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Wilayah al-Takwini according to Shia

Question 302: Would anyone explain about Wilayah al-Takwini according to Shia? I am sunni and recently heard about it. I am so confused. Prior hearing about it i was seriously considering to convert to Shia Islam. I will be grateful if anyone explain it to me.  W. Salam.

Answer 302: Wilayah is an Arabic word derived from the word (ولی). In Arabic Wilayah means the coming of something right after another, without any space existing in between them. This calls for the closeness and nearness of these two to each other. Read More

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Marriage of Imam Ali and Fatimah Zahra (pbuth) in Quran

Question 275: salam and jum’ah mubarak to all i have a question about imam ali and fatima zahra a.s. imam is a cousin of prophet muhammad s.a.w and he was also the uncle of fatima, right? so my question how prophet s.a.w agree to marry her daughter to imam ali? and what is a sign that allah agree to marry his daughter? and what hadith in sunni narrated about the aproval of allah s.w.t to marry imam ali and fatima?

Answer 275: Imam Ali (sa) was the cousin of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). His father was Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib and His mother was Fatima bint Asad.

The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) father was Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib and His mother was Āmina.

Fatima Zahra (sa) was the daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Her mother was Khadīja bint Khuwaylid (sa).

There has not directly mentioned in any verse of the Holy Quran an issue related to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa), however there are verses of the holy Quran that somehow related to this issue, as follows:

  1. Sura al-Kawthar: “Surely We have given you Kawthar. Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice.  Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity.”

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had two sons were born of the Lady Khadijah namely; Ghasem and Taher (also called ‘Abdullah) who died in Mecca and so, there was no live male issue from the holy Prophet (pbuh), so, the Arabs used to call the one who had no son (abtar). Hence after, the holy Quran applied this name to the enemies of the Prophet.

Note: The Messenger of Allah (S) had another son by the name of Ibraheem, was born of Mariyah Qibtiyyah in 8 AH. He also died before he was 2 years old.

Therefore, as the abundance of goodness and blessing the Kawthar has granted to the Holy Prophet by Allah, the Almighty. This verse refers to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa).

According to Sheikh Mufid, Imam Ali (as) has asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh) regarding the meaning of Kawthar? The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said to him (as): “It is a stream that Allah (swt) granted to me, … the Holy Prophet then said to him: This stream is for me and you….”[1] Kawthar is Fatimah Zahra (sa).[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

قال له علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلام): «ما هو الكوثر يا رسول الله؟». قال: «نهر أكرمني الله به»… ثم ضرب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) يده على جنب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) و قال: «يا علي، إن هذا النهر لي، و لك، …».

  1. Surah al-Rahman verses 19-22: “He has made the two seas to flow freely (so that) they meet together Between them is a barrier which they cannot pass. There come forth from them pearls, both large and small.”

Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the word “Marajal­baḥ­ray­ni  yal­taqiyān” refers to Imam Ali (as) and Fatimah Zahra (sa) and “Yakh­ruju  min­humallu­lu­u  wal­mar­jān” refer to Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth).[3]

The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

علي بن إبراهيم، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن يحيى بن سعيد القطان، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول في قول الله عز و جل: مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيانِ بَيْنَهُما بَرْزَخٌ لا يَبْغِيانِ قال: «علي و فاطمة (عليهما السلام)، [بحران عميقان لا يبغي أحدهما على صاحبه‏] يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَ الْمَرْجانُ، الحسن و الحسين (عليهما السلام)».

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

Index: Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa), answer 492.

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

[1] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 772, H 11936.

[2] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 6, Pg. 599; Anwar Derakhshan, Vol. 18, Pg. 310.

[3] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 233.

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Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin

Question 621: Sallam O Alaikum. This Hadith is circulating in the social media and I really wanna know the authenticity of the Hadith will you confirm if it’s fake or a real Hadith. A man entered on Imam Sadeq and said: Salam Alikum ya Ameeral Mu’meneen. The Imam have stood up and said angerly: Behold! This is a title only suitable for Imam Ali! Allah have named him with it, and anyone who claim the title for himself, he is a penetrated homo [and if he isn’t, he will be]. Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin? Tafsyr Al Ayashi v1 p276. Wasael al Shia v14 p600. I would appreciate it. Thank you very much

Answer 621: As for the Hadith narrated from an unknown man without mentioning other chain of narrations it is considered as mursal and a weak hadith. Read More

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Returning Fadak to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth)

Question 244: Why didn’t Imam Ali (as) give Fadak to Imam Hassan (as) and Hussain (as)?

Answer 244: “Fadak” was a thriving and flourishing village located near Khaybar, 140 kilometers from Medinah. In the seventh of hijrah, the fortresses of Khaybar were conquered one after another and the central power of the Jews was overthrown. The residents of Fadak surrendered and promised to give the prophet (pbuh) half of their lands and orchards on condition of no fighting and keep the rest for themselves. In addition, they accepted to do the farming of his lands for a wage. Read More

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The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) in Ghadir Khumm

Question 470: Did the Holy Prophet (s) mean political authority or religious and mystical authority (Wilayah) in the event of Ghadir Khumm?

Answer 470:  According to Shiites, there is no doubt that the Wilayah (guardianship/authority) of the Commander of the Faithful that was announced and stressed by the Holy Prophet (s) in the event of Ghadir and on many other occasions before and after Ghadir[1] includes all the cases where the Messenger of Allah (s) maintained wilayah (authority). Considering that the Prophet (s) established and led a government, we entertain no doubt that political authority or discretion over political affairs was one of the main aspects of his authority. Read More

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A Study of Al-Bayan, Iftikhariyah and Tatanjiyah Sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as)

Question 569: Agha! Are al-Bayan, al-Iftikhariya and Al-Tatanjiya sermons imputed to Mola Ali A.s which are found in Mashariq al-Anwar of Shaykh Rajab Borsi, are authentic? What are their health of authentication in regards of Ayatollah Sistani and the rest of mujtahideen? what is the take of Shariyah on them?

Answer 569: There are many sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as) mentioned in traditional and historical sources. But, they haven’t been mentioned in Nahj al-Balaghah.

Al-Bayan Sermon: Khutbatul Bayan or Iftikhar Sermon is one of them attributed to the Imam (as).

In this sermon, Imam Ali (as) introduces himself, foretells about the future and states the end of time and signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf). A major part of the sermon relates to messianic issues as well as the apocalyptic period and signs of reappearance. This sermon discusses the signs of reappearance and also deals with the subject of Sayyid Hasani and his uprising and conduct with Imam Mahdi (atf) as well as his surrender to the Imam.  When it comes to the chain of transmission of this narration and its validity, there are discrepant views and comments among Shia scholars some affirming it, others opposing.

According to the references mentioned in this sermon, Abdullh bin Masood said: When Imam Ali (as) being appointed to caliphate, He came back to Basrah after three days, ascended to pulpit in the Jame’ Mosque of the city and delivered a sermon saying about the difficulties and calamities happened the death of the holy Prophet (pbuh). While Imam Ali (as) delivering speech a man named Suwaid bin Nufil Hilahi, one of the great man of Khawarij interrupted the his speech, and asked: from where did the Imam know these things? Imam Ali (as) looked at the man angrily and talked about his attributes and knowledge. The followings are a few phrases the Imam introduced himself: Ana’ Sirr al-Asrar, Ana’ Shajarat al-Anwar; Ana’ Dalil al-Samawat; Ana’ Anis al-Musabbahat.[1]

This long sermon has only mentioned in recent sources. Ilzam al-Nasib, written by Ali Yazdi haeri (d. 1333 A.h) is one of the most accessible sources. In this book, there are three different versions of this sermon, Khutbat al-Bayan that each of them has vast difference with the other. The first two versions have no references, but the book al-Durr al-Munazzam fee al-Sirr al-Aazam, written by Muhammad bin Talhah Shafe’ei, the Sunni scholars but loving Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) is the only sources mentioned for the third version of this sermon.[2]

Those who mentioned in this book as the chain of narrations for this sermon are unknown except Tawq bin Malik, because he is not a narrator and had never narrated a hadith from him. He is one of the Harun al-Rashid’s commander that passed away in the year 216 A.H.[3]

The followings are some points we should take into consideration about Abdullah bin Masood, the main narrator that is the most important reason than the chain of narration.

  1. He has passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). So, he couldn’t narrate this sermon, because Imam Ali (as) was delivered it after being appointed to caliphate in Basra or Kufa.
  2. This chain of narration is Marfoo. This means that there are some unknown persons between ibn Masood and the listener of Khutbah, so we ought not to accept this hadith as Sahih.
  3. According to Sunni scholars, Abdullah bin Masood has never narrated a Hadith from Imam Ali (as).[4]
  4. According to Shia, ibn Masood wasn’t careful about narrating hadith. Meaning that he cannot be trusted.[5]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned reasons, we ought not to trust about the chain of narration of this sermon.

In his book Bisharat al-Islam, Sayyid Mustafa  Ale Haydar said: we haven’t found the correct chain of narration for this sermon. None of the great narrators like Kulayni, sadouq and Sheikh Tusi have never narrated it. We can conclude that since Allamah Majlisi never narrated this sermon that this sermon is not reliable.[6]

Late Mirza-ye Qummi, the author Qawanin al-Usul after denying the attribution of this sermon to Imam Ali (as), talked about Khutbat al-Bayan and its problems in detail at the end of book Jame’ al-Shatat.[7]

Allamah Jafar Murtadha Ameli specialized an important part of his book, al-dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur wa al-Jazirat al-Khazra, to reecting this sermon, some of which are as follows:

  1. In this sermon, some persons like Amr bin Saleh, Salman, Miqdad and ibn Yaqtin have been mentioned as those who were presented there, while salman and Miqdad have already passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). Also, Amr bin Saleh and ibn Yaqtin weren’t contemporary to the Imam.

Suwayd bin Nufil Hilali who mentioned in this sermon as the great man of Khawarij is not exist.

  1. As we read in the first version of this sermon, Gabriel (as) has descended on the Rock of Jerusalem, while this place is the Jewish Kiblah and Bani Umayyah forged some traditions in praise of it.
  2. According to Islamic traditions, Imam Hussain (as) will give Ghusl to, shroud and bury the Imam of the Time (ajtf), but this sermon says: Prophet Jesus (as) will do it.
  3. There are some ambiguous phrases mentioned in this sermon, some of which are as follows: Ana Mus’haf al-Injil, Ana Sher al-Zabraqan, Ana Unuq al-Sibtayn, Ana Atarud al-Ta’til, Ana Nasikh al-Mary, Ana Ghufran al-Shartayn and etc.
  4. There are many highly colored statements in this sermon, some of them are: Ana Alaniyat al-Mabood, Ana al-Dhahir ma’a al-Anbiya, Ana Sabab al-Asbab, Ana al-Awwalu wal Akhar, Ana al-Dhahir, Ana al-Batin, Ana Waze al-Shariat and etc.
  5. There are some solecisms, incorrect words (grammatical mistakes) and Farsi words like Keywan have mentioned in this sermon.
  6. As we Shia denied determining the time of Reappearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf), but there have mentioned some strange signs of re-emergence and determined that the Imam will appear in the year 1184 A.H.
  7. Many repetitive phrases are exist in this sermon.
  8. As the following phrase has mentioned in this sermon we come to the conclusion that one who forged this sermon is Nasebi and an enemy of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth). [8]

“ضيّعتُ الارض و حُكم الفرض”

Mirza-ye Qummi said: I haven’t seen in any authentic book that this sermon is attributed to Imam, but it has mentioned in some Sufism resources.[9]

Al-Iftikhariya Sermon: In his Mashariq al-Anwar, Hafez Rajab Borsi has narrated from Asbagh bin Nabatah a relatively long sermon named Al-Iftikhar Sermon which the narrator has attributed to Imam Ali (A.S). In that sermon, Imam Ali (A.S) introduces himself with these words: “I am the brother of the Messenger of God and the Heir to His knowledge, the treasury of His wisdom, and the Companion of His secret. There is not a letter revealed by God in any of His Books whose intention does not point towards me. He hath vouchsafed unto me the knowledge of what was from eternity and what will happen unto the Day of Resurrection. To me hath been vouchsafed the knowledge of past and future generations and their genealogies.”[10] Then he refers to future events and the signs of reappearance.[11] If you go through the sermon and take careful a look at the words, you will come to know that a lot of the words and meanings in this sermon are also found in other narrations which have been substantiated and approved in their own respective places.

Al-Tatanjiya Sermon: Late Hafez Rajab Borsi has reported this sermon in his Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin”.[12] Considering that Imam Ali (A.S) says in a part of this sermon: «اَنَا الْواقِفُ عَلَى التُّطُنْجَیْنِ» [13](I am abiding over the two gulfs (tatanjayn)), this sermon is called Al-Tatanjiya which means two gulfs of water or this world and the hereafter. The first part of the sermon dealing with creation of the world is very similar to the first part of Nahjul Balaghah. Most of the wordings and sentence structures are completely overshadowed by Quranic verses and are relying on traditional beliefs. The sermon deals mainly with Imam Ali’s expanse of knowledge, especially his super knowledge of the universe, the preceding and future events. It is for the same reason that the sermon is replete with statements about the cosmos as well as reports about the apocalyptic period or the end of time.  This sermon explains the course of glorification of Allah, the Exalted, throughout the history of prophets as well as the existential guardianship (wilayat takvini) and knowledge of the Infallible Imams (A.S). In other words, it introduces the perfect man. The discourse is about the first creation and created which have been referred to in the tradition as such: «اَوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللّه‏ُ الْعَقْلُ» (The first thing that God created was the intelligence).[14]

This position of intelligence has different expressions in its various dimensions. This position of intelligence is the “Muhammadan Reality (haqiqat muhammadia)”.

The Al-Tatanjiya Sermon has not been narrated in Nahjul Balaghah but Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad Musavi (d. 703 A.H.) has recorded it in his al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq Min Ezhar al-Hadaiq.[15] Some recent scholars like Ali Yazdi Haeri (d. 1323 A.H.) have also narrated it.[16]

At the end of this sermon, there is a description of the four realms (aqalim) and Sheikh Agha Buzurg Tehrani has considered it probable that this sermon might be united with the Al-Aqalim Sermon which Ibn Shahrashub has talked about in his Al-Manaqib.[17] This sermon has been published either independently or as supplements in other publications. Different manuscripts of this sermon are said to be in the libraries of the University of Tehran, the Iranian parliament, Waziri Yazd and Masjid A’azam of Qom.[18] Many commentaries have been written expounding the said sermon[19] the most famous of which is Irshad Al-Mustarshideen by Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d.1259 A.H) of which seventeen manuscripts are available in Iran’s libraries.[20]

This sermon is defective in terms of its chain of transmission. Thus, the chain of transmission cannot be considered as reliable but the contents and significations of the sermon are acceptable even though they may not be those of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali, peace be upon him.  Keeping in view the fact that there are also other narrations having higher and more perfect contents than those of this narration reaffirming it, some scholars are of the view that the contents of the Al-Tatanjiya Sermon are correct. They maintain that by turning to the reports regarding the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (A.S), the doubt concerning this sermon will be removed. In fact, they state that the reports, like verses, explicit or implicit, general and particular, restricted and unrestricted, ambiguous and unambiguous. Some of them should be interpreted in the same way as the Quranic verses. Hence, it is necessary for every just and fair individual not to reject a tradition which he finds apparently dichotomous with the principles and rules. He should rather reflect and contemplate on it and should also compare it with other reports which have been passed on from the Infallibles (A.S) and which interpret the report. That is because their reports, like the holy verses of the Quran, expound and interpret one another.[21] For instance, in Kulayni’s Al-Kafi, there are traditions about perfect man which are in no way in contradiction with Islamic doctrines. For example, Imam Ali (A.S) has been reported as having said:

«أَنَا عَيْنُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا يَدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا جَنْبُ اللَّهِ- وَ أَنَا بَابُ اللَّهِ»[22]

“I am God’s eye, and I am God’s hand…”  Hence, it can be said that the traditions in this regard confirm the content of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon to some extent.

[1] .Haeri Yazdi, Ali, Ilzam al-Nasib fee Ithbat  al-Hujjat al-Ghaeb, Vol. 2, Pgs. 148-191, first edition, Beirut, 1422 A.H.

[2] . Ibid, Pg. 232.

[3] . Al-Tabari, Abu Jafar, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 8, Pg. 323, Dar al-Turath, Beirut, second edition,; Al-Yaqoubi, Ahmad bin Abi Yaqoub, Tarikh al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 2, Pg. 424, Dar al-Sader, Beirut, Bita.

[4] . Al-Mazy, Yousef bin al-Zaki, Tahzib al-Kamal fee Asma al-Rijal, Vol. 16, Pg. 121, N. 3564, al-Risalah Institution, Beirut, 1400 A.H.

[5] . Kashi, Abu Amr, Muhammad bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Rijal al-Kashi, Pg. 38, Mashad University Publication Instirution, Mashhad, 1490 A.H.

[6] . Ale Haydar, Sayyid Mustafa, Bisharat al-Islam, Pg. 75, H. 214, al-Bithat Institution, Tehran, 1410 A.H.

[7] .Qummi, Abul Qasim, Jame’ al-Shatat, Pg. 792, Kayhan Institution, first edition, Tehran, 1413 A.H.

[8] . Ameli, Jafar murtadha, Dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur, Pg. 75, Muntadi Jabal al-Amel al-Islami, Qom, 1412 A.H.

[9] . Jame al-Shatat, Pg. 792.

[10] Hafez, Borsi, Rajab bin Muhammad, Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin fi Asrar Amir al-Momeneen (A.S), researched and edited by Ashur,Ali, p. 260, A’lami, 260, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[11] Vide: Ibid, p. 260 – 262.

[12] Ibid, p. 263.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Sheikh Hurr Amili, Muhammad bin Hasan, al-Jawahir al-Saniyah fi al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyah (generalities of Qudsi hadiths), p. 647, Dehqan Publications’, Tehran, third edition, 1380 (2001); Ibn Abil Hadid, Abdul Hamid bin Hebahullah, Sharh Nahjul Balaghah, researched and corrected by Ibrahim, Muhammad Abulfazl, vol.18, p. 185, Late Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi’s Library, Qom, first edition, 1404 A.H.

[15] Musavi, Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad, al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq min Ezhar al-Hadaiq, vol.1, p. 452, Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance, Tehran, 1375 A.H.

[16] Yazdi Haeri, Ali, Elzam al-Nasib fi Ethbat al-Hujjah al-Ghaib (atf), researched and corrected by Ashur, Ali, vol.2, p. 199, al-A’lami Institute, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[17] Agha Buzurg Tehrani, al-Zari’ah Ela Tasanif al-Shi’ah, vol.7, p. 199, and 201, Ismailiyan, Qom, 1408 A.H; Ibn Shahrashub Mazandarani, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib (A.S), vol.2, p. 274, Allamah Publications, Qom, first edition, 1379 A.H.

[18] Vide: Fehres (Catalogue) of the Library of the University of Tehran, vol.13, p. 3380, and vol.6, p. 365; Fehres of Majlis Library, vol. 38, p. 497; Fehres  of Waziri Yazd Library, vol.1, p. 21, Fehres of Masjid A’azam Library, Qom, 606.

[19] Muhammad Karim Khan bin Ibrahim Kermani (d. 1288 A.H.), A Commentary of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon (a manuscript of which is kept in Sepahsalar Library. There is also an unknown commentary on Al-Tatanjiya Library in the Catalogue of the University of Tehran (vol.2, p. 703, No. 1067). Vide: Ali Sadrai, Khoei, with cooperation of Abul Fazl Sulaymani, Mahdi, Ashtiani, Ihsan, Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 377 – 378, Dar al-Hadith Printing and Publication Institution, Qom, first edition, 1384 (2005).

[20] Vide: Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 375 – 377.

[21] Vide: Allamah Hasanzadeh Amuli, Hasan, The Best Work in Rejection of Compulsion and Predestination and Two other Treatises, p. 98, Islamic Propagations Office, Qom, fourth edition,1379 (2000).

[22] Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Al-Kafi, researched and corrected by Ghaffari, Ali Akbar, Akhundi, Muhammad, vol.1, p. 145, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H.

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Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?

Question 260:  Was Bay’ah (allegiance) performed by Imam Ali (as) or was it not taken? Did the caliphate have Imam Ali’s (as) silent approval?

Answer 260: When Imam Ali (as) has been carrying the funeral of the holy Prophet (PBUH) such as washing and enshrouding -in accordance with the Will of the Prophet (s)- the event of Saqifah happened.

According to some narrations, Imam Ali (as) abstained from supporting and giving the bay’ah to Abu Bakr until after Lady Fatima (sa) passed away.[1] When the Imam (as) saw people turned their face away from him (as), he was compelled to give bay’ah to him.

Why didn’t Imam Ali fight is a typical Sunni argument? Some Shia narrations indicate that if Imam Ali had 40 men he would have fought, but his much smaller group of followers meant that if Imam Ali had fought for the leadership, the nascent and young Muslim state would have been ripped into shreds, and in all honesty, Islam probably wouldn’t exist today.

Assuming Imam Ali did give bayah, this does not mean to say he considered Abu Bakr’s rule legitimate. Nay, he only paid allegiance for the greater good, and that was to reconcile the nation. His views remained the same, and are expressed most famously in Khutbatul Shaqshaqiyya, delivered during his reign as caliph.

What was of dire importance to Imam Ali (as) and the other imams, to the extent that they sacrificed everything, even their lives for it, was the preservation of Islam. It was for the preservation of Islam that Imam Ali (as) would cooperate with the khalifahs and give them the best consultation he could, whenever needed.

The reason being that the imam didn’t want anything for himself; anything he wanted was for Islam’s flourishing and since, in any case, Abu Bakr and Umar were the heads of the Islamic state then, and opposing them, in that sensitive and pivotal time in which Islam was expanding its boundaries and there were conquests, and Islam had many adversaries, and the Roman and Persian empires were great threats, Imam Ali (as), through his deep insight, took the right stances, not making Islam any more vulnerable than it already was, and in this way, putting an end to the dreams of the enemies of Islam taking advantage of the circumstances.

What was asserted in the question about Imam Ali (as) accepting the caliphate of the khalifahs, isn’t correct, because on top of all the objections and oppositions he had before the martyrdom of Lady Zahra (as), in the following years, especially during his own rule, he would strongly criticize their actions and would question their caliphate itself. The third sermon of the Nahjul-Balaghah, known as the sermon of Shiqshiqiyyah, is clear evidence of this claim

In this sermon, the imam (as) says: “…Then I began to think whether I should assault or endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations…”

We must say that those taking care of the issue of caliphate acted so fast that they didn’t even wait for the prophet to be buried so that they could at least consult with the Harun of the Muslim nation (meaning Imam Ali (as)), and as was said, considering the pressure and propaganda that was dominant at the time and the danger of conflict breaking out between two of the Ansar’s tribes, they rushed in doing bey’ah with Abu Bakr without any further ado, although some of them regretted their bey’ah later, when Lady Fatimah (as) said some things to them and asked them to support Ali (as); they said: If you had told us these things earlier, we would have never preferred anyone over Ali (as)![2]

Did they give Imam Ali (as) a chance to voice his opinion? The only way such a thing seems possible is if he had abandoned the prophet’s body like everyone else and tried to get his right too! This is something that the imam was avoiding, or else he could have done that too. As he himself says: “We have a right that if we are given, then all the better, and if we are denied it, we prefer to, as the second person (and not the caliph), to ride the back of the camel, no matter how long that takes.”[3]

In addition to all of this, the Shia believe that imamate and leadership of the Muslim nation can only be determined by divine decree, therefore, considering all of the clear injunctions by the prophet about Imam Ali (as) being his successor, there remains no room for any of these theories and conjectures, because when there is a nass or legal injunction, all ijtihad and personal opinions are invalid.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Shia consider Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman as Hypocrite, Q 265.

[1] . Tabari, Tarikh al-Umam wal Moluk, Vol. 2m Pg. 448, Istiqamat publication, Cairo.

[2] Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 30, pg. 124, Al-Wafa’ Publications, Beirut, 1404 (AH).

[3] Nahjul-Balaghah, pg. 472, Dar al-Hijrah Publications, Qom.

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The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida

Question 028: Can you please provide me with the Last Sermon of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) delivered at Ghadir Khum?

Answer 028: The full text of the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) last sermon delivered at Ghadir Khum after Hajjatul Wida and before He (sa) left this World is as follows: Read More

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Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba

Question 069: Is it true that Imam Ali (as) was born inside the holy kaaba? What hadith proves this in Sunni reference book regarding the Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)?

Answer 069: No one such as Shia and Sunni can dispute that Imam Ali (AS) was the only man in history born inside the Holy Kaaba.
One of the close companions of the Prophet (SAW), Yazid ibn Qana’b, narrates the incident of the amazing birth of Imam Ali (AS) in the following words, “Abbas ibn Abdul Mutallib and I were sitting among a group of members from the Bani Abdul Azi tribe, facing the Kaaba. We could observe Fatima bint Asad who was still carrying Imam Ali (AS) in her womb, walking towards the Kaaba. It was evident that she was undergoing labor pains and we could hear her conversing in these words with her Lord: “O my Nurturer, I have full faith in You and Your Prophet (SAW) as well as the books that You have sent. I testify the words of my forefather Abraham (AS), the one who had built the Ka’ba. For the sake of the one who built this House and for the sake of the child that I am bearing, make this delivery easy for me.” At that moment, I witnessed that the rear wall of the Ka’ba suddenly cracked open and Fatima entered into it and disappeared. Abbas ibn Mutallib and I approached the crack at once, thinking that we too would be able to pass through it, but found the wall closed. We immediately understood that this was a divine act. Fatima bint Asad walked out of the Ka’ba on the forth day with her baby, Imam Ali (AS), in her arms.”

This incident has been confirmed by numerous reliable sources, making this event the first and the last of its kind. Fatima bint Asad, in evaluating herself, in comparison with the other great female personalities of Islamic history, has thus described her unique position by the ‘Will of Allah’. She says, “Allah raised my status over that of all the other ladies before me. Asiyah (wife of Pharaoh) was forced to worship her Lord from a rather undesirable place, that is acceptable only on condition that one is left with no other choice. Maryam, the daughter of Imran (SA) had to shake the date-palm in order to feed herself – but I entered into the House of Allah and was fed on heavenly fruits. As I wanted to come out from the Kaaba I heard the Command saying, “O Fatima, name this child Imam Ali, because he is exalted and his Lord is the Most exalted. I have named him after Me and have conferred on him the secrets of My Knowledge. He is the one who will clear My House from the filth of idols. He will call one and all to prayer, from atop of My House and will worship only Me. Blessed are the ones who will love him and will follow him; cursed are the ones who oppose him or are his enemies.””

Although Maryam (SA) lived in Masjid al-Aqsa (the first Muslim Qiblah), Allah (SWT) did not will that she delivered her son, Isa (AS) within of the Sacred House, however, Allah wished that Imam Ali (AS) be given birth within His House.
Most Sunni scholars accept the fact that Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) was the only man in history born inside the Holy Kaaba.

In his Mustadrak Hakim said: “No one before Ali was born in the Kaaba.” Also, Saedi has quoted from Sihah al-Sittah (“The Authentic Six”) of Ahlu Sunna: according to a narration, Imam Ali (a.s) was born in the Ka’ba on Friday, 13 Rajab, thirty years after the Amul-Fil (the year of the elephant) and according to other narration, it was after 25 years of the Amul-Fil and 12 years after Bisat (the appointment of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and No one before Ali was born in the Ka’ba).[1]

[1] . Bahrani, Sayyid Hashem, Tafsir al-Burhan, Vol. 1, Pg. 661, H 36. Sheikh Sadough, Amali, translated by Ayatollah Muhammada Baqer Kamaraei, Pg. 133, Islamiyah Publisher, sixth edition, Tehran, 1997. Hakim Neishabouri, Muhammad, Mustadrak alal Sahihain, Vol. 3, Pg. 483, Darul Marefat Publisher, second edition, Beirut, 1406 A.H. Saedi, Muhammad Baqir, Fadhael PanjeTan (the Virtues of the five purified holy personalities that together are the Founding Islamic Family) in Sihah al-Sitta of Ahlul Sunna, Vol. 1, Pg. 304, Firouz A’badi, first edition, Qom 1995. Muruj adh-dhahab, Vol. 2, Pg. 349, Dar Al-Hijrah, Qom, second edition, 1409 A.H, “و كان مولده في الكعبة” (Wa Ka’na Moledohu Fel Kaaba).