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Going for Hajj or Ziyarat of Imam Hussain or Imam Reza

Question 124: Has anyone heard that you have to go for Hajj before you go for ziyarat? Someone advised me of this and I’ve never heard it before. So, tell me sholud I Going for Hajj or Ziyarat of Imam Hussain or Imam Reza?

Answer 124: If a wajib hajj become obligatory upon you, you would have to go for Hajj, first. If you are dubious whether to go for Hajj or visit the holy shrine of the Infallibles Imams (pbuth) you are supposed to act based on the few traditions, as follows:

There is a wonderful hadith narrated from Aisha. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was carrying Imam Hussain (as) on His shoulders, Aisha asked Him (pbuh): Do you love him? The Holy Prophet replied: Woe are you, how I don’t love and like him while he is the light of my eyes, however my Umma will kill him! Whomever visit him after his martyrdom Allah, the Almighty would grant him a reward of one of my Hajj. Aisha wandered and said: One of your Hajj? He (pbuh) said: even two Hajj of mine. Aisha wandered again. He (pbuh) said: even four Hajj. Aisha was continuously wandered until the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: the reward of vising Imam Hussain (as) is equal to the reward of my nighty Hajj![1]

What the most important reason for Imam Hussain (as) that unfinished His Hajj in order to go to Kufa is to disgrace Yazid’s regime and to uphold and put into practice (Amer bil Maroof and Nahi anil munkir), to order the correct and right and to stop and refrain from the evils and to stand up against the brutality and cruelty. This was the mission Allah, the Almighty had entrusted him. That’s why He (as) is Thar Allah (possessor of the blood venerated by Allah). And if we visit His holy shrine with the pure intention and to remember this sacrifice of protecting the pure Islam of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), we would be granted the reward of many mustahab Hajj. In sha Allah.

Ziyarat of Imam Reza (as) is preferable to visit the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (as):  Ali bin Mahziyar asked Imam Jawad (as): Which holy shrine is preferable to be visited, Ziyarat of Abi Abdellah (as) or Imam Reza (as)? The Imam said: Ziyarat of my Father (as).

Ali bin Mahziyar also asked: why? The Imam said: Because, all people visit the holy shrine of Imam Hussain (as), but only Shia Muslims visit my father’s holy shrine![2]

Therefore, visiting the holy shrine of our Infallible Imams (pbuth) especially Imam Reza (as) is preferable to go for mustahab Hajj.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala, answer 057.

Index: Importance of Marifat Imam / Definition of Marifat, answer 283.

[1] . Kamel al-Ziyarat, Pgs. 68 & 210.

[2] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 9, Pg. 335, Daral-Hadith Publication; Lawame’ Saheb Qerani, Vol. 8, Pg. 548.

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Kumeil, Salman Farsi, Bilal and Miqdad in Karbala

Question 378: Why did not Kumayl join the mission of Imam-al Hussain (a) in Karbala and where were Salman al-Farisi and Miqdad in the same time?

Answer 378: After the martyrdom of Imam Ali (as) in the holy month of Ramadan (40 A.H), Kumeil along with the people of Kufa gave allegiance to Imam Hasan (as). According to Majlesi (ra), Kumeil was one of the Imams (as) companions.[1]

Kumeil like Qanbar, the servant of Imam Ali (as) were imprisoned by Mu’āwīyya (la) due to his love and affection toward Ahlul Bayt (pbuth), during the time of Imam Hussain (as). He was freed from prison right after the day of Ashura.[2]

Kumeil was martyred by Hajjaj (la) at the age of ninety and was buried in Thawiya (between Najaf and Kufa).[3] 

Miqdad passed away at the age of seventy in Jurf in 33 A.H, while the Story of Karbala happened in 61 A.h. Therefore, it is natural that he couldn’t be in Karbala with Imam Hussain (as) as he had passed away 28 years before Ashura.[4]

There have been mentioned some different opinions about the date of Salman al-Farsi’s demise. Some say he passed away in 36 A.H.[5]

In some sources it is mentioned that he had a long life and even some have considered his lifespan about 350 years.[6]

After Salman had passed away, Ali bin Abi Talib (as) travelled to al-Mada’in to bathe and enshroud his body, and then he performed funeral prayer on his body, before burying him in a grave. Imam Ali (as) returned to Medina that night.[7]

Salman had written this poem on his enshrouding cotton:  I am heading toward the Munificent, lacking a sound heart and an appropriate provision.  While taking a provision (with you) is the most dreadful deed, if you are going to the Munificent.[8]

Bilāl b. Rabāḥ known as Bilāl al-Ḥabashī: According to most history sources, his death was in 20 A.H in Damascus, however 17, 18 and 21 have mentioned as well.[9]

Some sources have specified plague as the cause for his death.[10]

It is widely ascribed that he is buried in Bab al-Saqir cemetery, in Damascus.[11]

He was older than sixty when he died, however the ages 63, 64, and 70 were also noted in some sources.[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

Index: The number of soldiers who came to Karbala to fight against Imam Hussain (as), answer 568.

[1] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 44, Pg. 111;  Al-Manaqeb, Vol. 4, Pg. 41.

[2] . Kumeil Mahram Asrar Amir al-Momeneen (as), Hussain Heidar Khani, Pg. 145;  The Story of Karbala, Pg. 358, narrated from Al-Mofid Dhikri al-Sebt al-Shahid, Pg. 115.

[3] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 42, Pg. 149;  Muntaha al-A’mal, Vol. 1, Pg. 255.

[4] . Tabaqat, ibn Sa’d, Beirut, Dar Sader, Bita, Vol. 3, Pg. 163;  Muhammadi, Muhammad, Simaye Miqdad, Pg. 123.

[5] . Ibn Asakar, the History of Medina and Damascus, Vol. 21, Pgs. 458-459.

[6] . Khatib Baqdadi, History of Baghdad, Vol. 1, Pg. 176.

[7] . For further information, please refer to: Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 22, Pg. 380.

[8] . Noori, Nafs al-Rahman fee Fadhael Salman (ra), Pg. 139.

[9] . Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Pg. 238;  ibn Qutaiba, Book of al-Maaref, Pg. 88;  Tabari, Tarikh (history), Vol. 4, Pg. 112;  Khatib Baghdadi, History of Baghdad, Vol. 1, Pg. 184;  Tusi, Rijal, Pg. 8;  ibn Abd al-Birr, al-Istiaab, Vol. 1, Pg. 179;  ibn Asakar, History of Medina and Damascus, Vol. 10, Pgs. 432-476-479;  ibn Athir, Asad al-Ghabah, Vol. 1, Pg. 244.

[10] . Tusi, Rijal, Pg. 8, ibn Asakar, History of Mediana and Damascus, Vol. 10, Pg. 476;  Tahzib al-Kamal, Vol. 4, Pg. 290;  ibn Hajar Asqalani, al-Isaba, Vol. 1, Pg. 327.

[11] . Tusi, Rijal, Pg. 9;  ibn Sad, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Pg. 238.

[12] . Ibn Abd al-Birr, al-Istiab, Vol. 1, Pg. 179;  Tahzib al-Asma’, part 1, Pg. 137;  Tahzib al-Kamal, Vol. 4, Pg. 290.

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The Imams named their kids Uthman, Umar and Abu Bakr

Question 115: Ahlul bayt (pbuth) named their kids Usman, Umar, and Abubakr! why these days we (Shia) don’t give our children such names? is it part of our faith is to hate them?

Answer 115: With a quick glance at historical books we see that Abu Bakr ibn Ali, Umar bin Ali and Usman bin Ali were the children of Laila the daughter of Masoud Thaqafi, Um Habib and Ummul Banin, respectively. When reflecting on the similarity of name between these children and the Khulafa it can be said:

The public mindset at that time was in such a way that these names were not significant and subject to attention and accordingly didn’t posses approving or disapproving connotations. As a matter of fact these names would not remind anyone of the Khulafa and it was through the passing of time and history that the names of these three people were bolded, but back then these names were so common that if Ali (A.S.) or anybody else chose the name Abu Bakr for their child it wasn’t reminiscent of the first Khalifa. Moreover there were great companions of the prophet (A.S.) that had these names like Usman bin Maznun and others.

These names were in that era and, as witnessed in historical books, later on used commonly in the time of the other Imams. Besides these names weren’t hated and condemned by the Shiites as Mu’jam Al-Theqat has listed nearly 60 pages of narrators that had the name Umar or Usman bin Saied which was one of the four special representatives of Imam Zaman (A.S.) in the time of the minor occultation.

One must know that the names of the three khalifas were not confined to them, but actually frequently used before and after Islam, among Arabs. This naming could not be a reason for friendship and liking. For example, the last king of Iran, named Muhammad Reza, was the most despised person in the country, but at the same time this didn’t change the fact that this name was commonly used among people. There were others among the great Sahabah (The Companions) of the Prophet (A.S.) that had the same name as the Khulafa too such as Usman bin Maznun and others so how can someone claim that these names weren’t for the remembrance of these great companions. You can check the names of the Sahaba that were named Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman in Al-Isti’aab by Ibn Abdul Birr and Asad Al-Ghabah by Ibn Athir.

It is useful to note that nowhere in our historical books (that have been studied) has it been mentioned that Imam Ali directly chose these names, hence there is a possibility that these names were picked by his respected spouses or others which the Imam respected and wouldn’t argue with their decisions.[1]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

[1] . Arbali, Ali, Kash al-Ghumma an Ma’rifat al-A’immah, vol. 2, pg. 66; Ibid and Al-Irshad, pg. 167; Mu’jam al-Khu’i, vol. 21, pg. 66; Ibid and Al-Irshad, pg. 167; Mu’jam al-Khu’i, vol. 13, pg. 45; Mu’jam al-Thuqat, vol. 21, pg. 66; Al-Irshad, pg. 484; Mu’jam al-Thuqat, vol. 13, pg. 45; Muntahal-Amal, vol. 1, pg. 220.

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The daughters of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Question 291: Aslammuelaikum… Thank you admin for approving my request… I have a question regarding daughters of Prophet (p.b.u.h) Is Hazrat Fatima(SA) is the only daughter of Prophet??other sects believe that Prophet has more than one Daughter.. and they justify their believe with the reference(ayat) given from Quran.. JazakAllah

Answer 291: The holy Prophet (pbuh) had seven children from Khadeejah (sa) and one son from Maariyah.

His three sons were born from Khadijah (sa): Qasim (from whom he took his kunya Abu’l-Qaasim), Tahir and Tayyib. Qasim was the oldest son.

His four daughters were born from Khadijah (sa): Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, Roqayyah and Fatimah (sa). The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had another son was born from Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah named Ibraaheem. It is said he was died when he had only 16 or 18 months of age.

All of His sons were died before the bethat, but the daughters perceived His prophetic mission. They were: 1) Zaynab, the oldest daughter who got married to her cousin Abul A’as, before bethat. 2) Roqayyah who got married to Otbah, the son of Abu Lahab. 3) Umm Kulthoom who got married to Otaybah, the other son of Abu Lahab (the Holy Prophets (pbuh) uncle).

Note: when the Surah Masad was sent down by Allah, the Almighty Abu Lahad and his wife wanted their sons to abandon their wives (the holy Prophets (pbuh) daughters. So, Roqayyah remarried to Uthman and migrated to Habashah. When Roqayyah died (after second years of Hegirah) Uthman remarried to other daughters of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) named Umm Kulthoom. As a result Uthman was called Zul Noor (whom has two lights).

4) Hazrat Fatima (sa) was born five years before Bethat, when Muhammad (pbuh) was about 35 years old and her mother Khadija (sa) was about 50 years of old. She has many other titles. Zahra (Lady of Light) and Sayyidatun Nisa al Alamin (Leader of the women of the worlds). The Date of her birth was 20th Jamad al Akhar. After the death of her mother Khadija, she looked after her father the Prophet of Islam so devoutly that Muhammad (S) used to call her “Umme Abiha”, i.e. the mother of her father.[1]

So, the sons and daughters of the Prophet (PBUH) were all born to him from his wife Umm al-Mu’mineen Khadeejah (sa), apart from Ibraaheem, who was born from Maariyah (May her soul rest in peace), who was given to him as a gift by al-Muqawqis, the king of Alexandria and the leader of the Copts. According to the most correct opinion, he had seven children, three boys and four girls. The boys were:

1- al-Qaasim 2- ‘Abd-Allaah 3- Ibraaheem And the girls were: 1- Zaynab 2- Ruqayyah 3- Umm Kulthoom 4- Fatimah (sa) All of his children died during his lifetime, apart from Fatimah (sa) who died after him.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Titles of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) mentioned in the Holy Quran and Traditions, answer 025.

[1] . Islamic encyclopedia, regarding Umm Kulthoom; Loghat Nameh Dehkhoda; Fatimah, Ihyagar Shakhsiyyat Zan, Faridah Mostafavi (Khomeini), and Fatimah Jaafari, Tehran, Ajor Publication, forst edition, 2005.

[2] . Qorbul Asnad, Pg. 27, Imam Baqir (as) has said: the holy Prophet (pbuh) had children from from His wife Umm al-Mu’mineen Khadeejah (sa) as follows: Qasim, Tahir, Umm Kulthum, Roqayyah, Zeinab and Fatimah (sa); Khisal, Vol. 2, Pg. 37, Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the Holy Prophets (pbuh) children were: Qasim, Tahir (Abdellah), Umm Kulthum, Roqayah, Zeinab and Fatimah (sa). Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 421.

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Intercession: calling Imam Musa al Kadhim Bab al Hawaij

Question 159: In a dua’a made at the Shahadat of Imam al Kadhim (AS), a reference to was made calling him ‘Bab al Hawaij’. Someone explaining it to me stated it meant he is a door to dua’as or prayers being heard or granted. When we are making dua’as after salah and try to call on the intercession of the Imams (AS), after saying salawat of course, are we to name the Imams (AS) and Rasullah (SAWS) by name for the ones that we want to intercede for us? Can we generally say “Ya abwab (doors) al Hawaj (in referencing that any of the imams that are referred to or known to intercede for dua’as to be answered)?

Answer 159: The believers have been asked to practice this method of tawassul in the Qur’an,[1] “Oh you who believe! Be wary of Allah (swt) and seek a means of nearness to Him…” Therefore, there is no contradiction between asking the Imams (AS) and Allah’s (SWT) apostles (SAWS) for something. The doctrine of tawhid, keeping in mind that if the Imams (AS) do something, it is with the permission of Allah (swt). Thus it is okay to say ‘Ya Ali Madad’ or ‘Abwab al Hawaj’ with such a mindset.

‘Bab al Hawaij’ means the door to fulfilling people’s needs. Many hadiths allow us to ask the Imams (AS) for help and a means of livelihood, making no difference between asking them during their lifetime and after. They are the mediators of Allah’s (SWT) grace and it is through them that Allah’s (SWT) grace flows to the rest of His creation, and they are of great respect to Him. The nickname of ‘Bab al-Hawaij’ is one of the most famous nicknames of Hadrat Abalfadl al-Abbas (PBUH) amongst the Shiites. All the Imams (AS) referred to ‘Bab al-Hawaij’ too.

When we make dua’as, instead of calling on the Imams (AS) by individual names can we just refer to any of them as ‘Bab Al Hawaij’ and ‘Abwab al Hawaij’, because the Imams (AS) are infallible and ‘Bab al-Hawaij’.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Name, Titles and Lineage of Imam Musa Kadhim (AS), answer 030.

Index: The unmarried daughters of Imam Kadhim as / Fatima Masumah sa, answer 027.

Index: Seeking one’s need from someone other than Allah, answer 005.

[1] . Surah Maidah, Verse 35.

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Marriage of Imam Ali and Fatimah Zahra (pbuth) in Quran

Question 275: salam and jum’ah mubarak to all i have a question about imam ali and fatima zahra a.s. imam is a cousin of prophet muhammad s.a.w and he was also the uncle of fatima, right? so my question how prophet s.a.w agree to marry her daughter to imam ali? and what is a sign that allah agree to marry his daughter? and what hadith in sunni narrated about the aproval of allah s.w.t to marry imam ali and fatima?

Answer 275: Imam Ali (sa) was the cousin of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). His father was Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib and His mother was Fatima bint Asad.

The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) father was Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib and His mother was Āmina.

Fatima Zahra (sa) was the daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Her mother was Khadīja bint Khuwaylid (sa).

There has not directly mentioned in any verse of the Holy Quran an issue related to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa), however there are verses of the holy Quran that somehow related to this issue, as follows:

  1. Sura al-Kawthar: “Surely We have given you Kawthar. Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice.  Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity.”

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had two sons were born of the Lady Khadijah namely; Ghasem and Taher (also called ‘Abdullah) who died in Mecca and so, there was no live male issue from the holy Prophet (pbuh), so, the Arabs used to call the one who had no son (abtar). Hence after, the holy Quran applied this name to the enemies of the Prophet.

Note: The Messenger of Allah (S) had another son by the name of Ibraheem, was born of Mariyah Qibtiyyah in 8 AH. He also died before he was 2 years old.

Therefore, as the abundance of goodness and blessing the Kawthar has granted to the Holy Prophet by Allah, the Almighty. This verse refers to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa).

According to Sheikh Mufid, Imam Ali (as) has asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh) regarding the meaning of Kawthar? The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said to him (as): “It is a stream that Allah (swt) granted to me, … the Holy Prophet then said to him: This stream is for me and you….”[1] Kawthar is Fatimah Zahra (sa).[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

قال له علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلام): «ما هو الكوثر يا رسول الله؟». قال: «نهر أكرمني الله به»… ثم ضرب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) يده على جنب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) و قال: «يا علي، إن هذا النهر لي، و لك، …».

  1. Surah al-Rahman verses 19-22: “He has made the two seas to flow freely (so that) they meet together Between them is a barrier which they cannot pass. There come forth from them pearls, both large and small.”

Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the word “Marajal­baḥ­ray­ni  yal­taqiyān” refers to Imam Ali (as) and Fatimah Zahra (sa) and “Yakh­ruju  min­humallu­lu­u  wal­mar­jān” refer to Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth).[3]

The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

علي بن إبراهيم، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن يحيى بن سعيد القطان، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول في قول الله عز و جل: مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيانِ بَيْنَهُما بَرْزَخٌ لا يَبْغِيانِ قال: «علي و فاطمة (عليهما السلام)، [بحران عميقان لا يبغي أحدهما على صاحبه‏] يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَ الْمَرْجانُ، الحسن و الحسين (عليهما السلام)».

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

Index: Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa), answer 492.

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

[1] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 772, H 11936.

[2] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 6, Pg. 599; Anwar Derakhshan, Vol. 18, Pg. 310.

[3] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 233.

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Wilayat e-Takwini in Sunni traditions

Question 351: Salam Maulana, Can wilayat e takwini be explained by sunni hadith’s?

Answer 351: Wilayah Takwini means guardianship over all things in this world and to have control over them and to be able to render change in them in any way; such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but can also be attributed to the prophets and infallible imams (pbuth) and complete individuals secondarily.[1]

The word Takwin is derived from “Kawn” meaning “Be” or “Being”. Considering the Saying of Allah is the Act of Him not His Words, Voice and the like, in the Holy Quran the meaning of Takwin is: “Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth And when He decrees an affair, He only says to it: Be, so there it is”[2]

بَدیعُ السَّماواتِ وَ اْلأَرْضِ وَ إِذا قَضی أَمْرًا فَإِنَّما یَقُولُ لَهُ کُنْ فَیَکُونُ.

The Holy Quran says: “What is in the heavens and the earth is Allah’s Surely Allah is the Self-sufficient, the Praised”[3]

لِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَميد.

The Holy Quran also says: “Then are they sent back to Allah, their Master, the True One Now surely His is the judgment and He is swiftest in taking account”[4]

ثُمَّ رُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلاهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَ هُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحاسِبينَ.

Wilayat al-Takwini can have three meanings as follows:

  1. Having Wilayat over creation of the world: This means that Allah (swt) gives one of His creation an ability by which he can create or emit a world. Although, it is not impossible for Allah to do so, as He is surely able to do anything and give such ability to anyone He prefer, but verses of the Holy Quran show that Surely Allah has power over all things and He is the only Creator.
  2. Wilayat Takwini is a path towards Allah’s grace: This means that every blessing, grace and power of Allah has been giving to the human by awleyââ­allâh (the friends of Allah) and the special servant of Allah. This type of Wilaya is one of main of belief that Shia believe in.

In forth volume of the book Sharh e Nahjul Balagha Ibn Abi al-Hadid narrated the Lady Fatimah Zahra’s (sa) sermon regarding Fadak in the presence of Muhajir and Ansar in which Hazrat Zahra (sa) under the verse 25 of Surah Maeda has said: “O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to)  Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” She said: I praise Allah that whoever is in the heavens and the earth makes obeisance to Him only, … and We are means among the creations.[5]

و الحمد الله الذی لعظمته و نوره یبتغی من فی السموات و الارض إلیه الوسیله و نحن وسیلة فی خلقه

  1. Having Wilayat in a certain scale like giving life to the dead and curing the sick by the Prophets and the friends of Allah (pbuth). There are many traditions regarding this type of Wilayat al-Takwini in which the Holy Prophet and the Infallibles Imam (pbuth) did so.

The following are some examples of such Wilayat about the prophets (as) that have perfectly mentioned in the Holy Quran:

A: Surah Ale Imran, verses 48 & 49: “And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom and the Tawrat and the Injeel. And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord That I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s Permission And I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allah’s Permission And I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses Most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers”.

So, such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but it is attributed to the prophet (as) secondarily.

وَ يُعَلِّمُهُ الكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَ التَّوراةَ وَالانْجيلَ- وَ رَسُولًا الى بَنى اسْرائيلَ انّى قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِآيةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ انّى اخْلُقُ لَكُمْ مِنَ الطِّينَ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَانْفُخُ فيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْراً بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْرِءُ الاكْمَهَ وَ الابْرَصَ وَ احْيِى الْمَوْتى بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ انَبِّئُكُمْ بما تَأكُلُونَ وَ ما تَدَّخِرُونَ فى بُيُوتِكُمْ انَّ فى ذلِكَ لآيَةَ لَكُمْ انْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤمِنينَ‏.

  1. Surah al-Naml, verse 40: “The one who had knowledge of the Book said,” I will bring it to you in the twinkling of an eye.” So when he saw it set near him, he said,” This is by the grace of my Lord, to test me if I will give thanks or be ungrateful. And whoever gives thanks, gives thanks only for his own sake. And whoever is ungrateful [should know that] my Lord is indeed all-sufficient, all-generous.”

قالَ الَّذى عِنّدَهُ عِلّمٌ مِنَ الّكِتابِ انَا آتيكَ بِه قَبْلَ انْ يَرْتَدَّ الَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَما رَآهُ مُسْتَقِراً عِنْدَهُ قالَ هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبّى لَيَبْلُوَنى أَاشْكُرُ امْ اكْفُرْ وَ مَنْ شَكَرَ فَانَّما يَششْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَانَّ رَبّى غَنىٌّ كَريم

Wilyat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:  During the Battle of Khaybar, when several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combats failed, that night the Holy Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed, “By Allah, tomorrow I shall give it [the banner] to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, whom Allah and His Messenger love. Allah will bestow victory upon him.” That morning, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) called out for Ali ibn Abi Țalib (as) while His eyes were painful. Ali (as) came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh), who cured him of his ophthalmia, an inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva in them. The holy Prophet (pbuh) sent him with his flag and Ali (as) attacked the Khaybar and conquered it.

According to the tradition, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has cured Imam Ali’s (as) ophthalmia by His Wilayat al-Takwini.[6]

The Infallible Imams’ (pbuth) Wilayat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:

  1. Ibn Abbas narrated: Abdullah ibn Salam along with a few of Muslims went to the house of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) around noon and shared his problems with Him. The Wilayat verse of the Hoy Quran has sent down at that time. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse to them, they said: We are satisfied with the Wilayat of Allah, His Messenger and Believers, then Bilal performed Adhan and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque. People have been offering their prayers, some were at ruku, some sujud and others at the state of qiyam. The holy Prophet (pbuh) saw a beggar circulating around people. The Prophet (pbuh) called him and asked: Did anyone give you anything? Yes, the man said. The Holy Prophet asked: What did he give you? A silver ring, the man replied. Who gave you the ring? The Prophet (pbuh) asked. That man who is standing, the man replied. The holy Prophet looked at that man ad saw He is Ali ibn Abitalib (as). The Prophet asked again: At which state He gave you the ring? He gave me the ring while He was bowing down, the man replied. And then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse of the Holy Quran: “Only Allah is your Vali) Friend or Guardian (and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow”.[7]

In Durrul Manthour So’youti narrated this issue and in the end he writes: When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked the man, Who gave you the ring? And the mand replied, the one who is at the state of Qiyam and pointed Imam Ali by his hand, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: He is Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), said Takbir and then recited this verse of the Holy Quran:  “And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the Party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant”[8]

وَ مَن یَتَوَلَّ اللهَ وَ رَسُولَه وَ الَّذینَ آمَنوا فَاِنَّ حِزْبَ اللهِ هُمُ الْغالِبُونَ

  1. In Shawahid al-Tanzil Hakim Haskani narrated 24 traditions under the Wilaya verse of the Holy Quran. Some of the people he narrated hadith from are, Ibn Abbas, Ammar bin Yaser, Jaber ibn Abluddal Ansari, Ami al-Momeneen Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), Miqdad ibn Aswad Kenedi and Abuzar Ghifari.[9]
  2. In Tafsir al-Kabir, Fakhr Razi narrated three hadith and he also narrated a hadith from Abuzar in which he has proven the Wilyah al-Takwini by the verse of the Holy Quran that has send down for Imam Ali (as).[10]

For further information regarding other traditions narrated in this regards from Ahlul Sunna sources, please refer to the Book Al-Ghadir by Allama Amini, 52-2/53, Book Ahqaq al-Haq. 409-2/399 and Ruh al-Ma’ani, 6/167.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

[1] . Refer to: https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/631006433717334/

[2] . Surah al-Baqara, verse 117.

[3] . Surah Luqman, verse 26.

[4] . Surah al-Anaam, verse 62.

[5] . Sharh e Nahjul Balagha, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 4, Pg. 79. For further information regarding Intercession, please refer to the following answer:

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/583488091802502/) 

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/511560225661956/)

[6] . Kamil, ibn Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 219;  Shia sources: Allama Majlesi, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 21, Pg. 298.

[7] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 55;  Ma Nazala min al-Quran fee Ali (as), n 66.

[8] . al-Durrul Manthour, 2/520;   Surah Maedah, verse 56.

[9] . Shawahed al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Pg. 209, H 216.

[10] . al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. 2, Pgs. 52-53.

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Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin

Question 621: Sallam O Alaikum. This Hadith is circulating in the social media and I really wanna know the authenticity of the Hadith will you confirm if it’s fake or a real Hadith. A man entered on Imam Sadeq and said: Salam Alikum ya Ameeral Mu’meneen. The Imam have stood up and said angerly: Behold! This is a title only suitable for Imam Ali! Allah have named him with it, and anyone who claim the title for himself, he is a penetrated homo [and if he isn’t, he will be]. Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin?

Tafsyr Al Ayashi v1 p276. Wasael al Shia v14 p600.

I would appreciate it. Thank you very much

Answer 621: As for the Hadith narrated from an unknown man without mentioning other chain of narrations it is considered as mursal and a weak hadith.

Note: Mursal is a hadith whose chain of transmitters lacks one or more narrators, and asserts that: The hadith is mursal and therefore unacceptable.

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَامَ عَلَى قَدَمَيْهِ فَقَالَ مَهْ هَذَا اسْمٌ لَا يَصْلُحُ إِلَّا لِأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع- سَمَّاهُ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَ لَمْ يُسَمَّ بِهِ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُ فَرَضِيَ بِهِ إِلَّا كَانَ‏ مَنْكُوحاً وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ (ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ) وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ فِي كِتَابِهِ‏ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِناثاً وَ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطاناً مَرِيداً- قَالَ قُلْتُ: فَمَا ذَا يُدْعَى بِهِ قَائِمُكُمْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بَقِيَّةَ اللَّهِ- السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ.

The followings are some ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) in which relied on using this title only for Imam Ali (as).

  1. A man asked Imam Sadiq (as) if we are allowed to call Imam of the time (as) by Amir al-Momenin (Commander of the Faithful)? He said: No. Because, this name is specialized by Allah to Imam Ali (as). No one before him has been called by this name nor after him will be called, unless they are Kafir. The man asked how to say Salaam to Him? The Imam replied: say: Assalamu Alaika Ya Baqiyatallah.[1]
  2. The holy Prophet (pbuh) said: O people, Say whatever I’ve been telling you and say Salaam to Ali by Amir al-Momenin and say: O Allah, we understood and obeyed and seek your forgiveness, we will return to you. Say: All praises are for Allah who guide us to this order of Wilaya and if there wasn’t your guidance we have never guided, O people, the values that Ali bin Abi Talib has toward Allah that have been sent down in the holy Quran are more than what we can count and say.[2]
  3. Salman Farsi (ra) said: O people, follow Ale Muhammad who guide you to the Heaven and obey Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib, I swear to Allah that we said salaam to Ali (a) by Wali and Amir al-Momenin in front of the holy Prophet (pbuh) and He (the Prophet) bided us and relied on doing so.[3]
  4. Sulaim bin Qays said: I sat beside Salaman, Abuzar and Miqdad that a man of Ahl e Kuffa said to them: Be upon you to follow the holy Quran and Ali bin Abi Talib. Because, He is with the Quran and never be separated from it. We give testimony that

According to the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) order, we are all being ordered to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin.[4]

According to the previous mentioned traditions especially the first one, Amir al-Momnin is one of the specialized titles of Imam Ali (as) that chosen by Allah (swt) and the holy Prophet (s). Their saying was to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin. This title has never used for other Imams (as) in Shia sect. Because, it is only specialized to Imam Ali (as) [5]. [6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, Tehran,

[2] . Alam al-Huda, Khurasani, Nahj al-Khitabah, Sukhanan Payambar (s) wa Amir al-Momnin, Vol. 1, Pg. 154, Sadr Library, Tehran, second edition,

[3] . Allamah Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 29, Pg. 81, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, Lebanon, 1404 A.H.

[4] . Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl al-Lujaj, Vol. 1, Pg. 157.

[5] . Atarodi, Azizullah, Zendegani Chahardah Masoom (as), Pg. 229, Islamiyyah, Tehran, first edtion, 1390 A.H.

[6] . Adopted from answer 11125 IQ.

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Returning Fadak to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth)

Question 244: Why didn’t Imam Ali (as) give Fadak to Imam Hassan (as) and Hussain (as)?

Answer 244: “Fadak” was a thriving and flourishing village located near Khaybar, 140 kilometers from Medinah. In the seventh of hijrah, the fortresses of Khaybar were conquered one after another and the central power of the Jews was overthrown. The residents of Fadak surrendered and promised to give the prophet (pbuh) half of their lands and orchards on condition of no fighting and keep the rest for themselves. In addition, they accepted to do the farming of his lands for a wage.

Lands that fall into the hands of the Muslim army without any fighting and violence become the personal property of the prophet (pbuh), and he can make any decisions about them, that is why when the verse: “وَ آتِ ذَا الْقُرْبى حَقَّهُ وَ الْمِسْكينَ وَ ابْنَ السَّبيلِ وَ لا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذيرا”[1] was revealed unto him, he summoned his daughter and granted her Fadak.[2]

But unfortunately, after the prophet (pbuh) passed away and during the reign of Abu Bakr, Lady Fatimah (as) was deprived of the gift of Fadak.[3]

In his famous book of Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn Hajjaj Neyshabouri narrates the story of Lady Fatimah claiming Fadak in detail and has reported Ayishah saying that after the khalifah refused to return it to her, she sulked and didn’t speak another word with him until her demise.[4]

It has also been stated in the Nahjul-Balaghah that: “Of course, all that we had in our possession under the sky was Fadak, but a group of people felt greedy for it and the other party [its rightful owners; Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah (as)] withheld themselves from it. Allah is, after all, the best arbiter.”[5]

In order to get the answer to your question, one fact that should be paid attention to is that the imam’s first and foremost priority always, was to preserve Islam itself, despite all of his objections to those in power before him, and that is why he would cooperate with them and help them in internal affairs and governing the Muslim nation, as he himself beautifully put it: “We [the progeny of the prophet (pbuh)] have a right [which was to be the true successors to the prophet (pbuh)] in which if we are allowed to exercise, then all the better, and if not, we prefer to be the second person sitting in the back of the camel [behind the person guiding it, instead of completely getting off]”.[6]

Therefore, in reality, the imam considered political power a tool and means of fulfilling godly objectives, not a goal, and that is why he would prefer to keep quiet about many different issues, both during his reign and the reign of those before him, leaving judgment for future generations to come. As for why he didn’t act according to his own viewpoint during his own rule, although he had the authority to do so, a small example will clarify things. During his own rule, when he attempted to bring an end to the “tarawih” prayer [that had been innovated by one of previous khalifahs and wasn’t a tradition of the prophet (pbuh)], he was confronted with objections and forced to leave the people to themselves.[7] Also, you surely know of his discontent regarding the arbitration of Abu Musa Ash’ari and that he was forced to give in to it. Essentially, the imam’s coming to power was preceded by twenty five years of continuous justification of all the actions and things the previous khalifahs had done, making it almost impossible to oppose their methods and bring change to some of them; one of those being returning the Fadak to its rightful owners, because some would think that the imam was making use of his power for his own benefit. Add to that the fact that Fadak was important to the household of the prophet (pbuh) and Lady Fatimah (as) because it was a gift and remembrance from him and more importantly, a financial asset and backing for them, especially Ali (as), and that is why the government of the time confiscated it; because it was their financial support; doing so would ensure that Ali (as) wouldn’t be able to do anything against them. Keeping in mind all of these and other circumstances, such as the battles and sabotage the nation was experiencing, preventing the imam (as) from making even important and primary changes that the nation was in need of, how was Ali (as) to take back Fadak? It would surely harm the Muslim nation and shadow over more important national issues, and that is why he chose not to.

Hadiths from the imams somewhat point to these issues:

1- Time had passed since the incident [of Fadak’s usurpation] and there was no need for Ali (as) to speak of it after so many years:

Abu Basir says: “I asked Imam Sadiq (as) why Imam Ali (as) didn’t repossess Fadak after he came to power. The imam (as) answered: “Because both the oppressed [Lady Fatimah (as)] and oppressor [those who deprived her of Fadak] had both died and Allah (swt) had punished the oppressor and rewarded the oppressed by then, and Ali ibn Abitaleb didn’t like the idea of returning a property in which its usurper had been punished and the one usurped from had been rewarded already.”[8]

2- Sacrificing personal benefits for higher and universal goals. Ibn Ibrahim Karakhi says: “I asked Imam Sadiq (as) about why Imam Ali (as) didn’t return Fadak after becoming khalifah. He answered: “When the prophet (pbuh) conquered Mekkah, he was asked if he would return to his homeland. He said: Aqil has sold my house. The people asked: Why don’t you take it back? He answered: We belong to a household that doesn’t take back what has been wrongfully taken from them; Imam Ali (as) did the same in order to have followed the prophet (pbuh) [in not taking back what rightfully belonged to him].[9]

A person asked Imam Kadhim (as) the same question; the imam answered: “Our household [the progeny of the prophet (pbuh)] whose guardian is Allah (swt); He is the one who makes sure what belongs to us comes back to us, and we are the guardians of the people and make sure what belongs to them returns to them, but we don’t take back what belongs to us.”[10]

Having said that, it’s good to see what the fate of Fadak was and what happened to it after the martyrdom of Imam Ali (as).
What historic records says is that after Mu’awiyyah took power, he divided it amongst Marwan, Amr ibn Uthman and his son Yazid. During Marwan’s rule, he took control of all of Fadak and he granted it to his son Abdul-Aziz, who later granted it to his son, Umar. Umar ibn Abdil-Aziz gave Fadak back to the descendants of Lady Fatimah (as). After his death, it once again fell into the hands of the Umayyid dynasty and remained there.

After rule of the Muslim empire shifted to the Abbasid dynasty, it was once again given back to Abdullah ibn Hasan [from the progeny of Imam Hasan (as)]. Mansour Davaneqi took it back from them when he took over, but his son returned it to them after his death.

After Mahdi, the son of Mansour, Musa and Haroun took it back again, but after them Ma’moun officially returned it to the progeny of Fatimah (as). It continued to be returned and taken after Ma’moun.

During that era, Fadak was considered a political issue, and wasn’t looked at as a financial asset, because the khalifahs of both dynasties were in no way in any need of the profits it yielded; that is why when Umar ibn Abdil-Aziz returned it, the Umayyids scolded him, saying: “By doing so, you have rejected Abu Bakr and Umar [who had refused to return it during their time]!”[11]

Eventually, during the Abbasid ruler, Mutawakkil, it was seized, its trees cut down by the order of a person by the name of “Abdullah ibn Umar Mazyar”. This shameful act remains a sign of disgrace for the wrongdoers of that time. It must be noted that even the eleven date palms that the prophet (pbuh) had planted with his own hands were cut down. History says Bashran ibn abi Umayyah Thaqafi, the person who had cut them down, suffered from paralysis after returning to Basrah.[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

[1] . Isra’:26.

[2] . See: Tabarsi, Majma’ul-Bayan, vol. 3, pg. 411.

[3] . Sharhe Nahjul-Balagheh, vol. 16, pg. 274.

[4] . Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, pg. 1380.

[5] . Nahjul-Balaghah, letter 45.

[6] . Nahjul-Balaghah, pg. 472.

[7] . Ibn Abil-Hadid, Sharhu Nahjil-Balaghah, Library of Ayatullah Mar’ashi Najafi, vol. 12, pg. 283.

[8] . “فَقَالَ لَهُ لِأَنَّ الظَّالِمَ وَ الْمَظْلُومَةَ قَدْ كَانَا قَدِمَا عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَثَابَ اللَّهُ الْمَظْلُومَةَ وَ عَاقَبَ الظَّالِمَ، فَكَرِهَ أَنْ يَسْتَرْجِعَ شَيْئاً قَدْ عَاقَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ غَاصِبَهُ وَ أَثَابَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَغْصُوبَةَ” Biharul-Anwar, vol. 29, pg. 395, hadith 1.

[9] . Ibid, hadith 2.

[10] . Ibid, hadith 3.

[11] . Jafar Sobhani, Furughe Abadiyyat, vol. 2, pg. 669.

[12] . Ahmadi Miyanji, Makatibul-Rasul.

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Shia answers: Tafsir of Imam Al-Askari A.S

Question 243:  Asslaoalakum! I need to know about the book called “Tafsir Imam Alaskari A.S”, is it an authentic book? I came to know about this book by a “whabi” Shia type person, so i want to make sure if it’s safe for me to go through this book because I’m but a learner.

Answer 243: Despite Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) being martyred in the year 260 A.H, there hasn’t been any mention that this Tafsir was attributed to the Imam (as) among prominent scholars such as Sheikh Kulaini, Ali bin Abraham Qomi, Ahmad Barqi, Ahmad bin Edris, Ibn Qulawayh, Muhammad bin Hamam Baghdadi or Muhammad bin Abraham Nomani.

In the middle of the fourth century, Muhammd bin Qasim Jorjani Astar Abadi, who was known by some nicknames such as Mufasser (interpreter) and Khatib (orator), has quoted some content of this Tafsir to Sheikh Tawhid Sadouq. Sheikh Sadouq in some of his books like Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, Amali and Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh mentioned some parts of this Tafsir, but some of the Shia prominent scholars don’t mention any of this tafsir.

At the beginning of the fifth century, Ahmad bin Hussain Ghadayeri mentioned this tafsir and its author, but considered the author (Jorjani) as a liar and introduced his book as a fake book.[1]

During the age of Safawi, Fakhr al-Din Ali bin Hasan Zawarei, the student of Ghiyath al-Din, translated this Tafsir from the Arabic language into Farsi, as Shah Tahmasib Safawi had ordered him to do so.

He has chosen “Athar al-Akhyar” as the name of this tafsir when it was translated into the Farsi language. This Tafsir is now available at the library of Shahid Mutahari Schools.

Those who accepted this Tafsir and quoted many parts of it, are as follows: Sheikh Tousi and Sheikh Mufid have narrated this tafsir from Sheikh Sadouq and Muhammad bin Qasim Jorjani AstarAbadi.[2]

Abu Mansour Tabarsi, in the book al-Ihtijaj, mentioned some topics from Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) with Sanad. He also added some traditions from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) concerning this tafsir.[3] In the book Monyatul Morid Shahid Thani, it has been narrated many traditions from this tafsir.

According to Ibn Shahrashoub, “This tafsir is certainly attributed to Imam Hasan al-Askari (as).”[4]

According to Allamah Hasan Zadeh Amoli, “This tafeer was attributed to Imam Hasan Askari (as) and became available in Tehran in 1268 A.H. It contains 309 pages and I have it in my library.”[5]

According to Mohaqiq Karaki, Ali bin Hasan Zawari’s professor, “This is one of the most authentic tafsir.”[6]

Sheikh Al-Hurr al-Aamili said, “Although this tafsir contains some traditions that are against the Shia belief, Ibn Babawayh trusted it; in his books was narrated many traditions from this tafsir.”. [7]

Mirza Hussain Noori, Mirdamad, and Ibn Ghadayeri are some of those scholars who criticized this book and didn’t accept that this tafsir is attributed to Imam Hasan al-Askari (as). [8]

It should be noted that until now the Farsi translation of this book hasn’t been published yet. Athar al-Akhyar is the only version of this tafsir available in some famous Iranian libraries and other countries libraries.

[1] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 107, Pg. 123.

[2] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 59.

[3] . Al-Ihtijaj, Tabarsi, Pgs. 14 & 55.

[4] . Manaqib A’ale Abi Talib (as), Ibn Shahrashoub Mazandarani, Vol. 2, Pgs. 300, 313 and 339.

[5] . Sahifeh Mobin Magazine, 1994, Pg. 7.

[6] . Mostadrak al-Wasel, Vol. 3, Pg. 661.

[7] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 59.

[8] . Mostadrak al-Wasael, Vol. 3, Pg. 661; Majma al-Rijal, Qahpaee, Vol. 6, Pg. 25.

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Reasoning for believing Imamat of the Infallible Imams

Question 619: Aselam akeyikum werahmetullah. Is believing in Imamiya part of an Aqida for Shi’ism? Meaning, any Muslim who doesn’t believe in Imamiya knowngly a Kaffir, otherwise a Fasiq?

Thanks a lot!

Answer 619: Imamate plays a crucial role in Islam. From the Holy Quran’s point of view, imamate is the final stage of human evolution, to which only Messengers of God have reached. The Holy Quran says about Prophet Abraham (a): ”Remember when Abraham’s God examined him with different means, and he successfully passed all those tests, so that God told him that he was appointed as the people’s Imam and leader, and Abraham (a) asked God to appoint his descendents as Imams as well, but God replied that imamate could not be handed over to tyrants, and only those of his offspring who were pure and sinless would deserve such a grace.”.[1]

This verse shows that imamate has a very high status and rank, since Prophet Abraham (a) was appointed as an Imam while he was already a Prophet. This happened only after he passed many difficult tests and trials.

The position of Imamate is sometimes combined with Prophethood, so that an eminent Prophet such as Abraham (a) becomes an Imam. Another evident reason is the combination of Prophethood and Imamate in the Prophet of Islam (s).

It also occurs that Imamate is separated from a Prophetic mission, such as what occurred in the case of the Shia Imams (a) who were only Imams, without being subject to direct divine revelation.

Reasoning for the Imamate of the Infallible Imams

Since the Imams are appointed by God, there is a need of rational reasoning to recognize the individuals who are actually imam. For instance, human logic can distinguish between an Imam and other people by witnessing characteristics such as knowledge, justice, courage, sinlessness and so forth in the Imam, and a lack of such characteristics in others. In addition, Quranic verses and authentic traditions also prove the imamate of an individual.

The following are some verses and their interpretations which are about the issue of imamate:

  • [2]«انما انت منذر و لکل قوم هاد», which means, “Your duty is to advise people, and there is a leader for every group.”

Shia interpreters and some Sunni ones, including Imam Fakhr Razi, says, “Here the term advisor refers to the Holy Prophet (s) and the leader to Imam Ali (a), since Ibn Abbas said that the Holy Prophet (s) put his hands on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added «و انت الهادی یا علی…» that means Ali (a) was the leader and shall continue to lead people after the Prophet (s).”[3]

In Al-Durrul-Manthur, one of the famous Sunni commentaries, several interpretations of the above verse are introduced, in which it is written that upon the revelation of this verse, the Holy Prophet (s) put his hand on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added that Ali was the leader.[4]

Other similar traditions from other theologians can be found in various other sources such as from Hakem Neyshabouri in “Mostadrak”, Dhahabi in “Talkhis”, Fakhr Razi and Ibn Kathir in their commentaries and Ibn Sabagh Maleki in “Alfusulul-Muhimmah” and Ganji Shafei in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, and Tabari in his commentary, and Ibn Hayan Andolosi in “Al-Bahrul-Muhit” and Neyshabouri in his commentary and Hamvini in “Faraed Olsamtin” and as well as many others. To become familiar with the sources of such traditions and their evidences, see the book Ihghagh Olhagh, Vol. 3, pp 88-92.

  • «با ایها الذین آمنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین[5] Which reads, “O, believers, avoid antagonism (toward God’s commands) and be with the loyal people.”

Imam Fakhr Razi interpreted the phrase ‘loyal people’ as meaning infallibles. He also added, “By infallible the verse refers to the whole nation in its entirety.”[6] This is while no Arab speaker, at the date of revelation of this verse, was using this phrase to refer to the nation; therefore, such an interpretation does not seem to be valid.

We should accept that in every era, there are loyal people who do not make any mistakes in their deeds and speeches, whom we should follow.

Moreover, many Sunni interpreters have quoted Ibn Abbas as saying that the above-mentioned verse is referring to Imam Ali (a). Allamah Tha’alabi in his book of commentary, Ganji in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, Allamah Sibt Jowzi in “Tadhkirah”, all interpret this verse as referring to Imam Ali (a) and his household. Ibn Abbas added, “Ali (a) is the most loyal man.”[7]

Many other traditions quoted from the members of the prophetic household confirm this same interpretation.[8]

  • «اطیعواالله و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم»,[9] Says: “Obey God and obey the Messenger of God and the Holders of Authority.”

Shia interpreters unanimously believe that by the ‘Holders of Authority’, the verse is referring to the Infallible Imams (a).

In addition, the Hanafi Sheikh Soleiman Qanduzi in his book “Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah” quoted the book “Mujahid” as saying that the verse refers to Ali (a) when the Holy Prophet (s) appointed him as his substitute in Madinah when he himself was involved in the Tabuk war.

It is also quoted from Imam Ali (a) as referring to this verse in a debate with the Mohajerin and Ansar, so that they admitted to the legitimacy of his rule.[10]

In “Shawahidul-Tanzil” of Hakem Haskani, a Sunni scholar, the interpretation of the same verse includes a quotation from Imam Ali (a) as saying that he once asked the Holy Prophet (s) about the meaning of “ruler”, to which the Holy Prophet (s) replied, “You are the first of them.”

Islamic beliefs are like a connected chain, such that if one part is missing, then the whole chain will be useless and have no benefit.  In other words, believing in Allah has its entailments; belief in these entailments is what makes the difference and brings about Allah’s satisfaction.  If you examine the story of Satan being expelled from heaven, you will find that he asked Allah for the chance to live until the Day of Judgment to deviate man.[11]  Therefore, it is understood that Satan believed in Allah and the Day of Judgment but Allah still names him a Kāfir.[12]  So just believing in Allah is not enough for one’s belief to be accepted, but one must also stay firm in regard to the results and implications of this belief.  One of the results of one’s belief in Allah is belief in His messengers meaning the prophets, in such a way that denying them would be like denying Allah.  Also, believing in the Imams, meaning the prophets’ successors, is the inevitable result and reflection of one’s belief in the prophet, because the Imams are the prophet’s successors that were appointed by himself and denying them is like denying the prophet himself.  Therefore, one cannot believe in the prophet and not believe in the imams.  It is the same between each one of the imams, meaning that denying one of them is like denying all of them, for the reason that proves the Imamate of each one of them is the same and applies to all of them; all of them are the successors of the prophet and each Imam has been approved of by the previous one and has introduced the next Imam.  Therefore, denying one of them leads to the denial of the previous one and because all of them were appointed by the prophet, denying them is denial of the prophet.

Finally, we will mention a few ahadith in this regard: Imam Sadiq narrates from his great ancestors, meaning the previous Imams, that they narrated from the prophet that he said: “My successors are twelve individuals, the first is Ali bin Abi Talib and the last is the ‘Ghā’im’, they are my successors, vicegerents, the leaders after me and my Hujjats (reasons) over my Ummah, whoever bears witness to their imamate is a Mu’min (Believer), and whoever denies their Imamate is a kāfir (disbeliever).”[13]

It is narrated in another hadith by Imam Sadiq that: “One who does not follow our words has rejected Allah’s words, and one who rejects Allah’s words is a polytheist”.[14]

Also, it is mentioned in another hadith by Imam Kadhim that: “One who has hate for us resents the prophet of Allah and he actually has hate for Allah, and one who has hate for Allah deserves the hellfire and will not receive help from anyone.”[15]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: Shia Ithna Ashari is Jafari school of thought, answer 111.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran, answer 129.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!

[1] Surah Baqarah, Verse 124

7 Surah Ra’ad, Verse 7

[3] Tafsir Kabir, Fakhr Razi, Volume 19, Page 14

[4] Al-Durrul-Manthur, Jalaladdin Suyuti, Volume. 4 Page 45

[5] Surah Bara’at, Verse 119

[6] Commentary of Fakhre Razi, volume 16, Page 221

[7] Ihqaqul-Haqq Volume. 3 Page 297

[8] Commentary of Noor Al Thaqalain Volume 2 Page 280,

[9] Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah, Page 114 – 115 – 116

[10] Shawahidul-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 148

[11] “قالَ رَبِّ فَاَنظِرنِي ِالَي َيوِم يُبعَثُون …” Hijr:36; Sād:79.

[12] Baqarah:34; Sād:74.

[13] “عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ص قَالَ الْأَئِمَّةُ بَعْدِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَوَّلُهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ آخِرُهُمُ الْقَائِمُ فَهُم خُلَفَائِي و أَوصِيَائِي و أَولِيَائِي وَ حُجَجُ اللَّه عَلَي اُمّتِي بَعدِي الْمُقِرُّ بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنٌ وَ الْمُنْكِرُ لَهُمْ كَافِرٌ”، Sheikh Saduq, Man lā Yahduruhū al-Faqīh, vol. 4, book of wasiyyah (i.e., making a will), the chapter on the will of Adam (as), pg. 180,…hadith 5406, Jame’eye Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH. Of course, the term ‘kufr here is to be taken in its literal sense, which is to hide and conceal the truth, and not in its common usage.

[14] “الرَّادُّ عَلَينَا الرَّادّ عَلَى الله وَ هُوَ عَلَى حَدِّ الشَّركِ بِاللهِ…” Kuleini, vol. 1, chapter of difference in hadith, pg. 68, Dār al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah Publication, Tehran, 1365 (solar calendar).

[15] “ألا يا عبد الرحمن من أبغضنا فقد أبغض محمدا و من أبغض محمدا فقد أبغض الله جل و علا، و من أبغض الله جل و علا كان حقا على الله أن يصليه النار و ماله من نصير” Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 97, pg. 122, Al-Wafā’ Institute, Lebanon, 1404 AH.

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The daughters of Imam Hussain (as)

Question 181: Would you be able to share (i) some insights regarding the total number and fate of the daughters of Imam al-Husayn (as), and (ii) perhaps suggest several researches in English and Arabic, in the form of books/articles that analyze this question?

Answer 181: Many historians and those who write maqtals (accounts of what took place on Ashura) have mentioned two girls with the names of Fatimah and Sukainah when counting the daughters of Imam Hussein.[1] Also, some have added the name of “Zeynab”,[2] while other books have narrated the story of the Imam’s small daughter and the tragic incidents that took place for her in the ruins of Sham.[3] Most of these writers have cited this story from the book of “Kamel Baha’i” which was written in seventh century A. H.

There are also clues in our hadith and history sources that support her existence and as an example we will mention one of them:

First: When Lady Zeynab was speaking to the head of her brother, Imam Hussein, she recited poems that consisted of the following sentence: “O Brother! Speak to little Fatimah for it is close for her heart to become empty (it is close for her to pass away).”[4] This sentence indicates that such a small girl existed and could not bear the separation from her father.

When examining historical books and the Maqatel we find that Shia and Sunni historians have mentioned a daughter named Sukainah for Imam Hussein. In this regard Sheikh Mufid says:” Sukainah is among the daughters of Imam Hussein and her mother’s name is Rubab.”[5] Sheikh Tabarsi also mentions her name saying that: “Imam Hussein married her to Abdullah Bin Al Hassan – her cousin – that was martyred on the day of Ashura.”[6] It is mentioned in the book Maghtal al-Hussein that: “She (Sukainah) married her cousin (Abdullah Bin Al Hassan) who was martyred on the day of Ashura before consummating their marriage and no child was born from this marriage.”[7] Tabarsi also narrates that: “Sukainah, the daughter of Imam Hussein was 10 years old during the incident of Ashura.”[8]

Dhahabi has also mentioned in his “Tarikh al-Islam” that Sukainah was the daughter of Imam Hussein and names up to 20 books that have mentioned Sukainah as the Imam’s daughter.[9] Therefore many books have mentioned Sukainah as the daughter of Imam Hussein. In addition to the books mentioned in this article, we have mentioned the names of the rest of these books in the footnotes.[10]

However, regarding her age, there is no clear narration, and it is only understood from the different opinions that during Ashura she was either married or she had reached the age of marriage.[11]

Taking what was said in to consideration, one can conclude that a daughter of Imam Hussein (who was either named Ruqayyahh or Fatimah) passed away beside the head of her father in the ruins of Sham, and that this little girl was not Sukainah, the other daughter of the Imam who lived for many years after her father’s martyrdom.

For further information, please read the following answer:

Index: The number of soldiers who came to Karbala to fight against Imam Hussain (as), answer 568.

Index: Enemies killed by Imam Hussain (as) in Karbala on the Day of Ashura, answer 598.

[1] . Mufid, Muhammad bin Nu’man, Al-Irshaad, The Collection of the Works of Sheikh Mufid, vol. 2, pg. 135, Dar al-Mufid, Beirut, 1414 AH. Ibn Shahr Ashub, Manaaqib Aal Abi Taleb, vol. 4, pg. 77, Allamah Publications Institute, Qom Seminary Print; Tabarsi, A’laam al-Waraa, vol. 1, pg. 478, Aal Bayt Institute, first print, 1417 AH; Mus’ab al-Zubayri, Nisab al-Quraysh, pg. 59, Dar al-Ma’aarif, Cairo, third print; Beladheri, Ansaab al-Ashraaf, vol. 3, pg. 1288, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut , first print, 1401 AH; Sibt bin Jowzi, Tadhkirah al-Khawass, pg. 349, Ahlul-Bayt Institute, Beirut, first print, 1401.

[2] . Al-Arbali, Kashf al-Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al-A’immah, vol. 2, pg. 38, researched by Rasuli, Tabriz, Suuq Masjid Jame’.

[3]. Qummi, Sheikh Abbas, Nafas al-Mahmum, pp.415-416, Maktabah al-Heydariyyah Publications, first print, 1379; Al-Iqaad, Shah Abdul-Azimi, pg. 179, researched by Razavi, Firuzabadi Publications, first print, 1411 AH; Ha’eri, Ma’aali al-Sibtayn, vol.2, pg. 170, Al-Numaan Publications, Beirut, 1412 AH; Qummi, Sheikh Abbas, Muntaha al-Aamaal, vol. 1, pg. 807, Hijrah Publications Institute, fourth print, 1411 AH; Tabari, Imaduddin, Kamel Baha’i, vol. 2, pg. 179, Maktabah Al-Mustafavi.

[4] . Majlisi, Muhamamad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 45, pg. 115 “…یا اخی فاطم الصغیرة کلمّا فقد کاد قلبها ان یذوبا”;
Al-Qanduzi, Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, vol. 2, pg. 421, Al-Sharif Al-Radhiyy Publications, first print, 1371.

[5] . Mufid, Muhammad bin Nu’maan, Al-Irshad, vol. 2, pg. 37, Ilmiyyah Islamiyyah Publications.

[6] . Tabarsi, A’laam al-Waraa, vol. 1, pg. 418, Aal al-Bayt Publications; Mufid, Muhammad bin Nu’man, Al-Irshad, pg. 25; Arbali, Kashf al-Ghummah, pg. 157.

[7] . Musawi, Abd al-Razzaaq, Maqtal al-Husein, pg. 397, Basirati Publications.

[8] . Ibid.

[9] . Al-Dhahabi, Tarikh al-Islam, vol. 7, pg. 371, Dar al-Kutub al-Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon.

[10] . Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, Maqaatil al-Talebin, pp. 94, 119, 133, 167; Al-Baladheri, Ansaab al-Ashraaf, vol. 3, pg. 362; Ibn Hanaan, Al-Thuqaat, vol. 4, pg. 351, Al-Kutub al-Thaqaafiyyah Publications; Al-Bukhari, Al-Taarikh al-Saghir, vol. 1, pg. 273, Dar al-Ma’rifah, Beirut, Lebanon; Al-Usfuri, Taarikh Khalifah bin Khayaat, pg. 274, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut; Muhammad bin Sa’d, Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, vol. 8, pg. 475, Beirut; Al-Muzni, Tahdhib al-Kamaal, vol. 6, pg. 397, Al-Risalah Publications; Ibn Aamir, Taarikh al-Madinah, vol. 2, pg. 52, and vol. 29, pg. 69 in different pages, Damascus, Dar al-Fikr; Ibn Maakulaa, Ikmaal al-Kamaal, vol. 4, pg. 316 and vol. 7, pg. 107, Dar al-Kitab al-Islamiyy, Cairo; Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 45, pg. 169, pg. 47, Beirut; Qummi, Sheikh Abbas, Muntaha al-Aamaal, vol. 1, pg. 547, Huseini Publications.

[11] . Mufid, Muhammad bin Nu’maan, Al-Irshad, vol. 2, pg. 22.

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General appearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf)

Question 267: Hi assalamualikum, This about Imam al mahdi(as), that there is a video in detail a documentry on physical charecteristics of imam mahdi(as) by harun yahya,a turkish. He had explained well in details about how we can identify imam mahdi by looking at his physical charecteristics when he appear…its a long video and available on youtube so that i kindly request you to have a look on to get in details..( video titled : The holy appearance that will identify imam mahdi(as). By harun yahya.

http://m.harunyahya.com/…/245…/the-holy-appearance-that-will

The question is, How accurate are those information and are they authentic when compared to the shia point of view?

Thanks

Brief Answer 267: According to some traditions, Imam Mahdi (ajtf) is the most similar person to the holy Prophet (PBUH). Some of his general appearance is as follows: youthful appearance with a brilliant face, curved eyebrows, a broad forehead, a nice stature, long straight nose, a small black spot on his right cheek, a face glowing like a shining star and had an appearance that no one has ever seen more beautiful, calm and pious complexion.

Answer 267: Imam Mahdī (ajtf) was born in 15 Sha‘bān 255 A.H. Since we are in the year 1438, the Imam (as) is said to be 1183 years old. After the death of His father (Imam Hasan al-Askari), Imam Mahdi (ajtf) were presented to offer prayer for the dead. All of the people that were presented there saw his face. He had a wheatish complexion, curly hair and a spacing with between his front teeth. [1]

There are two different types of traditions narrated in regards to the characteristic and general appearance of Imam Mahdi (as) as follows:

A: Traditions in which the Imam (as) is said to be youth without mentioning how old he is:

  1. He is young, though he is aged.[2]

Arabic version:

شابٌ بعد كبر السن

  1. He will appear at the best age of youth.[3]

رجوعه من غیبته بشرخ الشباب

  1. He is very old but with youthful appearance.[4]

فی سن الشیوخ و منظر الشباب

B: Traditions that rely on the both age and youthful appearance of Imam Mahdi as follows:

  1. with a complete youthful complexion and at the age of 30.[5]

Arabic version:

فی صورة فتیَ موفق ابن ثلاثین سنه

  1. Youthful complexion and less than 40 years old.[6]

فی صورة شاب دون اربعین سنة

  1. He is old, but with youthful complexion in a way that people think he has less than 40 years old. One of his signs is that he won’t be aged till the time of death.[7]

Sheikh Tusi quoted from those whom met the Imam (as) during the minor occultation that He was a handsome youth with fragrant smell and magnificent appearance. The narrator said: When he was delivering speech, we have never seen anyone can speak like him. [8]

It is narrated in other tradition that he is of medium height. He has a rounded head, broad forehead, long strait nose, shine cheeks and a small black spot on his right cheek.[9]

It is quoted from Imam Ridha (as) that he has said: One of his signs is that he is aged but with a youth appearance that when anyone look at him he is seemed to be at the age of 30 or less. He won’t grow old until he will die.[10]

When it comes to having long life, it is not specialized for Imam Mahdi (ajtf). Some individuals like the Prophet Noah (as) that lived long life (2500 years old), Prophet Khidhr (as) with thousands years old that he is still alive, Loqman bin Aad (3500 years old), Loqman Hakim or the Prophet Jesus (as) that he is still alive.

In order to justify it scientifically we can say that since getting old and death are because of some attrition factors. Therefore, if there are no attrition factors one would remain young.[11]

Know that Imam of the time (as) is the very beautiful and good-looking person among people. Because, he is the most similar person to the holy Prophet (PBUH).[12]

Jaber bin Abdullah Ansari narrated that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said: Mahid (as) is one my children. His name is my name, his Kunyah is my kunyah. He is the most similar person to me.[13]

Ibrahim bin Mahziyar whom met Imam Mahdi (ajtf), quoted: The Imam (as) was young with a brilliant face, his eyebrows were curved, he had a broad forehead, a nice stature, long straight nose, a small black spot on his right cheek, a face glowing like a shining star and had an appearance that no one has ever seen more beautiful, calm and pious complexion like him.[14]

Meeting with the Imam of Time (‘atf) during the period of occultation:

It is possible to meet with the Imam of Time (‘atf) during the period of occultation. Many scholars who is believed to be honest and just (‘adil) and who can be trusted in such matters have narrated stories of people meeting with Imam Mahdi, may Allah hasten his reappearance. These stories can be found in their books along with names of people who have been blessed with the opportunity to meet with him. Such meetings have taken place both during the period of minor occultation and major occultation.

It is inferred from narrations that the Imam of Age (May Allah hasten his reappearance) is not living far away from people and society. In fact, he is living with people and in their midst. He attends public congregations but people do not recognize him.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Possibility of Establishing Relationship with Imam Mahdi, answer 513.

Index: The Signs of the Re-Emergence, according to ibn Mahziyar Ahwazi, answer 072.

Index:  The Benefits of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) during His occultation, answer 026.

Index:  When appear: Imam Mahdi (ajtf) brings a new order, Method or Shari’ah with Him, answer 022.

Index: For how long Imam Mahdi will rule the whole world, answer 231.

Index: Proving the Ghaybah of Imam Mahdi, answer 252.

[1] . Refer to: Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 437.

[2] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 51, Pg. 217, chapter 13 (ما فيه ع من سنن الأنبياء).

[3] . Gheibat Tusi, Pg. 421.

[4] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 2, Pg. 376.

[5] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 287, chapter 26 (يوم خروجه و ما يدل عليه).

[6] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 1, Pg. 316.

[7] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 2, Pg. 652;  Ibid, chapter 57, Pg. 558, H. 12.

[8] . Refer to: Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 437.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 555.

[11] . Refer to: Edalat Gostar Jahan, Ibrahim Imani.

[12] . Haeri Qazwini, Mikyal al-Makarem, Vol. 1, Pg. 132.

[13] . Sheikh Sadouq, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’amat, translated by Mansoor Pahlawan, Vol. 1, chapter 25, Pgs. 534-535, H. 1.

[14] . Ibid, Vol. 2, chapter 43, Pgs. 180-181.

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What happened to Zuljanah in Karbala?

Question 166: What happened to Imam Hussein’s horse (Zuljanah) in Karbala?

Answer 166: The writers of books on what happened on Ashura (these books are referred to as ‘maqatil’) have not mentioned much about what happened to Zuljanah. What is mentioned is that he made his mane bloody with the blood of the Imam and returned to the tents neighing very highly.[1]

When the household of the Imam heard Zuljanah they came out of the tents and found out that the Imam had been martyred.[2] But, some of the later maghatel like Nasekhul-Tawarikh have extended saying that Zuljanah banged his head to the ground so much that he died[3], some say that Zuljanah had been killed before the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (as) and Imam himself fought against Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad till has been martyred[4] or that Zuljanah threw himself in the Furat (the river in Karbala that Imam Hussain was denied water from).[5]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

Index: The Wedding of Hadrat Qasim in Karbala on the Day of Ashura, answer 605.

Index: Enemies killed by Imam Hussain (as) in Karbala on the Day of Ashura, answer 598.

[1] . Biharul Anwar, Majlesi, Vol. 44, Pg. 321, A.H. 1404.

[2] . Qummi, Muntaha al-Amaal, Vol. 2, Pg. 910.

[3] . Ibid, Pg. 909.

[4] . Refer to: Tahqiq wa Pegouhish dar Tarikh Zendegani Imam Hussain (as), Pg. 684.

[5] . The ziyarah of Nahiyah Muqaddasah; Amaliyy of Sheikh Saduq, pg. 163; Mirza Muhammad Taqi Sepehri, Nasekhul-Tawarikh, vol. 6, pg. 2.

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Zayd ibn Ali the brother of Imam Baqir according to Shia

Question 056: What is the Ithna Ashari view on Zayd Ibn Ali, brother of Imam Baqir?

Answer 056: According to Sheikh Mofid (r.a), Zayd ibn Ali ibn al-Hussain was the son of Imam Sajjad (a.s), the grandson of Imam Hussain ibn Ali (as), and great-grandson of Imam Ali (as). Zayd was born in Medina in 695 and martyred in Kufa.[1] He was one of the greatest figures and prominent personalities among his brothers after Imam Baqir (a.s), in the School of Ahlulbayt (a.s) and the entirety of the Islamic world.

He was very pious, jurisprudential, generous and brave. He rose with the intention of directing others to enjoin what is lawful and forbid what is unlawful.

He also intended to take revenge on those who killed his grandfather Imam Hussain ibn Ali (a.s). The reason he was called Halif al-Qur’an, was because he was so well acquainted with and continuously recited the Holy Qur’an.[2] Zayd al-Shahid, Zayd the martyr was his another title, because he was martyred in an uprising against tyranny.[3]

Imam Sadiq (a.s) said such things as: “May Allah (swt) bless my uncle”. Imam Ridha (a.s) said such things as: “Zayd ibn Ali was one of the great scholars of the Ahlulbayt (a.s)”.

He was angered for pleasure of Allah (swt), fought in holy war against enemies of Allah (swt) and was martyred in the way of Allah (swt).[4]

[1] . ‘Umraji, al-Hayat al-Siyasat wa al-Fikriyyat Lil Zaydiyyat fee al-Mashriq al-Islami, Pg. 30; Saberi, Tarikh Firaq Islami, Vol. 2, Pg. 64.

[2] .Ibid, Pg. 43; Esfahani, Maqatil al-Talebin, Pg. 127.

[3] . Maqatil al-Talebin, Pg. 127.

[4] . Ahmad bin Ali ibn al-Hussain, (birth 288 A.H), Omdatul Mataleb, Pg. 255. Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā (Arabic: عیون اخبار الرضا), Vol. 1, chapter 25, Pg. 248. Allamah Tabatabaee, Shia in Islam, Pg. 66.

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The Wedding of Hazrat Qasim in Karbala on Ashura

Question 605: A’salamu Alaikum. I was wondering if you could shed some light on this matter. Is it true that Imam Hussain (as) recited the nikkah of hazrat Qasim (as) to one of His daughters on the day of ashura? I don’t know what to believe as i have only heard this  by people,i have never read this anywhere. Can someone send me a link or give me a quote from a reliable book? In our country it has become ritual and custom to have Mehdi and henna! What is the Shia point of view about the wedding of Hazrat Qasim bin al-Hasan in Karbala on the day of Ashura?

khuda hafiz

Answer 605: The event of ‘Ashura’ has been subject to tahrif (distortions) an instance of which is the concocted story of the wedding of Hadrat Qasim, a story which has not been mentioned in any reliable book of history not to mention the fact that such a thing is not rationally possible because, firstly, Qasim was not more than thirteen years old on the day of Ashura and he had not attained the age of puberty. Secondly, the wedding could not have taken place because Imam Hussein (as) and his companions were surrounded by their enemies and a pitched battle was going on. Moreover, Imam Hussein (as) attached great importance to fulfilling his divine duty against his cunning enemies such as the Banu Umayyads. Therefore, the story of the wedding of Qasim is a fabricated and unacceptable story according to Shia researchers.  Below we will mention the viewpoints of some those researchers:

  1. Hajji Mirza Husayn Nuri, the author of Mustadrak al-Wasail, writes in a famous work he has authored about the manners of the speakers or preachers who preach on the pulpits: “One of the derogatory and factitious reports which prominent scholars have not heeded or referred to is the story of Za’far the Jinn and the wedding of Qasim mentioned in a well-known book called Rawdat al-shuhada’ by Mulla Husayn Kashifi. The wedding story has not been mentioned in any books before Rawdat al-shuhada from the time Shaykh Mufid until this book had been published. How could an event so great and a story so tangible be not observed by scholars over this period of time?[1]
  2. The great narrator Shaykh Abbas Qummi has reiterated that the story of the wedding of Qasim in Karbala and the marriage of Fatima bint al-Hussein with him is not valid. In addition, Imam Hussein (as) had two daughters, one named Sakina (sa) and another Fatima (as). The first was married out to Abdullah who was martyred in Karbala and the second was married to Hasan Muthanna who was also present in Karbala.[2]
  3. Martyr Ayatollah Qazi Tabatabai considers the story of the wedding of Qasim as invalid. He quotes Allamah Mamqani as having said in his Tanqih al-Maqal: Other researchers and I could not find anything in historical and biographical sources to confirm the authenticity of what has been alleged inTurayhi’s book about the story of the marriage of Qasim. It is very unlikely that such an incident should have taken place on the day of Ashura keeping in view the difficult and extremely dangerous conditions and the calamities that followed. It seems that a mistake has taken place in regards to the wedding of Qasim who had not reached the age of puberty by then. It is indeed the story of the wedding of Hasan Muthanna (the Second) that has become known in such a way on the tongues of people.[3]
  4. Martyr Ayatollah Murteza Mutahhari says in this regard: “As you know, in the heat of the battle on the day of ‘Ashura’, the Imam offered his prayers hurriedly in the form of salat al-khawf[4] and there was no respite even to offer full prayers. In fact, two of the companions of the Imam came to stand in front of him to shield the Imam (against the arrows) so that he may offer two rak’ahs of the salat al-khawf. The two of them fell from the injuries inflicted under the shower of the arrows. The enemy would not even give respite for offering prayers. Nevertheless, they have concocted a story that the Imam called for a wedding ceremony on this day, declaring, ‘It is my wish to see one of my daughter wedded to Qasim.’ Obviously, one cannot take one’s wishes to one’s grave.  …. And this is said to have occurred at a time when there was hardly any respite even for offering prayers. They say that the Hadrat said, ‘I want to wed my daughter to my nephew here and now, even if it is just an appearance of a wedding.’ One of the things that was an inseparable part of our traditional ta’ziyahs was the wedding of Qasim, the boy bridegroom. Such an episode is not mentioned in any reliable book of history.”[5]

[1] Lu’lu’ wa Marjan, Mirza Hussein Nuri, p. 193.

[2] Muntaha al-Amal, Shaykh Abbas Qummi, vol.1, p. 70.

[3]  Research about the first Arba’ein of the Chief of Martyrs by Shahid Qazi.

[4]  The Shari’ah stipulates certain modifications in the obligatory salat, the daily ritual prayers, when offered in conditions of war and danger of the enemy’s attack. The salat thus offered is referred to as salat al-khawf; (see the Quran, 4:101).

[5] – Ashura: Misrepresentations and Distortions (Hamasa Hussaini), Murteza Mutahhari, vol.1, p. 27-28; See: Guli Zawareh, Ghulam Reza, Qasim bin Hasan (as), the Role Model for Adolescents, 209, May 1999; Adopted from answer 11430 IQ.