast in the month of Ramadãn, it is sufficient to have the intention of keeping fast the next day without specifying it Rather, even if he has an intention of keeping fast other than of Ramadãn in that month due to negligence or forgetfulness, the fast shall be valid, and shall be counted among the fasts of Ramadan, contrary to the one who knows it, so that if he has such intention with knowledge, his fast shall be counted neither as a fast of Ramadãn nor otherwise.

According to the stronger opinion, it is indispensable in case of a fast for other than the month of Ramadàn to specify the particular category of the fast, such as for expiation, compensation or general vow (Nadhr) or a special vow.

It is sufficient to specify briefly, as when it is obligatory on him to keep a special category of fast, and he has the intention to keep fast which he owes, it would be sufficient.

Apparently there is no condition of any specification in a generally recommended fast, so that if a person has the intention of keeping fast the next day for the sake of Allah, it shall be valid, if it is the proper time for it, and the person be one for whom it is valid to keep fast voluntarily.

The same shall be the case if it were a specially recommended fast too, so that it is specified for a particular time, as the blank days (when there is no moon), Friday or Thursday.

Of course, in order to obtain a special reward, it is a condition that the person should keep fast at that particular day and with that special intention.[1]

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: It is not necessary for a person to pass the niyyat for fasting through his mind or to say that he would be fasting on the following day. In fact, it is sufficient for him to decide that in obedience to the command of Allah he will not perform from the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers up to Maghrib, any act which may invalidate the fast. And in order to ensure that he has been fasting throughout this time he should begin abstaining earlier than the Adhan for Fajr prayers, and continue to refrain for some time after sunset from acts which invalidate a fast.

A person can make niyyat every night of the holy month of Ramadhan that he would be fasting on the following day, and it is better to make niyyat on the first night of Ramadhan that he would fast throughout that month.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

[1] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Chapter on Intention (Niyyat); Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pgs. 881-905.

[2] . The Official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Fasting, Niyyat for Fasting.

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Fast in countries with long days

Question 106: As salaamu alaikum. How should Shi’ites who live so high up north on the planet fast in Ramadan? I mean the sun only sets for an hour and the sky stays bright the whole time, how/when to pray Isha and Fajr also?

Answer 106: The dignified religious authorities have different verdicts in this regard. There is no unanimity as to the fast in countries with long days. The issue is unconventional and based deduction.

Different jurists relying on the authoritative sources have given different answers. Some of them say that it is necessary for a person living in such places to act according to the timetable of a region that has ‘normal’ day and night hours. They are of the opinion that when it comes to abnormal subjects we must do what is normal in other places. There is no particular place which sets the standard for breaking fast.[1]

Some other jurisprudence say, “If a Muslim lives in a city where the days are abnormally long, it is still obligatory on him to fast and offer his prayers according to the horizon of his own place of residence, if he has the ability to do so. If he is not able to fast because the days are long or because fasting is unbearably difficult for him, in which case the obligation is forfeited and he should perform the qadhā later on. According to them, if you cannot fast at all due to such problems, the fast is not obligatory upon you, however, you have to make your missed fasts up later (E.g. in the winter).[2]

Sayyid Sistani (ha), says: 1. As for the first case, it is obligatory for a duty-bound [mukallaf] to move during the month of Ramadhan to a place with ‘normal’ day and night so that he can start fasting, if not, he should move after that month to fast as qadha (making up the missed fast).

  1. When it comes to the second scenario, in case the darkness recedes (decreases) little by little after sunset and then it starts increasing once again – be it after two or three hours –, when it starts increasing, it is then the starting time for fasting. And if the darkness or brightness presumably remains the same from the time of sunset until sunrise, the precaution is to take the middle point as the starting time for fasting and abstention from eating and drinking. The duty-bound can get rid of this precaution by moving to another city or place where regular dawn precedes sunrise. He should observe fast there or else he must go on a journey and observe the qadha of missed fast later.
  2. As for the third case, it is still obligatory on the duty-bound [mukallaf] to fast from dawn to dusk, if he has the ability to do so and if it does not put him to difficulty which is normally unbearable. He can also go on a journey so that he may not have to observe fast during the month but he will have to observe the qadha later. If fasting is not possible for him, he should either travel or should make niyyah of fasting at dawn and should abstain from eating and drinking until it becomes extremely difficult to fast in which case it is permissible to eat or drink at the time of extreme hunger and thirst, respectively, and the precaution is that he should suffice to the necessary amount (of food or water). He should continue fasting for the rest of the day, and he should also observe the qadha of that day after the month of Ramadhan and he will not be liable to any kaffara. God knows best.[3]

The late Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra) said: They must fast. If they cannot fast or there is a fear of harm for health, they can break their fast and give the Qaza later.[4]

Note: please, remember that if fasting is not unbearably difficult for you, but you can’t fast all day long you are able to fast according to the timetable of a region that has ‘normal’ day and night hours.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

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Other Translation:

نمایه: روزه گرفتن و نماز خواندن در مناطقی که طول روز و شب زیاد است، سوال شماره 17

[1] . According to Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (ha).

[2] . According to Ayatollah Khamenei (ha).

[3] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, rules concerning Fasting and Long days.

[4] . The official website of the office of Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra), rules of Fasting.

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Verse of Quran say Allah has created everything in pairs

Question 130: Allah (swt) created everything in pears, what does this mean? Not everyone meets their soul mate. Does soul mate have another meaning, maybe deeper or different than what we think it should be?

Answer 130: What the verse of the Holy Qur’an in which it is mentioned that Allah (swt) created everything in pairs is as follows:

In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt), the Almighty says, “And for every creature We created its Mate [a pair: male and female] this is something that you may think about The wisdom behind it.”[1]

وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ

“Wamenkolle shay­en khalaq­nâ zaw jay­ne la’allakom tadhakkarôn”

In the other verse of the holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion Most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.[2]

This doesn’t mean that Allah, the Almighty has only created a special mate for us the human being or a man can only have one mate in his life, because we are able to choose different mates that have in common with us.

According to some scholars, mate means ‘male and female’. According to others, the word mate means, such opposite creatures like earth and sky, day and night, land and sea and human and Jin.

The wisdom behind this is that we may take admonition and know not to consider any Partner with Allah (swt), because, He is Allah (swt), the One! The eternally Besought of all! He begets not nor was begotten.

The word ‘kolle shay­en‘ (every creature) means every animal. This means that Allah (swt) has created male and female from every animal (such as human being who is a rational being and other beings).[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam, answer 515.

[1] . Surah al-Zariyat, verses 49-51.

[2] . Surah Room, verse 21.

[3] . Tafsir Al-Mizan, Vol. 18, Pg. 573. Al-Ikhlas (112), verses 1-4. Gonabadi, Sultan Muhammad, Tafsir-e Bayan-es Sa’adat fi Maqamat-el Ebadat, Vol. 4, Pg. 115, second edition, 1408 A.H.’ Zamakhshari, Mahmood, al-Kashaf an Haqayeq e Ghavamedh al-Tanzil, Vol. 4, Pg. 404, Darul Ketab al-Arabi, Beirut, third edition, 1407 A.H.

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Offering congregational prayers behind a Sunni Imam

Question 237: Salam, wanna ask if I am praying behind a Sunni imam then do i need to recite all in my own words or its same like as behind a Shia imam, any other difference?

Answer 237: Congregational Prayers is one of the most important recommended acts, and it is one of the greatest Islamic rites. Great emphasis has been laid on it in the narrations. It is recommended that obligatory prayers, especially the daily prayers, are performed in congregation, and more emphasis has been laid on congregational prayers for Fajr, Maghrib and Isha, and also for those who live in the neighborhood of a mosque, and are able to hear its Adhan.[1]

There is no problem in attending Sunni congregational prayers; it is permissible and there are some reports according to which one who stands in the first row of their congregational prayers is like one who has offered his prayers standing behind the Holy Prophet (S) in the first row.[2]

In any case, if possible, one should offer his prayers according to Shia way and if there is no need for Taqiyah (dissimulation) and one offers his prayers in Sunni way, he must repeat his prayers. Of course, there are some scholars who are of the view that if the conditions for practicing Taqiyah are not met, one must repeat his prayers under all circumstances.

Index: Some grand religious authorities have also replied to the same question. Their answers are as follows:[3]

Grand Ayatollah Khamenei (may Allah grant him long life): In the said case, if using turbah is not in opposition with practicing Taqiyah, it is necessary to do Sajda on something which is allowed for prostration.

Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (may Allah grant him long life): If you are associating with them, there is no problem in offering prayers with them to protect yourself provided that they do not express enmity against Shia. However, doing Sajda on carpet is not allowed except where one practices Taqiyah in Sunni mosques.

Grand Ayatollah Noori Hamedani (may Allah grant him long life): If possible, one should do Sajda on things which are allowable for Sajdah but there is no problem in offering prayers behind a Sunni prayer leader and one is not, in the said case, required to repeat his prayers.

Grand Ayatollah Safi Golpaygani (may Allah grant him long life): If you are not in the state of Taqiyah, it is not sufficient and it would be necessary to repeat the prayers.

According to Khoei (ra) and Tabrizi (ra): “It is permissible to go to Sunni mosques and offer congregational prayers with Sunnis provided that one himself should engage in reciting Hamd and Surah.”[4]

Tabrizi (ra): “If a person stands at a place in a Sunni mosque where part of the floor is covered with stone (slates), it is mandatory to do Sajda on the same stone.”[5]

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: It is permissible but you must recite Hamd and Surah yourself even though the recitation may be in low voice.[6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

Index:  Saying Āmīn during prayer in validate the prayer, answer 017.

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index: Miss a Sunni Imam in Ruku in congregational Prayer, answer 270.

Index: Qualification of an Imam of congregational prayers, answer 021.

[1] . Imam Khomeini, Tauzihul Masail (with annotation), vol.1, pg.767-768, Issue No.1399.

[2] . Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Al-Kafi, vol.3, p. 380, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth, 1407 A.H. The Arabic version of the tradition is as this: (عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ: مَنْ صَلَّى مَعَهُمْ فِي الصَّفِ الْأَوَّلِ كَانَ كَمَنْ صَلَّى خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلی الله علیه وآله و سلم)

[3] . This question has been sent to the offices of grand Ayatollah Khamenei, grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, Grand Ayatollah Saafi Gulpaigani and Grand Ayatollah Noori Hamedani, may Allah grant them long life.

[4] . Khoei, Sayed Abul Qasim, Serat al-Najat (with connotation by Tabrizi), vol.3, pg.74, Al-Muntakhab Publication Office, qom, 1st edition, 1416 A.H.

[5] . Ibid.

[6] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Question & Answer » Prayer behind a Sunni Prayer Leader.

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Shia consider Abu Bakr and Umar as Kafirs?

Question 214: To clear misconception by way of academic proof from the School of Ahlulbayt (as): Do the Shia not respect the four Khalifah, except Imam Ali (as)?

Answer 214: First of all, although the Shia has some criticism towards the khalifahs, they don’t see them as kafirs; the same way they don’t consider any of the other Sahabah as kafirs. In dealing with the khalifahs, the Shia follow the footsteps of the imams, especially Imam Ali (as), in how they would deal with them, not anyone else, because the Shia consider themselves the followers of their infallible imams.

Secondly, what was of dire importance to Imam Ali (as) and the other imams, to the extent that they sacrificed everything, even their lives for it, was the preservation of Islam. It was for the preservation of Islam that Imam Ali (as) would cooperate with the khalifahs and give them the best consultation he could, whenever needed. In many a time, he would send off his children to wars that were at the command of the khalifahs, the reason being that the imam didn’t want anything for himself; anything he wanted was for Islam’s flourishing and since, in any case, Abu Bakr and Umar were the heads of the Islamic state then, and opposing them, in that sensitive and pivotal time in which Islam was expanding its boundaries and there were conquests, and Islam had many adversaries, and the Roman and Persian empires were great threats, Imam Ali (as), through his deep insight, took the right stances, not making Islam any more vulnerable than it already was, and in this way, putting an end to the dreams of the enemies of Islam taking advantage of the circumstances.

Third of all, it’s not correct that Imam Ali (as) accepting the caliphate of the khalifahs. Because, on top of all the objections and oppositions he had before the martyrdom of Lady Zahra (as), in the following years, especially during his own rule, he would strongly criticize their actions and would question their caliphate itself. The third sermon of the Nahjul-Balaghah, known as the sermon of Shiqshiqiyyah, is clear evidence of this claim:

In this sermon, the imam (as) says: “…Then I began to think whether I should assault or endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations…”. ( … وَ طَفِقْتُ أَرْتَئِي بَيْنَ أَنْ أَصُولَ بِيَدٍ جَذَّاءَ أَوْ أَصْبِرَ عَلَى طَخْيَةٍ عَمْيَاءَ… )

Therefore, neither does the Shia consider Abu Bakr and Umar as kafirs, nor did Imam Ali (as) totally accept them and their caliphate; all he did was, when it was to Islam’s benefit, to cooperate with and give help and consultation to them.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

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Direction of Qibla: Offering prayers on a plane

Question 327: Question : If someone is traveling on a plane & time of prayer falls within his/her travel time, what will be the direction of Qibla he/she should turn his/her face for salat? According to me, usually Qibla will be downwards (but not east, west, north or south) when you are on a flight….so do you know what is the ruling of major marja-e-keram about this? How offering prayers on a plane should be toward Qibla?

Answer 327: Under no circumstances or conditions is it permissible to discard Salah, as it is wajib. Salah must be offered in any possible situation. If possible, a person who is in flight, space, or any other means of travel should try to settle in a fixed location using the available means in order to complete salah. If a person cannot do that, then they should offer their salah in any way possible, even if they can only use motions.

If the one stands facing towards earth, then they are facing the Qibla and they should pray in that direction, but if they could not distinguish the earth’s position, then they must pray in all four directions (if possible). If all directions are not possible, then they must pray in as many directions as possible.[1]

As far as wudhu goes, if they can or if it is possible then they should make wudhu. If it is not possible to make wudhu then they should make tayamum. If making tayamum is also not possible, then they should take precaution and make salah without wudhu or tayamum, but later they should make up the Qaza prayers for the salah which was performed without wudhu or tayamum.[2]

In addition, regarding complete salah vs. traveler’s salah: if an astronaut were to know that they were going to stay in one area of space for at least ten days then they should make his salah complete. In any other instance, they should shorten their salah. If being an astronaut is a persons occupation, then as long as after the first trip, they don’t stay in his hometown or outside of his hometown for more than ten days, then on their second trip their his salah will be complete. If however, they were to stay in his hometown or other than his hometown for ten days or more, then if they traveled to space again, they would have to shorten their salah.[3]

In reply to this question that how can we say our obligatory prayers in an aircraft, especially if we do not know the direction of the qiblah taking into consideration the instability of the floor [because the plane is in motion]? Sayyid Sistani (ha) answers: As for the qiblah, it is possible to identify its direction by asking the captain or the airhostesses because their answers usually carry validity and are a source of assurance. One should therefore act accordingly.

As for the stability of the floor where salat is to be performed, that condition will be waived when it is not possible to achieve it. However, other conditions of prayers should, wherever possible, be observed. Under no circumstance should the prayer be delayed beyond its appropriate time span.[4]

[1] . Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul), Istiftaat, Questions: 28&29; Tawzihul Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 434, Question 784.

[2] . Tawzihul Masael of maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 381, Question 686; Ibid, Question 339.

[3] . Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 705, Question 1312.

[4] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Qibla.

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Categories of Hadith and their Meanings

Question 059: What does ‘hadith’ mean? What are the different categories of Hadith and their Meanings?

Answer 059: The Arabic word ‘hadith’ means, statement or talk. In the Shari’ah, the word hadith means, those things or actions, which the Holy Prophet (saws) said or did.

A collection of traditions containing sayings of the Holy Prophet (saws) which, with accounts of his daily practices (I.e. the Sunnah), constitute the major sources of guidance for Muslims apart from the holy Qur’an.

Hadith is the collections of the teachings, deeds and sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saws) and the infallible Imams (a.s). The term comes from the Arabic: حديث, plural: أحاديث, meaning “report,” “account” or “narrative”.

The hadith literature is based on oral reports. Hadith also refers to the speech of a person.

Hadith is known as the second religious source after the Holy Quran. It is widely known among Muslims all over the world that any specific wording of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) on a given topic or theme of subject is known as a “Hadith”. It is obligatory upon every disciple of Islam to know, act upon and spread the Proverbs of Rasulullah (pbuh) as these are the words full of wisdom which result in one`s success both in this world and in the hereafter.

Hadith, according to the late Shia scholars, divided into two categories: Sahih and non-Sahih. This means that they whether accept a hadith which is known as Sahih or reject it as it is considered as non-Sahih.[1] But, now, Hadith in general is composed of three basic components which are given below:

  1. Matn/Content: It is the main passage which is the actual centre of attraction for the reader. It normally tells about the right way of actions in different circumstances of life.
  2. Isnad/Sequence of Reporters: A series of correspondents through which Hadith has spread.

These are the necessary three constituents which need to be present in any text for naming it as a Hadith.

Categorization of Hadith

The taxonomy of the Prophetic (PBUH) axioms has been very carefully devised according to different sets of classifications along with their further kinds. Following are the five basic arrangements of Ahadiths on the basis of particular grounds:

  1. According to reference to a particular Authority
  2. According to the links of Isnad
  3. According to a number of reporters
  4. According to nature of Matn and Isnad
  5. According to Authenticity of Correspondents

Now let us briefly discuss these classes of Hadith one by one:

  1. i) According to Reference to a Particular Authority

According to careful research, Hadith is divided into four additional kinds under this category:

  1. Qudsi: meaning “Divine”. It is a Heavenly text which was directly sent upon the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Who passed it on to His followers Himself.
  2. Marfu`: meaning “Elevated”. It has got very important status in Islam as it was directly heard from the Messenger (PBUH) of God Himself by His companions and was brought forward.
  3. Mauquf: meaning “Stopped”. It is a kind of command which was directly given by Rasulullah (PBUH) to His cohorts who forwarded it.
  4. Maqtu`: meaning “Severed”. It is a form of Instruction which is plainly described by Successor in his own words.
  1. ii) According to the links of Isnad

Hadith is further divided into six groups under this category:

  1. Musnad: meaning “Supported”. Isnad being reported by a well-known companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) although final narrator might not be with Him at that time.[2]

The Hadith Musnad is, according to the existence of the name of Infallible (as) based on its Sanad, divided into two kinds: Mudmar and Musarrah. Mudmar is when the narrator of a Hadith has not specifically mentioned the name of Imam by mentioning only pronoun. Like “Sa’altahu’, ‘Qa’la’ or ‘An’hu’.[3]

  1. Muttasil: meaning “Continuous”. The one with undisturbed Isnad relating back to rightful friend or its heir.
  2.  Mursal: meaning “Hurried”. It missed a connection between the storyteller and the Infallibles (pbuth).[4]
  3. Munqati`: meaning “Broken”. Hadith with a link being absent before it reaches the Successor of the actual narrator.
  4. Mu`adal: meaning “Perplexing”. The one in which narrator misses multiple reported in an order in Isnad of the Hadith.
  5. Mu`allaq: meaning “Hanging”. It fails to spot the complete Isnad of the Hadith.

iii) According to a number of reporters

It is divided into two more sub-groups:

  1. Mutawatir: meaning “Consecutive”. Hadith being reported such a large number of rightful companions that it is agreed upon as authentic.
  2. Ahad: meaning “Isolated”. The one which has been narrated by a countable number of people.[5]

It has been further categorized into these followings sub-types:

  1. Mash’hur: meaning “Famous”. Hadith which is related by more than two individuals.
  2. Mustafidh: meaning that the number of narrators are two or more than three but not as much as Mutawatir Hadith.[6]
  3. Aziz: meaning “Rare yet Strong”. The one having only two reporters in its Isnad.
  4. Gharib: meaning “Strange”. Saying of Holy Prophet (PBUH) with only one narrator in its Isnad.
  1. iv) According to nature of Matn and Isnad

It is split into two major kinds:

  1. Munkar: meaning “Denounced”. A Hadith belonging to a weak reporter.
  2. Mudraj: meaning “Interpolated”. The one having some adding up of words to the authentic Hadith by its narrator.
  1. v) According to Authenticity of Correspondents

It has the following three categories:

  1. Sahih: meaning “Sound”. A hadith reported by a trustworthy reporter known for his truthfulness, knowledge, correct way of narrations and all of them are Just and follower of the Twelve Shia Imams (pbuth). [7]
  2. Da`if: meaning “Weak”. A hadith ranking under that of Hasan because of failing to.[8]
  3. Hasan: meaning “Good”. The one whose reporters are known and is clear-cut and all of them are Just and follower of the Twelve Shia Imams (pbuth).
  4. Da`if: meaning “Weak”. A hadith ranking under that of Hasan because of failing to address the Isnad properly.[9]
  5. Maudu`: meaning “Fabricated”. Hadith having wording opposite to the confirmed Prophetic (PBUH) traditions.

In short, Hadith is an integral part of Islamic teachings through which Muslims all over the world get insight about many aspects of life. Therefore, one must know about its different kinds so as to become able to distinguish the authentic ones from the rest which have weak links in its key constituents.[10]

[1] . Seifi Mazandarani, Ali Akbar, Miqyas al-Rivayah fee Elm al-Dirayah, Pg. 44, Islamic Publication Institution, Qom, 1421 A.H.

[2] . Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 175.

[3] . Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 100.

[4] . Farhang Istilahat Hadith, Pg. 121.

[5] . Al-Fadli, Abdul Hadi, Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 72, Ummul Qura Institution, Beirut, 1420 A.H; Ibid, Pg. 82.

[6] . Farhang Istilahat Hadith, Pg. 123.

[7] . Jabal A’meli, Jamal al-Din Hassan (son of Shahid Thani), Muntaqi al-Jaman, Vol. 1, Pg. 4, Nash Islami Institution, Qom.

[8] . Ibid, Pg. 4.

[9] . Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 108.

[10] . For further information in this regards, please refer to: Al-Fadli, Abdul Hadi, Usul al-Hadith; Farhang Istilahat Hadith.

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Definition of Bid’ah in Islam

Question 273: Salam, My question is what is the definition of Fitna especially in modern world. Is there anything called Bidat e Hasana? What is the definition of Bid’ah in Islam?

Answer 273: Bid’ah literally means something new, as the Quran describes Allah (swt) as the originator of the heavens and the earth (بَدِيعُ السَّمَوتِ وَالاَرضِ)[1] (badi’ meaning originator and bid’ah are words of the same root) and in Islamic terms, means to relate to religion what isn’t part of religion.

There are two points regarding the description of bid’ah:

1- Bid’ah is a type of bringing about change in religion by adding or omitting something from it. Therefore, any type of change and newness that has nothing to do with religion and is considered something normal isn’t bid’ah. For instance, if a nation chooses a certain day as a day of celebration and joy, not with the intention of relating such matter to religion and saying that religion has asked for such a thing, it isn’t considered bid’ah, although it needs to be analyzed from other points of view to make sure that it isn’t haram for any other reasons (but it isn’t bid’ah).

One can conclude from this that many of the developments and innovations that take place in arts, sports, industry etc. have nothing to do with bid’ah and the only thing that needs to be determined about them is if they are halal or not, nothing more.

2- What is meant by something being new and of no previous record in Islam is for it to not have any accordance with any Islamic laws and in no way fit under any of its guidelines or not be considered an application and instance of an Islamic assertion or doctrine.[2]

In other words, if one says that a certain act is haram or wajib or mustahabb or makrooh, while nothing in religion can be found to justify and explain what relationship this act has with religion, it is bid’ah, or else it isn’t. According to this explanation, many of the doubts and questions that might come up on bid’ah for many can easily be solved and answered. For instance, a great deal of Muslims all over the world celebrate the birthday of the holy Prophet (pbuh) while some consider this act as bid’ah! But according to what we said, bid’ah doesn’t apply here because even if we assume that such an act hasn’t been encouraged (although we might be able to say it has been) by Islam, yet it fits under another category that we are sure that Islam has indeed encouraged and is one of the clear principles of our religion, which is the showing of love and affection to the Prophet (pbuh) and his household (as).

None of the different Islamic sects have ever doubted that bid’ah is extremely forbidden and haram. Naraqi, one of the great Shia scholars says: “There is a consensus by all Muslim nations that bid’ah is haram and its being haram is a clear Islamic principle.”[3] The biggest reason for bid’ah being haram are the many hadiths that can be claimed that they reach the level of tawatur (when a hadith has been narrated so much by many different narrators, in a way that one becomes sure that all of the narrators can’t be mistaken or lying and that the tradition is authentic) that both Shias and Sunnis have narrated saying: “Adding something to religion that has no previous record in religion is bid’ah and all bid’ah is misguidance and all misguidance is in the Hellfire.”[4]

Although all Islamic sects see bid’ah as haram, but since its essence isn’t completely clear, sometimes some groups and individuals have gone too far in confronting it and have accused other Muslims of being kafirs while such accusations are incorrect.

A certain group consider any form of worship that wasn’t practiced during the time of the Prophet (pbuh) or the khalifas as bid’ah and haram, and believe that one should stay away from these acts. For instance, a famous Hanbali scholar had announced theology haram and called it the root and cause of all bid’ahs and misguidance.[5] He writes that any inner knowledge that people claim they have that can’t be found in the Quran and tradition is bid’ah and no one has the right to act according to it and invite others to it. He calls upon all Muslims to return to the old religion that was in practice during the time of the first three khalifahs.[6]

These radical beliefs were strengthened in the theories of Ibn Teymiyyah and after him, by Muhammad ibn Abdil-Wahhab and ended in many Muslims being seen as innovators in religion and even mushriks (polygamists). Suleiman ibn Sahman al-Najdi, the grandson of Muhammad ibn Abdil-Wahhab, speaks of the common bid’ahs of the Muslims saying: “The four altars that are built in the mosques for each of the four Islamic sects (Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafe’i and Maleki), reciting the Quran with a high voice, sending blessings on the Prophet (pbuh) (salawat), reciting supplications and doxologies after the adhan and on the night of Friday, the nights of Ramadhan, the night of Eidul-Fitr and Eidul-Adha, gathering for birthdays and deaths of great religious individuals and singing songs on birthdays with a specific tone, mixing poems with sending blessings on the Prophet (pbuh) and Quranic recitation and reciting them after Tarawih prayers, holding dhikr beads for saying dhikr, raising one’s voice while saying the dhikr of لا اله الا الله during taking the dead for burial and while splashing water on their graves after burial, wearing long sufi like clothes, hanging swords and flags in Huseiniyyahs and other places where gatherings are held, beating on tambourines and other musical instruments that make the same sounds such as trumpets, repeating the great name of Allah and His other names etc. are all bid’ah.[7] These fanatical beliefs have caused the killing and massacre of Muslims all over the world.

In response to these extremist beliefs, we say that if we are to look at the laws of Islam like this, then we can no longer accept any change in Muslim lives. We would all have to pray using the same clothes worn during the advent of Islam, think of the same things that they would think of, and pay respect to our dead the same that they would. It is clear that this type of being religious is accepted by no Islamic scholar. All scholars, including Shia scholars have been against these overindulgences and have criticized them in their books.

Because of this, Shia scholars and some Sunni scholars, have divided bid’ah into two groups; haram and halal bid’ah. The author of Jawahir says that some scholars like Muhaqqiq and Sheikh Tusi say that bid’ah is of two types; haram and halal.[8] Shafe’I has been quoted saying that bid’ah is of two types; desirable and undesirable. Bid’ah that is in accordance with Islamic tradition is desirable, while bid’ah which against it is undesirable.[9]

The great Allamah Majlisi says: “In Islamic law, bid’ah refers to something innovated in religion after the demise of the Prophet (pbuh) (that one considers as a part of religion) and there is no general or specific law or principle that applies to it.”[10] Naraqi, also a great Shia scholar, accepts this viewpoint saying: “Bid’ah means for someone other than the Shari’ (the true legislator of Islamic law, being Allah) to falsely claim that something is part of religion without any religious proof or evidence. But if a certain act that hasn’t been specifically “legislated” by religion is done by someone not in way that shows that it is part of religion, it is no longer forbidden because of being bid’ah, although it might be haram because of another reason (but it surely isn’t bid’ah).[11] Shatebi, a Sunni faqih (fiqh expert), has the same viewpoint and says: “Bid’ah is a way in religion that has been added and has no base in Islamic law. But on the outside, it looks like it is part of Islamic law and is mistaken with it.”[12] Therefore, if a Muslim practices something new that isn’t part of religion without relating it to religion, and without doing it with the intention that it is part of religion, it is permissible.

[1] . Surah Baqarah, verse 117.

[2] . With the help of Manshure Aqa’ed of Ayatullah Subhani, pp. 219 and on.

[3] . Awa’idul-Ayyam, pp. 319, quoted by Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[4] . Biharul-Anwar, vol. 2, pg. 126. “کل محدثة بدعة و کل بدعة ضلالة و کل ضلالة في النار”.

[5] . Tabaqatul-Hanabilah, vol. 2, pp. 19,27, 34, 37 according to the site of The Islamic Encyclopedia.

[6] . Tabaqatul-Hanabilah, vol. 2, pg. 35, according to the quote of Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[7] . Majmu’atul-Tafsir of Ibn Teymiyyah, pg. 340, quoted by ibid.

[8] . Jawahirul-Kalam, vol. 11, pg. 300, quoted by ibid.

[9] . Fathul-Bari fi Sharh Sahihul-Bukhari, vol. 17, pg. 10, quoted by ibid.

[10] . Biharul-Anwar, vol. 74, pg. 202: “و البدعة في الشرع ماحدث بعد الرسول ]بماانه من الدين[ و لم يکن فيه نص علي الخصوص و لايکون داخلاً في بعض العمومات”.

[11] . Awa’idul-Ayyam,pg. 110, quoted by Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[12] . Al’I’tisam, Library of Maktabatul-Riyadh al-Hadithah, vol. 1, pg. 127 quoted by ibid.

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Rules concerning playing Musical instruments

Question 110: Assalamu Alaikum! What is the Shi’a stand on musical instruments, I started out as Sunni and was told I could not play them, thanks in advance for you time! Allahu Akabar!

Answer 110: In any given scenario, the obligation of a jurist lies not in dictating the ruling pertaining to a particular scenario, but rather providing a general ruling. After which, the general public is left with the responsibility of practically applying that ruling. Having said this, if a musical instrument isn’t exploited in a haraam manner, its use would not be considered haraam. The legitimacy in using these musical instruments lies in their method of application. In other words, when determining if using a musical instrument is halaal, one should consider the kind of music being played and the environment it is suited to. If the music played is becoming of immoral and corrupt gatherings, it would be deemed haraam. If this isn’t the case, such music would be considered halaal. Furthermore, it is possible for a particular instrument to have been considered at one time an instrument of haraam due to its common use in haraam gatherings. However, in another time, the same instrument may lose that characteristic of being a tool of haraam, and its use – along with the music created by it – would be considered halaal.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: music is an art that has spread far and wide during these days. Some varieties of this art are permissible while others are forbidden; therefore, it is permissible to listen to the first while it is forbidden to listen to the latter.

Music that is permissible is the music that does not entail entertainment in gatherings held for that purpose. Forbidden music is the music that is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings.

The expression “the music or the song that is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings” does not mean that the music or the song’s tune amuses the heart or changes the mental state because there is nothing wrong in it. The expression actually means that the person listening to the music or the song’s tune —especially if he is an expert in these matters— can distinguish that this tune is used in the entertainment and amusement gatherings or that it is similar to the tunes used therein. (See the question-answer section below.)

It is permissible to visit places where halãl music is being played, and it is permissible to listen to it as long as it is halãl.

It is permissible to visit public places where music is being played, even if it is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings, provided that one does not intentionally listen to it: for example, passengers on course, waiting areas for visitors, public parks, restaurants and cafes, etc —even if the music played there is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings— because there is no problem in hearing forbidden tunes without intending to listen to it.

It is permissible for adults as well as children to learn the art of halãl music in music schools or other places as long as their visits to such places do not have any negative effect on their proper upbringing.

Singing (al-ghinã’) is harãm: doing it, listening to it, or living of it. By “singing — al-ghinã’,” I mean an amusing statement expressed in the tunes that are suitable for those who provide entertainment and amusement.

It is not permissible to recite the Holy Qur’ãn, supplications (du‘ãs), and words of praise in tunes that are commensurate to entertainment and amusement gatherings.

Based on obligatory precaution, one must refrain from reciting other non-amusing statements, in poetry or prose, in that tune. (See the question-answer section below.)

The prohibition of intentionally listening and giving ear to harãm songs and music has beenmentioned in the holy tradition. The Messenger of Allãh (s.a.w.) said, “And the person with the [sin of] singing (al-ghinã’) will be raised [on the day of resurrection] blind, deaf and dumb. The person with [the sin of] adultery, of wood-wind, and of drum will also be raised in the same way.”[1]

He also said, “Whoever listens to the entertainment (song and music), lead will be melted inside his ear on the Day of Judgment.”[2] He also said, “Singing and music are enchantment for adultery.”[3] That is, it is a stepping stone or a way that leads to adultery. It is permissible for a woman to dance in front of her husband to please and arouse him. But it is not permissible for her to dance in front of other men; based on obligatory precaution, she must not dance in front of other women also. (See the question-answer section below.)

It is permissible to applaud in a marriage ceremony, religious gatherings, seminars, and other functions. This is equally permissible for women and men[4]. [5]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Rules concerning music use in graduation party, answer 087.

[1] . As-Sayyid al-Khu’I, al-Masa’ilu ‘sh-Shar’iyya, vol. 2, p. 22.

[2] . Ibid.

[3] . Ibid, p. 23.

[4] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Music, singing & dancing » General Rules.

[5] . Adopted from answer 087 (Index: Rules concerning music use in graduation party).

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Rules concerning music use in graduation party

Question 087: A/S. I want to have a graduation party for my 8th grade daughter iA. Only her school friends, which happen to be non-Muslim.

We don’t listen to music, obviously. But, I’m not sure how the kids will react to a no sound party. I heard that if you listen to music made from a computer, (like auto tune), AND u can’t tell the difference to what instrument is being used, it’s halal. Any suggestions or answers? Thanks in advance.

Answer 087:  If music does not befit frivolous gatherings, then it is not haram. Otherwise, listening to songs and mutrib music which befits frivolous gatherings is haram, according to Ayatollah Sistani.

Btw, distinguishing whether or not a specific music such as rap music is a type of instance or applicability of haram or halal, is the responsibility of each person. Because, any individuals that have an even a concise understanding of music can differentiate between music that is mutrib and befits frivolous gatherings and music that is not like that. Therefore, even if revolutionary or war songs are mutrib and befit frivolous gathering then listening to that type of music will also be haram.[1]

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: music is an art that has spread far and wide during these days. Some varieties of this art are permissible while others are forbidden; therefore, it is permissible to listen to the first while it is forbidden to listen to the latter.

Music that is permissible is the music that does not entail entertainment in gatherings held for that purpose. Forbidden music is the music that is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings.

The expression “the music or the song that is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings” does not mean that the music or the song’s tune amuses the heart or changes the mental state because there is nothing wrong in it. The expression actually means that the person listening to the music or the song’s tune —especially if he is an expert in these matters— can distinguish that this tune is used in the entertainment and amusement gatherings or that it is similar to the tunes used therein. (See the question-answer section below.)

It is permissible to visit places where halãl music is being played, and it is permissible to listen to it as long as it is halãl.

It is permissible to visit public places where music is being played, even if it is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings, provided that one does not intentionally listen to it: for example, passengers on course, waiting areas for visitors, public parks, restaurants and cafes, etc —even if the music played there is suitable for entertainment and amusement gatherings— because there is no problem in hearing forbidden tunes without intending to listen to it.

It is permissible for adults as well as children to learn the art of halãl music in music schools or other places as long as their visits to such places do not have any negative effect on their proper upbringing.

Singing (al-ghinã’) is harãm: doing it, listening to it, or living of it. By “singing — al-ghinã’,” I mean an amusing statement expressed in the tunes that are suitable for those who provide entertainment and amusement.

It is not permissible to recite the Holy Qur’ãn, supplications (du‘ãs), and words of praise in tunes that are commensurate to entertainment and amusement gatherings.

Based on obligatory precaution, one must refrain from reciting other non-amusing statements, in poetry or prose, in that tune. (See the question-answer section below.)

The prohibition of intentionally listening and giving ear to harãm songs and music has beenmentioned in the holy tradition. The Messenger of Allãh (s.a.w.) said, “And the person with the [sin of] singing (al-ghinã’) will be raised [on the day of resurrection] blind, deaf and dumb. The person with [the sin of] adultery, of wood-wind, and of drum will also be raised in the same way.”[2]

He also said, “Whoever listens to the entertainment (song and music), lead will be melted inside his ear on the Day of Judgment.”[3] He also said, “Singing and music are enchantment for adultery.”[4] That is, it is a stepping stone or a way that leads to adultery. It is permissible for a woman to dance in front of her husband to please and arouse him. But it is not permissible for her to dance in front of other men; based on obligatory precaution, she must not dance in front of other women also. (See the question-answer section below.)

It is permissible to applaud in a marriage ceremony, religious gatherings, seminars, and other functions. This is equally permissible for women and men.[5]

[1] . Seyyed Mojtaba Hoseini, Porsesha va Pasokha, pg. 169; Imam Khomeini, Al-Makasebul-Muharramah, vol. 1, pp. 198-224; Ali Hoseini, Al-Musiqi, pp.16-17; Tabrizi, Istifta’at, questions 10, 46, 47 and 1048; Fazel, Jame’ul-Masa’il, vol. 1, issues 974, 978 and 979.

[2] . As-Sayyid al-Khu’I, al-Masa’ilu ‘sh-Shar’iyya, vol. 2, p. 22.

[3] . Ibid.

[4] . Ibid, p. 23.

[5] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Music, singing & dancing » General Rules.

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Abu Hanifah Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā according to Shia

Question 098: What is the Shia, or specifically Ithna Ashari, view on Abu Hanifa?

Answer 098: Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā ibn Marzubān, also known as Imam Abū Ḥanīfah was the founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims.

Abu Hanifah lived during the time of changing power from Bani Umayah to Bani Abbas and that’s why he perceived the two systems. The Umayyad and Abbasian persistently requested him to cooperate with them, but he refused cooperation with both, rather he was known as an opponent of their system. Due to his cooperation with the Alawiyan and because he loved the Ahlul Bayt (pbuth), he was imprisoned by Manssor Abbasi and finally killed in the jail by poison.

His devotion and love for the Ahlul bayt (pbuth) was more than a Shia lover. He had the same approaches in regards to Imamat and Islamic system as the Zaidyah approach. This means, while accepting the Rashidun Caliphate (al- Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn), he believed that Imam Ali (as) was prior to Uthman and believe in the Caliphate of Imam Hasan (as) after the Imam (as). He also believed that after Imam Hasan (as) the Caliphate belonged to Imam Ali’ (as) children.

He believed that the Imam must be selected through free election between Imam Ali’ (as) children. He didn’t believe in appointing the Imam by the text expressly stated by the Holy Prophet (pbuh).

Abu Hanifah didn’t accept the justice of the Sahabah (companions) entirely. In one hand, he tried to restrain exaggerators from cursing Rashidun Caliphate (al- Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn) and on the other hand, he suggested they have a moderate method, instead. In general, he wanted the Shiite and Sunni to modify their approaches concerning Caliphates, Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and some other religious issues.

Due to the weak text and chain of transmission of those narrations that have been mentioned in some Shia and Sunni sources concerning the strained relationship between Abu Hanifah and Imams Baqir and Sadiq’ (pbuth) we cannot accept them. It seems these argument have been manipulated by some of the followers of the Imamiya and Hanafi sects. They have prejudicially bolded the scientific arguments between the Imams (pbuth) and Abu Hanifah and expressed it in an untrue way.

Thus, the approaches of contemporary Shia has been obtained by such manipulated stories, especially the Hanafiyan of Ahlul Sunna and Jimaat’ approach have been influenced by Bukhari’s method and approach mentioned in his Sahih.

In the end, his efforts of making compromise between Shia and Sunni proved the opposite of this case. This kind of effort exasperated those Hadithic Sunnis and then it caused a negative approach among the Shia society.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following:

References: Khatib Baqdadi, History of Baqdad, Vol. 13, Pg. 330; Ibn Bazazi, Manaqib Abi Hanifah, Vol. 2, Pgs. 121-316 and 399; The Great Islamic encyclopedia, Vol. 5, Chapter “Abu Hanifah”, Pg. 381; Dahabi, Mizan al-Itedal, Vol. 2, Pg. 18; Yaqout Baghdadi, Mojam al-Odaba, Vol. 5, Pg. 242; Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Tahdib al-Tahdib, Vol. 3, Pg. 343; Ibid, Lisan al-Mizan, Vol. 6, Pg. 249; Rasool Jaafariyan, history of Shiite in Iran, Vol. 1, Pgs, 28-29; Muhammad Hussain Solaiman Alami Hayeri, encyclopedia, Vol. 8, Pg. 9; Abu Bakarr, Khilal, Al-Sunnah, Vol. 1, Pgs. 394-395; Dahabi, Mizan al-Itedal, Vol. 3, Pg. 352; Nashi Akbar, Masael al-Imamah, Pg. 66; Rasool Jafariyan, Ibid, Pg. 22; Rijal alKashi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 426-433; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 10, Pg. 74, Taghi al-Din Abdul Jaqader Hanafi, Tabaghat al-Suniyat Fi Tarajem al-Hanafiyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 139; Sheikh Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, Pg. 203; Ibid, al-Irshad, Pg. 160; Ibid, al-Amali, Pg. 73, Muvafaq Mekki, Manaqib Abi Hanifah, Vol. 2, Pg. 18;http://www.hawzah.net/…/جایگا