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Kunya Abul Qasim referring to the Holy Prophet (pbuh)

Question 075: So in shia duaas and sufi duaas. We here “Abul Qasim” mentioned. Is this referring to the Rasulallah SA or Mehdi A.S? Or referring to it dually?

Answer 075: This kunya is describing the Holy Prophet (pbuh) as father to his son Qasim ibn Muhammad. Read More

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Ghazwah and Sariyyah: Battles of the Holy Prophet

Question 587: As per the Shia history, did the prophet himself fight any battle?

Answer 587: All of the battles of the holy Prophet (pbuh) had been taken place after His Hegira to Medina during ten years. The battles are divided into three divisions. Ghazwah (battle), Sariyyah (battalion) and Ba’th.

It is noteworthy to firstly explain the difference between Ghazwah (battle) and Sariyyah (battalion). Ghazwah is the name of the battle in which the holy Prophet (pbuh) participated as the leader whether the battle is fought or not.

Sariyyah is the name of the battalion which the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent without participating in. [1]

If the Holy Prophet (pbuh) sends only one person to battle it is called Ba’th.[2] Read More

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The daughters of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Question 291: Aslammuelaikum… Thank you admin for approving my request… I have a question regarding daughters of Prophet (p.b.u.h) Is Hazrat Fatima(SA) is the only daughter of Prophet??other sects believe that Prophet has more than one Daughter.. and they justify their believe with the reference(ayat) given from Quran.. JazakAllah

Answer 291: The holy Prophet (pbuh) had seven children from Khadeejah (sa) and one son from Maariyah.

His three sons were born from Khadijah (sa): Qasim (from whom he took his kunya Abu’l-Qaasim), Tahir and Tayyib. Qasim was the oldest son.

His four daughters were born from Khadijah (sa): Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, Roqayyah and Fatimah (sa). The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had another son was born from Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah named Ibraaheem. It is said he was died when he had only 16 or 18 months of age.

All of His sons were died before the bethat, but the daughters perceived His prophetic mission. They were: 1) Zaynab, the oldest daughter who got married to her cousin Abul A’as, before bethat. 2) Roqayyah who got married to Otbah, the son of Abu Lahab. 3) Umm Kulthoom who got married to Otaybah, the other son of Abu Lahab (the Holy Prophets (pbuh) uncle).

Note: when the Surah Masad was sent down by Allah, the Almighty Abu Lahad and his wife wanted their sons to abandon their wives (the holy Prophets (pbuh) daughters. So, Roqayyah remarried to Uthman and migrated to Habashah. When Roqayyah died (after second years of Hegirah) Uthman remarried to other daughters of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) named Umm Kulthoom. As a result Uthman was called Zul Noor (whom has two lights).

4) Hazrat Fatima (sa) was born five years before Bethat, when Muhammad (pbuh) was about 35 years old and her mother Khadija (sa) was about 50 years of old. She has many other titles. Zahra (Lady of Light) and Sayyidatun Nisa al Alamin (Leader of the women of the worlds). The Date of her birth was 20th Jamad al Akhar. After the death of her mother Khadija, she looked after her father the Prophet of Islam so devoutly that Muhammad (S) used to call her “Umme Abiha”, i.e. the mother of her father.[1]

So, the sons and daughters of the Prophet (PBUH) were all born to him from his wife Umm al-Mu’mineen Khadeejah (sa), apart from Ibraaheem, who was born from Maariyah (May her soul rest in peace), who was given to him as a gift by al-Muqawqis, the king of Alexandria and the leader of the Copts. According to the most correct opinion, he had seven children, three boys and four girls. The boys were:

1- al-Qaasim 2- ‘Abd-Allaah 3- Ibraaheem And the girls were: 1- Zaynab 2- Ruqayyah 3- Umm Kulthoom 4- Fatimah (sa) All of his children died during his lifetime, apart from Fatimah (sa) who died after him.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Titles of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) mentioned in the Holy Quran and Traditions, answer 025.

[1] . Islamic encyclopedia, regarding Umm Kulthoom; Loghat Nameh Dehkhoda; Fatimah, Ihyagar Shakhsiyyat Zan, Faridah Mostafavi (Khomeini), and Fatimah Jaafari, Tehran, Ajor Publication, forst edition, 2005.

[2] . Qorbul Asnad, Pg. 27, Imam Baqir (as) has said: the holy Prophet (pbuh) had children from from His wife Umm al-Mu’mineen Khadeejah (sa) as follows: Qasim, Tahir, Umm Kulthum, Roqayyah, Zeinab and Fatimah (sa); Khisal, Vol. 2, Pg. 37, Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the Holy Prophets (pbuh) children were: Qasim, Tahir (Abdellah), Umm Kulthum, Roqayah, Zeinab and Fatimah (sa). Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 421.

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Names and titles of the Prophet (pbuh) in Quran and Traditions

Question 025: When did the Names and titles of the Prophet like Sayyid al-Nas, Sayyid al-Bashar, Sayyidul Mursalin, and Sayyidul Anbiya on the Prophet (pbuh) come into being?

Answer 025:  Studying the titles of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) is one of the important issues which is a manifestation of his moral salient characteristics and attributes.  These titles have been adapted from narrations and they were created during the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and the infallible Imams (a.s).  The traditions in which these titles have been mentioned were:

1. I am the master of men.[1]

«أَنَا سَیِّدُ النَّاسِ …»

  1. I am the master of humans.[2]

«أَنَا سَیِّدُ الْبَشَر»

  1. I am the master of Prophets.[3]

«أَنَا سَیِّدُ الْأَنْبِیَاء»

Imam Sajjad (a.s) has sent greeting to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) in a Dua as under:
“Allahumma Salli `Ala Muhammadin Khatam ul-Nabiyeen Wa Sayyid al-Mursaleen”[4]
«اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ خَاتَمِ النَّبِیِّینَ وَ سَیِّدِ الْمُرْسَلِین

It should be noted that there are many titles and attributes mentioned in the holy Quran and traditions regarding the holy Prophet (pbuh) that some of which are as follows:

  1. Rasool Allah.[5]
  2. Khatam an-Nabiyyin.[6]
  3. Raoufon Rahim.[7]
  4. Monzer.[8]
  5. Najm. Imam Sadiq (as) was asked about this following verse of the holy Quran in which Allah (SWT) says: “And landmarks And by the stars they find the right way”[9] and the Imam (as) replied: The star is the holy Prophet (sa) and Landmarks are the Infallibles Imams (pbuth).[10]
  6. Amin[11]: means trustworthy. It means the one who has never betrayed.
  7. Bashir (bearer of glad-tidings): When the Holy Prophet was asked about the reason of given Him the title, His Excellency replied: Because, if one obeys Allah I will give him the glad tidings of Paradise.[12]

There have been mentioned other titles and attributes for the holy Prophet (pbuh)[13]. One of the traditions in which the holy Prophet (sa) stated His names and titles is: Muhammad, Ahmad, Mahi (meaning that by Me Allah (SWT) eliminate the blasphemy)[14], Hasher (means that Allah will gather people in front of me on the Day of Judgment), Aaqib (meaning that after me there will be no Messenger and Prophet).[15]

[1] . Maghrebi, Qazi Noman, Sharh al-Akhbar Fi Fazael al-Aemmah al-Athar (a.s), Vol. 1, Pg. 233, Qom, office of Islamic publication, first edition, 1409 AH, Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Ahmad bin Ali, al-Isabah Fi, Tam’eez al-Sahabah, Vol. 7, Pg. 75, Beirut, Dar ul-Kutob ul-Elmiyah, first edition, 1415 HA.

[2] . Sheikh Mofid, Muhammad bin Muhammad, Tafzil Amir al-Mo’meneen (a.s) Pg. 20, Qom, Shekh Mofid Congress, first edition, 1413 AH.

[3] . Khazaz Razi, Ali bin Muhammad, Kefayah al-Asar Fi al-Nass Ala’ al-Aemmah al-Isna Ashar, Pg. 113, Qom, Bidar, 1401 AH; Sheikh Sadouq, al-Amali, Pg. 298, Tehran, Ketabchi, sixth edition, 1997.

[4] . Ali bin al-Hussain (a.s), al-Sahifah al-Sajjadiyah, Pg. 88, Qom, office of al-Hadi publication, first edition, 1997; Ibn Shahrashoub Mazandarani, Manaqib Al -e- Abi Taleb (a.s),Vol. 1, Pg. 152, Qom, Allamah, first edition, 1379 AH.

[5] . Surahs Aaraf, verse 158; Tawbah, verse 120; Ahzab, verses 21-40.

[6] . Surah Ahzab, verse 40.

[7] . Surah Tawbah, verse 128.

[8] Surah Ra’d; Refer to: Tabarsi, Fadh bin Hasan, Aalam al-Wara, Bi Aalam al_huda, Vol. 1, Pgs. 47-48, Qom, Aalul Bayt (as) Institution, first edition, 1417 A.H.

[9] . Surah Nahl, verse 16.

[10] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 206, Tehran, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyahm fourth edition, 1407 A.H.

[11] . Qutb al-Din Rawandi, Saeed bin Abad Allah, al-Kharaej wa al-Jaraeh, Vol. 1, Pg. 126, Qom , Imam Mahdi (ajtf) Institution, Qom, first edtion, 1409 A.H; Bayhaqi, Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Hussain, Dalael al-Nubuwwat wa Marefat Ahwal Saheb al-Shariat, Vol. 1, Pg. 90, Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyya, first edition, 1405 A.H.

[12] . Qummi, Ali bin Ebrahim, Tafsir al-Qummi, Vol. 2, Pg. 365, Qom, Dar al-Kitab, third edition, 1404 A.H.

[13] . For further information, refer to: Ibn Sayyid al-Nass, Oyoun al-Athar, Vol. 2, Pg. 382, Beirut, Dar al-Qalam, first edition, 1414 A.H; Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 16, Pg. 82, “Bab e 6 Asmaehei (sa)”, Tehran, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, second edtion, 1984.

[14] . The other meaning of the Word ‘Mahi’ is: Allah will pass away the sins of the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) followers

[15] . A’alam al-Wara Bi Aalam al-Huda, Vol. 1, Pg. 49; Dalael al-Nubuwat wa Marefat Ahwal Sahib al-Shari’at, Vol. 1, Pg. 152.

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The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was martyred by the poisoned lamb made by Zeynab bint Al-Harith after the Battle of Khaybar

Question 504: Salaamun Alaikum. Did Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) die a natural death? Or was he killed? Please provide references with answers….

Answer 504: It is quoted in historical sources that Jews tried to martyr the Holy Prophet (pbuh) for several times. But, He has always been informed by the Gabriel (as). The last time was about 3 or according to some narrations 6 years before the holy Prophet (sa) died, with poisoned lamb made by Zeynab bint Al-Harith. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) besieged Khaybar in June 628, Zeynab bint al-Harith, along with the other women and children, was barricaded in the fortresses of al-Khatiba, while her husband Sallam commanded the resistance from the Natat area. He was killed in battle on the first day, and Zeynab’s brother Al-Harith took over the defense of Khaybar.

Nine days later, Imam Ali (as) managed to penetrate the fortress of Na’im. Zeynab’s father challenged the Muslims to single combat and killed several of them before the Imam (as) killed Al-Harith and Marhab ibn Al-Harith. Marhab’s brother Yasir then ran out to avenge him, and Zubayr ibn al-Awam killed him. After this, a general battle broke out; the Jews were defeated when the Muslims killed Zeynab’s brother Al-Harith.

Over the next ten days, Zeynab witnessed civilians, weapons and treasures being brought into the safety of the al-Khatiba fortresses while the Muslims captured the forts in the Natat and Al-Shiqq areas. Civilians were moved around by night as the weaker forts were conquered. Finally the invaders spent a month attacking the three fortresses of al-Khatiba. There was no actual fighting, but the defenders could not withstand the siege indefinitely because Muhammad cut off their water supplies; and so they surrendered.

As the Jewish leaders went to the Prophet (sa) to negotiate the terms of surrender, Muslim soldiers ran into the castles to collect weapons, treasures and captives. It was presumably from these warriors that Zeynab was able to enquire about the Prophet’s favorite food. On hearing it was shoulder of lamb, she killed a lamb (some versions say a goat) from her flock, seasoned the shoulder with a deadly poison and roasted it. When the treaty negotiations were finished, Zeynab pushed her way into the Prophet’s presence and offered him the meal as a gift.

The apostle of Allah took the shoulder, a piece of which he put into His mouth. Bishr [ibn al-Bara] took another bone and put it into his mouth. When the apostle of Allah ate one morsel of it, Bishr ate his, and other people also ate from it. Then the apostle of Allah said, “Hold back your hands! because this shoulder informed me that it is poisoned.” Thereupon, Bishr said, “By Him who has made you great! I realized it from the bite I took. The only reason I didn’t spit it out was that I didn’t like to spoil your appetite. When you had eaten what was in your mouth, I did not like to save my life after yours, and I also thought you would not have eaten it if there was something wrong.”

What happened to Zaynab? Some say the Holy Prophet ordered to kill her, while according to others the Prophet (sa) forgave her.

The mother of Boshr bin al-Bara’ said: I visited the holy Prophet (pbuh) after the battle of Khaybar and I saw that he has severe fever. The Prophet (sa) then said: People think that my illness is pleurisy[1] while it is because of the morsel of poisoned lamb that me and your son ate and that’s why my heart vessels are tearing apart. So, the Messenger of Allah (sa) has martyred. [2]

In his book Dalael al-Nabawi, Bayhaqi quoted the same issue from Abi Nafrah from Jaber. Also, in his book Abdul Razzaq narrated it from Muammar from Zahri. Furthermore, in his book ‘Al-Fat’h Ibn Hajar’, Muslim and in Sharh e Muslim al-Naoowi[3] quoted that although the holy Prophet (pbuh) didn’t eat the morsel of poisoned lamb but the dangerous poison had been mixed with the Prophet’s (sa) spit and it caused him to be martyred. [4]

In his book Tarikh Yaqoubi, the great Islamic historian only narrated that the Prophet (sa) was poisoned, but he didn’t mentioned anything about His martyrdom.[5]

In his book Jala al-Oyoun Allamah Majlesi (ra) narrated a Hadith of Imam Sadiq (as) from Saffar that the Prophet (sa) was martyred. [6]

In his precious book the Late Koleini (ra) also narrated a hadith of Imam Baqir (as) in which mentioned about the main conspiracy.[7]

Allamah Hilli (ra) said: we don’t know exactly who poisoned the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The only thing we can come to the conclusion is that He wasn’t naturally passed away as he was martyred by poison.[8]

Also, in his book Tahzib al-Ahkam Sheikh Tusi (ra) said: Muhammad bin Abd Allah (pbuh) has passed away on the 28th day of Safar Month (on Monday) while He was poisoned.[9]

Conclusion: In both Shia and Sunni sources there have been mentioned many authentic traditions by which we can come to this conclusion that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was martyred by poison.

According to some books of Shia like al-Kafi, Basa’ir al-Darajat and Bihar al-Anwar and Sunni sources like Sahih Bukhari, Sunan ibn Daremi, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal and Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, the Prophet (pbuh) hasn’t died of natural cause. According to them, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was poisoned by a Jewish woman after the battle of Khaybar.[10]

[1] . Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Vol. 13, Pg. 13;  Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Kafi, Vol. 8, Pg. 193, H. 229.

[2] . Muhammad bin Umar Waqedi, Maghazi, translated by Dr. Mahdavi Damghani, Nashr e Daneshgahim Vol. 2, Pgs. 517-519; Ibn Hesham, al-Sirat al0Nabawiyyah, Beirut, Dar al-Qalam, Vol. 3, Pg. 352; Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 138; Ibn Athir, al-Kamel fee al-Tarikh, Dar al-Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Vol. 1, Pgs. 598. 599.

[3] . Al-Kamel fee al-Tarikh, Vol. 1, Pg. 598.

[4] . Sobhani, Jaafar, Forough Abadiyyat, Qom, Daftar Tablighat Islami, Vol. 2, Pg. 664.

[5] . Tarikh Yaqoubi, translated by Muhammad Ebrahim Ayati, Elmi Farhangi publication, Vol. 1, Pg. 416.

[6] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir, Jalaul Oyoun, Pgs. 82-83.

[7] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Kafi, Vol. 6, Pg. 315, H. 3, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran.

[8] . Muntahal A’amal, Allamah Hilli, Vol. 2, Pg. 887.

[9] . Tahzib al-Ahkam, al-Sheikh al-Tusi, Vol. 6, Pg. 2.

[10] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Kafi, Vol. 6, Pg. 315, H. 3, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran;  Muhammad bin Hasan Saffar, basa’ir aldarajat, Vol. 1, Pg. 503, Ayatollah Marashi’s Library, Qom, 1404 A.H; Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 27, Pg. 216, H’ Ibid, Vol. 44, Pg. 271, H. 4, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, 1404 A.H; Ibid, Vol. 27, Pg. 209, H. 7; Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 5, Pg. 137, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1401 A.H; Sunan Daremi, Vol. 1, Pg. 33, al-Etedal Publisher, Damascus; Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 6, Pg. 18, Dar Sader, Beirut; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 21, Pg. 7; Muhammad bin Sa’d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Pgs. 201-202, Dar Sader, Beirut; Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Vol. 10, Pg. 266, Ayatollah Marashi’s Library, Qom, 1404 A.H; Ibid, Vol. 13, Pg. 13;  Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Kafi, Vol. 8, Pg. 193, H. 229.

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Proving the splitting of the moon Shaqq al-Qamar, the Miracle of The Holy Prophet (pbuh)

Question 550: Is there any historical record of any other civilizations witnessing the moon split (Shaqq al-Qamar) in Muhammedian Era? And,what does the Imami school believe in the event? As there are refutations that the event never occured and is fabricated,and the verse in the Quran simply indicates to locking of moon into two faces which God speaks would happen during end times.

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHUkrTSwkFQ

 

Answer 550: In order to answer this question precisely, we need to mention some points as follows:

1- The splitting of the moon is one of the great miracles of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).  In surah Inshiqaq, Allah (swt) speaks of this magnanimous incident in such a manner: “اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَ انْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ”[i].  In this verse, two important incidents have been mentioned; one being the nearness of the Day of Judgment which is the greatest change the universe is to undergo, and the other being the significant miracle of splitting the moon which is both a manifestation of Allah’s (swt) never-ending power and proof of Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) prophethood.[ii]

There is more than enough evidence that proves this was a miracle, namely: This matter has been mentioned in the Quran using a past tense verb, showing that the splitting of the moon has taken place, the same way the Day of Judgment has neared as a result of the coming of the final prophet (pbuh).

Add to that the many hadiths in Islamic references that narrate this incident as a miracle of the prophet (pbuh).  These hadiths are so high in number to the extent that they leave no doubt that the splitting of the moon was truly a miracle of the prophet (pbuh), a few of the ahadith narrated in Shia and Sunni sources are as follows:

 

Sheikh Sadouq: Sheikh Sadouq (ra) quoted: Muhammad bin Ebrahim bin Ishaq Taleqani (ra) told me that I heard from Abul Qasim Hussain bin Rooh that he narrated a saying of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) that He said the Shaqq al-Qamar (splitting the moon) is one of the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) miracles.[iii]

 

Sheikh Mufid: Sheikh Mufid narrated a hadith from Imam sadiq (as) that He said: The moon has been split into two parts by Allah, the Almighty.[iv]

 

Ahmad bin Muhammad: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Salt narrated from ibn Oqda Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed from Ali bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ali Hussaini from Ja’afar bin Muhammad bin Eisa from Obaidullah bin Ali from Imam Reza (as) from His father, grandfather, great grandfather from Imam Ali (pbuth) that the Moon has split into two parts in Mecca, then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: Be Witness, witness (this miracle)[v]

 

Anas bin Malik: Bukhari narrated a hadith from Abdullah bin Abdul Wahhab from Bashar bin Mofaddal from Saeed bin Abu Arooba from Qatada from Anas bin Malik: the people of Mecca wanted the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to bring a miracle, so the Prophet showed them the Moon has been split by Him in a way they saw the Hira mountain between the two parts.[vi]

 

Abdullah bin Muhammad narrated from Younes from Shayban from Qatadat from Anas bin Malik and Khalifa from Yazid bin Zaree from Saeed from Qatada from Anas bin Malik that the people of Mecca wanted the holy Prophet (pbuh) to bring a miracle to prove His Nubuwwat and the Prophet showed it to them.[vii]

The same tradition also narrated from Muslim from Zuhayr bin Harb from Abd bin Hamid from Younes bin Muhammad from Shayban from Qatada.[viii] It is also mentioned in Musnad Ahmad from Abudolla from his father from Younes bin Muhammad ….[ix]

 

Abdullah Bin Abbas: Bukhari narrated from Yahya bin Bokayr from Bakr from Ja’afar from Ark bin Malik from Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah from ibn Abbas that the Moon split at the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh).[x]

Muslim from Musa bin Quraish al-Tamimi from Ishaq bin Bakr bin Modher from his father from Jafar bin Rabiah from Arak bin Malik from Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utbah bin Masood from ibn Abbas that the Moon was split at the time of the holy Prophet (pbuh). [xi]Also, Tabara narrated it from ibn al-Muthanna from Abdul A’ala, from Dawood from Ali bin Abbas about the verse of the holy Quran “Iq­tarabatessâ’ato  wânshaqqal­qamar” that this issue has been done before the Hegira that people saw the Moon split into two parts. [xii]

 

Abdullah bin Masood:  bukhari narrated from Sadaqa bin Fadl from ibn Ayniyya from Abu Nujayh from Mujahid from Abu Mo’mar from Abdullah bin Masood that the Moon split into two parts at the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and then the Prophet (s) said: Witness, witness (this miracle)…. [xiii]

Muslim from Ubaidullah bin Ma’az Anbari from his father from Sho’bah from A’amash from Ebrahim from Abu Mo’amar from Abdullah bin Masood narrated the same, then the one part of the Moon was covered by mountain and the other was above the mountain, so the Prophet (pbuh) said: Witness….[xiv]

The same hadith also narrated from different chain of narraotros: … Ahmad from Abdullah from his father from Sofyan from ibn Abu Nojayh from Mujahid from Abu Mo’amar from ibn Masood. [xv]

 

What is more interesting is the reason why this miracle took place.  The disbelievers said that magic and sorcery only have an effect on the earth, so in order to be sure of the prophet (pbuh) being truthful in his claim and that his miracles aren’t plain magic, they proposed that he split the moon.[xvi]

 

Despite seeing such evident miracles, the disbelievers (of Quraish) accused the Holy Prophet (pbuh) of being magician, Soothsayer, Mad Man and Liar. In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “Therefore continue to remind, for by the Grace of your Lord, you are not a soothsayer, nor a mad man”.[xvii] Also, in the holy Quran Allah (SWT) describes such disbelievers “They impugned them though they were convinced in their hearts wrongfully and defiantly. So observe how was the fate of the agents of corruption!”.[xviii] Although, the disbelievers were sure about the miracles but they denied them. [xix]

The disbelievers had been saying that since the magic cannot be affective in the sky, so they told the holy Prophet (pbuh) that if you split the Moon into two parts we would certainly acknowledge your faith. Thus, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) split it in Mecca on the fourteenth night of Dhu al-Hijjah, but they did not have faith.[xx]

 

2- The splitting of the moon and contemporary science:  First off, not only isn’t the splitting and breaking of celestial bodies possible according to astrology and science, but takes place a lot too, although the causes of such phenomena may vary.

To put it another way, splitting, breakage and explosions frequently occur in space; for instance, scientists today say that the solar system came about through an explosion that involved the sun, breaking parts of it off, hence the different members of the “family” of the solar system.[xxi]

Anyway, the splitting of celestial bodies isn’t something that hasn’t happened before, and isn’t considered scientifically impossible, so it can’t be said that something impossible was the subject of a miracle.

As for the moon coming together again after splitting, it is because of the gravitational force between the two halves, although this fact isn’t correct according to the Ptolemaic system of astrology, because according to this system, our solar system is made up of nine spheres that are stuck together like the layers of an onion, making their splitting and coming together impossible, and it is because of this that the advocates of this system didn’t believe in bodily ascension to the skies and the splitting of the moon, because it necessitated the piercing of these spheres.  But today, this system isn’t followed anymore and is considered an incorrect and out-of-date one so its claims on the splitting of the moon being impossible are disregarded.[xxii]  According to NASA, our moon has indeed split before and come together again.  The official website of Al-Watan, an Arabic newspaper printed in the US, has quoted a Jordanian astronomer and space specialist saying: “After years of orbiting the moon and doing research, the space probe “Clementine” has reached the conclusion that the moon has split into two halves hundreds of years ago, and come together again.”  This astronomer has sent a report to NASA explaining that Muslims believe this phenomenon belongs to 1400 years ago and is a miracle of their prophet; a phenomenon that NASA still hasn’t been able to discover the true cause to, because it is a unique one that hasn’t taken place for other celestial bodies.[xxiii]

Two more points to consider:

1- Proving Islamic facts that are somewhat metaphysical, isn’t possible through normal science that is limited to this material world and is only physical, especially since it has developed in an environment that has had nothing to do with Islam.

2- If an issue is logically possible, without any reason for its impossibility, and is something that Islam firmly says has taken place, there is no longer any need to prove it scientifically; although it is sometimes better to do so, so that one becomes personally sure of the fact’s truth.

[i] Inshiqaq:1 “The Day of Judgment has drawn near and the moon split”

[ii] Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 23, pp. 7-8.

[iii] . Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’mat, Sadouq, Vol. 1, Pgs. 507-509, Muhammad bin Ali bin Hussain bin Babwyh Qummi, 381 A.H, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyya Publication, Qom, 1395 A.H;  Al-Ihtijaj, Tabarsi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 471-473, Abu Mansour, Ahmad bin Ali bin Abu Talib, Mortada Publication, The holy city of Mashad, 1403 A.H.

[iv] . Al-Irshad fee Marefat Hujajallah ala al-Ebad, Mufid, Vol. 2, Pg. 385, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Noman, 413 A.H, Hezareh Sheikh Mufid International Congress, Qom, 1413 A.H. (eleventh volume of the collection of Sheikh Mufid’s works).

[v] . Al-Amali Liltoosi, Toosi, Vol. 1, Pg. 341, Sheikh al-Taefat Abu Ja’afar Muhammad bin Hasan, 460 A.H, Dar al-Thiqafa, Qom, 1414 A.H.

[vi] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 3, Pg. 1404, N 3655, Bukhari al-Jofi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.H, Tahqiq Mostafa Dib al-Baqa, Dar ibn Kathir, al-Yamama, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[vii] . Ibid, Pg. 1331, N 3438.

[viii] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 2802, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul-Hasan Qushayri Nayshaboori, 261 A.H. Taliq wa Tahqiq Muhammad Foad Abdul Baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[ix] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, Pg. 207, N. 13177, Ahmad bin Hanbal Abu Abullah al-Shaybani, 241 A.H. Qortaba Institution, al-Qahirah (Cairo).

[x] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 4, Pg. 1843, N. 4585, Bukhari al-Jofi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.H. Tahqiq Mostafa Dib al-Baqa, Dar ibn Kathir, al-Yamama, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[xi] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 48- 2803, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul Hasan Nayshaboori, 261 A.h, Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xii] . Jame al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tabari, Vol. 27, Pg. 51, Abu Ja’afar Muhammad bin Jarir, 310 A.h. Dar al-Marefat, Beirut, 1412 A.h.

[xiii] . Al-Jame’ al-Sahih al-Mokhtasar, Vol. 3, Pg. 1330, N. 3437, Bukhari al-Jo’fi Muhammad bin Esmaeel Abu Abdullah, 256 A.h. Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xiv] . Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Pg. 2159, N. 43- 2800, Muslim bin Hajjaj Abul Hasan Nayshaboori, 261 A.h, Ta’liq wa Tahqiq, Muhammad Foad Abdul baqi, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[xv] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ahmad bin Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Sheybani, Vol. 1, Pg. 377, N. 3583, 241 A.H. Qortaba Institution, Cairo;  Majma al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tabarsi, Vol. 9, Pg. 310, Amin al-Islam Abu Ali Fadl bin Hasan bin Fadl, 548 A.h. Naser Khosrow Publication, Tehrn.

[xvi] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 17, pg. 355 (hadith 10).

[xvii] . Surah al-Toor, verse 29.

[xviii] . Surah al-Naml, verse 14.

[xix] . Makarem Shirazi, Naser, tafsir Nemoonah, Vol. 15, Pgs. 413-414, Tehran, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, first edition.

[xx] . Atyab al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Tayyib Sayyid Abdul-Hussain, Vol. 12, Pg. 346.

[xxi] Of course there is a debate between different scientists on this subject; some say the main cause was the sun’s centrifugal force, while others say it was the flux and reflux of the sun because of another star nearing the sun.

[xxii] With help from Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 23, pp. 12-19.

[xxiii] Jomhouriye Eslami (newspaper), issue no. 7608 (23rd of Mehr, 1384, pg.5).