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Categories of Hadith and their Meanings

Question 059: What does ‘hadith’ mean? What are the different categories of Hadith and their Meanings?

Answer 059: The Arabic word ‘hadith’ means, statement or talk. In the Shari’ah, the word hadith means, those things or actions, which the Holy Prophet (saws) said or did.

A collection of traditions containing sayings of the Holy Prophet (saws) which, with accounts of his daily practices (I.e. the Sunnah), constitute the major sources of guidance for Muslims apart from the holy Qur’an.

Hadith is the collections of the teachings, deeds and sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saws) and the infallible Imams (a.s). The term comes from the Arabic: حديث, plural: أحاديث, meaning “report,” “account” or “narrative”.

The hadith literature is based on oral reports. Hadith also refers to the speech of a person.

Hadith is known as the second religious source after the Holy Quran. It is widely known among Muslims all over the world that any specific wording of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) on a given topic or theme of subject is known as a “Hadith”. It is obligatory upon every disciple of Islam to know, act upon and spread the Proverbs of Rasulullah (pbuh) as these are the words full of wisdom which result in one`s success both in this world and in the hereafter.

Hadith, according to the late Shia scholars, divided into two categories: Sahih and non-Sahih. This means that they whether accept a hadith which is known as Sahih or reject it as it is considered as non-Sahih.[1] But, now, Hadith in general is composed of three basic components which are given below:

  1. Matn/Content: It is the main passage which is the actual centre of attraction for the reader. It normally tells about the right way of actions in different circumstances of life.
  2. Isnad/Sequence of Reporters: A series of correspondents through which Hadith has spread.

These are the necessary three constituents which need to be present in any text for naming it as a Hadith.

Categorization of Hadith

The taxonomy of the Prophetic (PBUH) axioms has been very carefully devised according to different sets of classifications along with their further kinds. Following are the five basic arrangements of Ahadiths on the basis of particular grounds:

  1. According to reference to a particular Authority
  2. According to the links of Isnad
  3. According to a number of reporters
  4. According to nature of Matn and Isnad
  5. According to Authenticity of Correspondents

Now let us briefly discuss these classes of Hadith one by one:

  1. i) According to Reference to a Particular Authority

According to careful research, Hadith is divided into four additional kinds under this category:

  1. Qudsi: meaning “Divine”. It is a Heavenly text which was directly sent upon the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Who passed it on to His followers Himself.
  2. Marfu`: meaning “Elevated”. It has got very important status in Islam as it was directly heard from the Messenger (PBUH) of God Himself by His companions and was brought forward.
  3. Mauquf: meaning “Stopped”. It is a kind of command which was directly given by Rasulullah (PBUH) to His cohorts who forwarded it.
  4. Maqtu`: meaning “Severed”. It is a form of Instruction which is plainly described by Successor in his own words.
  1. ii) According to the links of Isnad

Hadith is further divided into six groups under this category:

  1. Musnad: meaning “Supported”. Isnad being reported by a well-known companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) although final narrator might not be with Him at that time.[2]

The Hadith Musnad is, according to the existence of the name of Infallible (as) based on its Sanad, divided into two kinds: Mudmar and Musarrah. Mudmar is when the narrator of a Hadith has not specifically mentioned the name of Imam by mentioning only pronoun. Like “Sa’altahu’, ‘Qa’la’ or ‘An’hu’.[3]

  1. Muttasil: meaning “Continuous”. The one with undisturbed Isnad relating back to rightful friend or its heir.
  2.  Mursal: meaning “Hurried”. It missed a connection between the storyteller and the Infallibles (pbuth).[4]
  3. Munqati`: meaning “Broken”. Hadith with a link being absent before it reaches the Successor of the actual narrator.
  4. Mu`adal: meaning “Perplexing”. The one in which narrator misses multiple reported in an order in Isnad of the Hadith.
  5. Mu`allaq: meaning “Hanging”. It fails to spot the complete Isnad of the Hadith.

iii) According to a number of reporters

It is divided into two more sub-groups:

  1. Mutawatir: meaning “Consecutive”. Hadith being reported such a large number of rightful companions that it is agreed upon as authentic.
  2. Ahad: meaning “Isolated”. The one which has been narrated by a countable number of people.[5]

It has been further categorized into these followings sub-types:

  1. Mash’hur: meaning “Famous”. Hadith which is related by more than two individuals.
  2. Mustafidh: meaning that the number of narrators are two or more than three but not as much as Mutawatir Hadith.[6]
  3. Aziz: meaning “Rare yet Strong”. The one having only two reporters in its Isnad.
  4. Gharib: meaning “Strange”. Saying of Holy Prophet (PBUH) with only one narrator in its Isnad.
  1. iv) According to nature of Matn and Isnad

It is split into two major kinds:

  1. Munkar: meaning “Denounced”. A Hadith belonging to a weak reporter.
  2. Mudraj: meaning “Interpolated”. The one having some adding up of words to the authentic Hadith by its narrator.
  1. v) According to Authenticity of Correspondents

It has the following three categories:

  1. Sahih: meaning “Sound”. A hadith reported by a trustworthy reporter known for his truthfulness, knowledge, correct way of narrations and all of them are Just and follower of the Twelve Shia Imams (pbuth). [7]
  2. Da`if: meaning “Weak”. A hadith ranking under that of Hasan because of failing to.[8]
  3. Hasan: meaning “Good”. The one whose reporters are known and is clear-cut and all of them are Just and follower of the Twelve Shia Imams (pbuth).
  4. Da`if: meaning “Weak”. A hadith ranking under that of Hasan because of failing to address the Isnad properly.[9]
  5. Maudu`: meaning “Fabricated”. Hadith having wording opposite to the confirmed Prophetic (PBUH) traditions.

In short, Hadith is an integral part of Islamic teachings through which Muslims all over the world get insight about many aspects of life. Therefore, one must know about its different kinds so as to become able to distinguish the authentic ones from the rest which have weak links in its key constituents.[10]

[1] . Seifi Mazandarani, Ali Akbar, Miqyas al-Rivayah fee Elm al-Dirayah, Pg. 44, Islamic Publication Institution, Qom, 1421 A.H.

[2] . Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 175.

[3] . Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 100.

[4] . Farhang Istilahat Hadith, Pg. 121.

[5] . Al-Fadli, Abdul Hadi, Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 72, Ummul Qura Institution, Beirut, 1420 A.H; Ibid, Pg. 82.

[6] . Farhang Istilahat Hadith, Pg. 123.

[7] . Jabal A’meli, Jamal al-Din Hassan (son of Shahid Thani), Muntaqi al-Jaman, Vol. 1, Pg. 4, Nash Islami Institution, Qom.

[8] . Ibid, Pg. 4.

[9] . Usul al-Hadith, Pg. 108.

[10] . For further information in this regards, please refer to: Al-Fadli, Abdul Hadi, Usul al-Hadith; Farhang Istilahat Hadith.

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Definition of Bid’ah in Islam

Question 273: Salam, My question is what is the definition of Fitna especially in modern world. Is there anything called Bidat e Hasana? What is the definition of Bid’ah in Islam?

Answer 273: Bid’ah literally means something new, as the Quran describes Allah (swt) as the originator of the heavens and the earth (بَدِيعُ السَّمَوتِ وَالاَرضِ)[1] (badi’ meaning originator and bid’ah are words of the same root) and in Islamic terms, means to relate to religion what isn’t part of religion.

There are two points regarding the description of bid’ah:

1- Bid’ah is a type of bringing about change in religion by adding or omitting something from it. Therefore, any type of change and newness that has nothing to do with religion and is considered something normal isn’t bid’ah. For instance, if a nation chooses a certain day as a day of celebration and joy, not with the intention of relating such matter to religion and saying that religion has asked for such a thing, it isn’t considered bid’ah, although it needs to be analyzed from other points of view to make sure that it isn’t haram for any other reasons (but it isn’t bid’ah).

One can conclude from this that many of the developments and innovations that take place in arts, sports, industry etc. have nothing to do with bid’ah and the only thing that needs to be determined about them is if they are halal or not, nothing more.

2- What is meant by something being new and of no previous record in Islam is for it to not have any accordance with any Islamic laws and in no way fit under any of its guidelines or not be considered an application and instance of an Islamic assertion or doctrine.[2]

In other words, if one says that a certain act is haram or wajib or mustahabb or makrooh, while nothing in religion can be found to justify and explain what relationship this act has with religion, it is bid’ah, or else it isn’t. According to this explanation, many of the doubts and questions that might come up on bid’ah for many can easily be solved and answered. For instance, a great deal of Muslims all over the world celebrate the birthday of the holy Prophet (pbuh) while some consider this act as bid’ah! But according to what we said, bid’ah doesn’t apply here because even if we assume that such an act hasn’t been encouraged (although we might be able to say it has been) by Islam, yet it fits under another category that we are sure that Islam has indeed encouraged and is one of the clear principles of our religion, which is the showing of love and affection to the Prophet (pbuh) and his household (as).

None of the different Islamic sects have ever doubted that bid’ah is extremely forbidden and haram. Naraqi, one of the great Shia scholars says: “There is a consensus by all Muslim nations that bid’ah is haram and its being haram is a clear Islamic principle.”[3] The biggest reason for bid’ah being haram are the many hadiths that can be claimed that they reach the level of tawatur (when a hadith has been narrated so much by many different narrators, in a way that one becomes sure that all of the narrators can’t be mistaken or lying and that the tradition is authentic) that both Shias and Sunnis have narrated saying: “Adding something to religion that has no previous record in religion is bid’ah and all bid’ah is misguidance and all misguidance is in the Hellfire.”[4]

Although all Islamic sects see bid’ah as haram, but since its essence isn’t completely clear, sometimes some groups and individuals have gone too far in confronting it and have accused other Muslims of being kafirs while such accusations are incorrect.

A certain group consider any form of worship that wasn’t practiced during the time of the Prophet (pbuh) or the khalifas as bid’ah and haram, and believe that one should stay away from these acts. For instance, a famous Hanbali scholar had announced theology haram and called it the root and cause of all bid’ahs and misguidance.[5] He writes that any inner knowledge that people claim they have that can’t be found in the Quran and tradition is bid’ah and no one has the right to act according to it and invite others to it. He calls upon all Muslims to return to the old religion that was in practice during the time of the first three khalifahs.[6]

These radical beliefs were strengthened in the theories of Ibn Teymiyyah and after him, by Muhammad ibn Abdil-Wahhab and ended in many Muslims being seen as innovators in religion and even mushriks (polygamists). Suleiman ibn Sahman al-Najdi, the grandson of Muhammad ibn Abdil-Wahhab, speaks of the common bid’ahs of the Muslims saying: “The four altars that are built in the mosques for each of the four Islamic sects (Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafe’i and Maleki), reciting the Quran with a high voice, sending blessings on the Prophet (pbuh) (salawat), reciting supplications and doxologies after the adhan and on the night of Friday, the nights of Ramadhan, the night of Eidul-Fitr and Eidul-Adha, gathering for birthdays and deaths of great religious individuals and singing songs on birthdays with a specific tone, mixing poems with sending blessings on the Prophet (pbuh) and Quranic recitation and reciting them after Tarawih prayers, holding dhikr beads for saying dhikr, raising one’s voice while saying the dhikr of لا اله الا الله during taking the dead for burial and while splashing water on their graves after burial, wearing long sufi like clothes, hanging swords and flags in Huseiniyyahs and other places where gatherings are held, beating on tambourines and other musical instruments that make the same sounds such as trumpets, repeating the great name of Allah and His other names etc. are all bid’ah.[7] These fanatical beliefs have caused the killing and massacre of Muslims all over the world.

In response to these extremist beliefs, we say that if we are to look at the laws of Islam like this, then we can no longer accept any change in Muslim lives. We would all have to pray using the same clothes worn during the advent of Islam, think of the same things that they would think of, and pay respect to our dead the same that they would. It is clear that this type of being religious is accepted by no Islamic scholar. All scholars, including Shia scholars have been against these overindulgences and have criticized them in their books.

Because of this, Shia scholars and some Sunni scholars, have divided bid’ah into two groups; haram and halal bid’ah. The author of Jawahir says that some scholars like Muhaqqiq and Sheikh Tusi say that bid’ah is of two types; haram and halal.[8] Shafe’I has been quoted saying that bid’ah is of two types; desirable and undesirable. Bid’ah that is in accordance with Islamic tradition is desirable, while bid’ah which against it is undesirable.[9]

The great Allamah Majlisi says: “In Islamic law, bid’ah refers to something innovated in religion after the demise of the Prophet (pbuh) (that one considers as a part of religion) and there is no general or specific law or principle that applies to it.”[10] Naraqi, also a great Shia scholar, accepts this viewpoint saying: “Bid’ah means for someone other than the Shari’ (the true legislator of Islamic law, being Allah) to falsely claim that something is part of religion without any religious proof or evidence. But if a certain act that hasn’t been specifically “legislated” by religion is done by someone not in way that shows that it is part of religion, it is no longer forbidden because of being bid’ah, although it might be haram because of another reason (but it surely isn’t bid’ah).[11] Shatebi, a Sunni faqih (fiqh expert), has the same viewpoint and says: “Bid’ah is a way in religion that has been added and has no base in Islamic law. But on the outside, it looks like it is part of Islamic law and is mistaken with it.”[12] Therefore, if a Muslim practices something new that isn’t part of religion without relating it to religion, and without doing it with the intention that it is part of religion, it is permissible.

[1] . Surah Baqarah, verse 117.

[2] . With the help of Manshure Aqa’ed of Ayatullah Subhani, pp. 219 and on.

[3] . Awa’idul-Ayyam, pp. 319, quoted by Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[4] . Biharul-Anwar, vol. 2, pg. 126. “کل محدثة بدعة و کل بدعة ضلالة و کل ضلالة في النار”.

[5] . Tabaqatul-Hanabilah, vol. 2, pp. 19,27, 34, 37 according to the site of The Islamic Encyclopedia.

[6] . Tabaqatul-Hanabilah, vol. 2, pg. 35, according to the quote of Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[7] . Majmu’atul-Tafsir of Ibn Teymiyyah, pg. 340, quoted by ibid.

[8] . Jawahirul-Kalam, vol. 11, pg. 300, quoted by ibid.

[9] . Fathul-Bari fi Sharh Sahihul-Bukhari, vol. 17, pg. 10, quoted by ibid.

[10] . Biharul-Anwar, vol. 74, pg. 202: “و البدعة في الشرع ماحدث بعد الرسول ]بماانه من الدين[ و لم يکن فيه نص علي الخصوص و لايکون داخلاً في بعض العمومات”.

[11] . Awa’idul-Ayyam,pg. 110, quoted by Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[12] . Al’I’tisam, Library of Maktabatul-Riyadh al-Hadithah, vol. 1, pg. 127 quoted by ibid.

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Cut ties with family who constantly commit sins

Question 138: I am a Muslim who has a relative that is an admitted alcoholic. According to Ayatollah Sistani what are the laws about keeping a relationship with this relative in this state? Is it permissible to tell others that he is a medically documented alcoholic? What are my rights to him as he falls under the category of a sibling to one of my parents?

Answer 138: It is obligatory to temporarily cut ties with family who constantly commit sins and that pay no attention to what Allah (SWT), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Infallible Imams (pbuth) have said. If discarding this relationship can possibly cause him to avoid committing sins. This is a type of al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf (bid what is right) wa-n-nahy ʿani-l-munkar (forbid what is bad). Otherwise, you are not allowed to do so.[1]

There is a hadith of Imam Zain al-A’bedeen (a.s) as He recommended His son Imam Baqir (as) to avoid establishing communication with those who commit sins and Islamic laws don’t make sense to them.[2]

However, he committed such sin, but try all your best to help him find the right path and leave drinking alcohol, if you can. Also, try not to abandon him and leave him in this situation where he stymied.

It is recommended to restrict your relationship with him in a way that you just say Salam to him and let him know why you make such decision.

Imam Baqir and Imam Sadiq (pbuth) said, “Maintaining good relations with the relatives (Arham) purifies the deeds, increases the wealth, prevents calamities, makes the accounting easy (on the Day of Judgment) and delays death.[3]

For further information, please read the following answer:

Index: Estrangement from people or being with them, answer 060.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masaiel of Maraja’, Vol. 2, Pg. 772, question 1058; Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 76.

[2] . Al-Kafi, Muhammad ibn Ya’qubal-Kulayni, Vol. 2, Pg. 376, H 7.

[3] . Usul al-Kāfī, vol. 2, pg.150 & 151.

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Going for Hajj or Ziyarat of Imam Hussain or Imam Reza

Question 124: Has anyone heard that you have to go for Hajj before you go for ziyarat? Someone advised me of this and I’ve never heard it before. So, tell me sholud I Going for Hajj or Ziyarat of Imam Hussain or Imam Reza?

Answer 124: If a wajib hajj become obligatory upon you, you would have to go for Hajj, first. If you are dubious whether to go for Hajj or visit the holy shrine of the Infallibles Imams (pbuth) you are supposed to act based on the few traditions, as follows:

There is a wonderful hadith narrated from Aisha. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was carrying Imam Hussain (as) on His shoulders, Aisha asked Him (pbuh): Do you love him? The Holy Prophet replied: Woe are you, how I don’t love and like him while he is the light of my eyes, however my Umma will kill him! Whomever visit him after his martyrdom Allah, the Almighty would grant him a reward of one of my Hajj. Aisha wandered and said: One of your Hajj? He (pbuh) said: even two Hajj of mine. Aisha wandered again. He (pbuh) said: even four Hajj. Aisha was continuously wandered until the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: the reward of vising Imam Hussain (as) is equal to the reward of my nighty Hajj![1]

What the most important reason for Imam Hussain (as) that unfinished His Hajj in order to go to Kufa is to disgrace Yazid’s regime and to uphold and put into practice (Amer bil Maroof and Nahi anil munkir), to order the correct and right and to stop and refrain from the evils and to stand up against the brutality and cruelty. This was the mission Allah, the Almighty had entrusted him. That’s why He (as) is Thar Allah (possessor of the blood venerated by Allah). And if we visit His holy shrine with the pure intention and to remember this sacrifice of protecting the pure Islam of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), we would be granted the reward of many mustahab Hajj. In sha Allah.

Ziyarat of Imam Reza (as) is preferable to visit the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (as):  Ali bin Mahziyar asked Imam Jawad (as): Which holy shrine is preferable to be visited, Ziyarat of Abi Abdellah (as) or Imam Reza (as)? The Imam said: Ziyarat of my Father (as).

Ali bin Mahziyar also asked: why? The Imam said: Because, all people visit the holy shrine of Imam Hussain (as), but only Shia Muslims visit my father’s holy shrine![2]

Therefore, visiting the holy shrine of our Infallible Imams (pbuth) especially Imam Reza (as) is preferable to go for mustahab Hajj.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala, answer 057.

Index: Importance of Marifat Imam / Definition of Marifat, answer 283.

[1] . Kamel al-Ziyarat, Pgs. 68 & 210.

[2] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 9, Pg. 335, Daral-Hadith Publication; Lawame’ Saheb Qerani, Vol. 8, Pg. 548.

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Shia answers: Al-Kafi is an authentic book

Question 290: Asslamo alakaum. Is Kafi an authentic book? I get confused, im still trying to learn about Islam, then there comes a shia who says that “this book is not very authentic but it’s powerful though”!? I seriously want to know whether books that I touch are going to guide me to the right path, I already read 1 volume of this book.

Answer 290: The Shia school is very rich in terms of reliable hadith collections thanks to the ahadith of the Holy Prophet (s) and his pure progeny. The infallible Imams, peace be upon them, are the closest people to the Holy Prophet (s) in terms of position and time. They are inerrant and infallible and there are profuse narrations quoted from them in Shia’s hadith books.
Some of Shia’s major hadith collections that are considered to be reliable are the following:

  1. Al-Kafi authored by Theqatul Islam, Muhammad bin Ya’qub Kulayni (329 A.H.),
  2. Al-Tahzib authored by Shaykh Tusi, may Allah bless him (460 A.H.)
  3. Al-Istibsar authored by Shaykh Tusi, may Allah bless him (460 A.H.)
  4. Man La Yahzuruhu al-Faqih authored by Shaykh Saduq (r.a.) (381 A.H.)
  5. Wasail al-Shi’ah authored Shaykh Hurr Amili, may Allah bless him (1104 A.H.)
  6. Behar al-Anwar authored by Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (r.a) (1110 A.H.)
  7. Jami’ al-Ahadith al-Shi’ah authored by Ayatollah Ismail Mu’ezzi Malayeri (1429 A.H.)
  8. Jami al-Ahadith Software (Noor) prepared by Islamic Computer Sciences (Noor) which comprises most of Shi’ah hadith books.

Although these books are very valuable and there are a great many authentic traditions in them, but we do not consider all of the hadiths in these books as authentic. That is why, the Shia scholars examines the authenticity of each and every hadith and act on only those traditions that are verified as correct. For this reason, we believe that the only authentic and truly reliable book is the Holy Quran. Unfortunately, the Sunnis consider their books (Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim etc.) as authentic whereas their books are replete with fabricated traditions and stories.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Al-Kutub al-Arba’ah, The Four Books: Kafi, Man la yahduruhu, Tahdhib and Istibsar, answer 064.

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Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession

Question 148: Sometimes when I’m looking up or finding dua’as to be said for special reasons, I get frustrated. I don’t get why shia dua’as are so different than Sunni dua’as. They aren’t including caliphates or anything, they are all just supplications to God. Like I was looking up dua’as to remove worry and anxiety. There was no common one between Sunni and Shias. The Sunni dua’as are said to be told by the Prophet (SWT) and some Shia dua’as are said to be done by the Imams (AS). Does it really matter if its a supplication just between you and Allah?

Answer 148: Dua or supplication is a relationship out of need between the servant and his lord, for worldly and otherworldly needs. Just like every other phenomenon, the answering of one’s supplication has conditions and formalities that when met and observed, will result in the answering of the dua, and in the case of the dua lacking them, or in the case of other barriers not allowing the dua to be answered that we aren’t aware of, even the best duas known for being answered quickly and certainly can be ineffective.

Means: When it comes to the meaning of ‘means’ in the holy verse “O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” Allamah Tabatabai explains the term as such, “The reality of the means of nearness to Allah is to comply with demands of His path with knowledge and worship, pursuit of virtues and fulfillment of recommended acts. It is a sort of joining together, (i.e.) a spiritual joining which connects the slave with his master; there is no link that connects man with his Lord except the submissiveness of worship and veneration. Therefore, the means of nearness means ensuring the reality of veneration and turning the face of humility and poverty to His direction – therefore, Wasilah (means) in the above verse refers to the link that joins the servant to his Lord.

Intercession: The concept of imploring or interceding with the Prophet (SWT) or Imams (AS) or Allah’s saints is to make recourse to the high position of these great people because they are dear and near to God and if their intercession is sought, God will, for their sake, grant His servants the position of proximity.

We can’t bring the text of the duas here, but here we will only list them without mentioning their texts:

(1) The dua of Tawassul. (2) The dua of Faraj. (3) The dua of Ism A’dham. (4) The dua of Muqatil bin Suleyman from Imam Sajjad (AS). (5) A dua with the name of “Sari’ul-Ijabah” (which literally means ‘quickly answered’) by Imam Kadhim (AS) which reads, “اللهم انی اطعتک فی احب الاشیاء الیک و …”

(6) A dua from Imam Sadiq (AS); the imam (AS) says whosoever says “Ya Allah” (یا الله) ten times, will be told [by Allah (SWT)]: “Here I am! What is your wish?” (7) Imam Sadiq (AS) has been narrated saying: “Whosoever repeatedly says “Ya Rabb Ya Allah” until he runs out of breath, will be told: “Yes! What is your wish?!”

These duas have been mentioned in the book of Mafatihul-Jinan, under the title of “Quickly Answered Duas” or “Sari’ul-Ijabah Duas”.

It is said we can make dua without interceding with the Holy Prophet (SAWS) and the infallible Imams (AS) (i.e.) just between us and Allah (SWT).

How to make Dua: There are some conditions for one who wishes to make dua’a should observe, in order that Allah (SWT) will grant his\her dua as follows: things we ask God mustn’t be haram; recite salawat before and after each dua’a, we shouldn’t hurry up, so that Allah (SWT) grant our duas anytime He wants; all dua’as that are not in contrary with the Shia belief, are considered as valid.

We ought not to accept all Sunni dua’as nor to reject them. There is a rule which says those dua’as that aren’t in contrary to the Shia belief are accepted, whether or not it is narrated or not. This means, if it doesn’t include haram things and other conditions that have been mentioned above, there would be no problem to apply it.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer and link:

Index: Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman, answer 150.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index: Seeking one’s need from someone other than Allah, answer 005.

Index: Intercession and calling Imam Musa al Kadhim Bab al Hawaij, answer 159.

http://duas.org/

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Visiting non-Muslim graves and Praying for them

Question 103: Assalaamualaikum. What is the Shia view on visiting non-muslim graves and praying for dead non-muslims?
Answer 103: According to the verses of the Holy Quran, if those non-Muslim who have not fought Muslims on the account of Religion and have not driven us out of our Homeland, Allah (SWT), the Almighty does not forbid us from doing good and regarding justice to them.

Therefore, we can visit their graves and ask Allah, the Almighty for His forgiveness and pray for them. On the other hand, Allah (SWT) forbids us only from having Friendship with those who fought us on the account of Religion and Drove us out of our homeland; and helped one another in driving us out. As a result, we are forbidden to have friendly Relation with them; and whoever among us does so, then he is regarded as one of the disbelievers. Because, in the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “The Prophet and the faithful may not plead for the forgiveness of the polytheists, even if they should be [their] relatives, after it has become clear to them that they will be the inmates of hell”.[1]

Conclusion: If you come to know that they won’t be the inhabitants of the Fire there would be no problem to visit their graves and pray for them.

Index: Praying for non-Muslim Parents, answer 516.

Index: Barzakh / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth) in His Grave, answer 564.

Index: Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell, answer 326.

[1] . Surah Mumtahina, verses 8 & 9; Surah Tawbah, verse 113.

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Wilayat e-Takwini in Sunni traditions

Question 351: Salam Maulana, Can wilayat e takwini be explained by sunni hadith’s?

Answer 351: Wilayah Takwini means guardianship over all things in this world and to have control over them and to be able to render change in them in any way; such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but can also be attributed to the prophets and infallible imams (pbuth) and complete individuals secondarily.[1]

The word Takwin is derived from “Kawn” meaning “Be” or “Being”. Considering the Saying of Allah is the Act of Him not His Words, Voice and the like, in the Holy Quran the meaning of Takwin is: “Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth And when He decrees an affair, He only says to it: Be, so there it is”[2]

بَدیعُ السَّماواتِ وَ اْلأَرْضِ وَ إِذا قَضی أَمْرًا فَإِنَّما یَقُولُ لَهُ کُنْ فَیَکُونُ.

The Holy Quran says: “What is in the heavens and the earth is Allah’s Surely Allah is the Self-sufficient, the Praised”[3]

لِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَميد.

The Holy Quran also says: “Then are they sent back to Allah, their Master, the True One Now surely His is the judgment and He is swiftest in taking account”[4]

ثُمَّ رُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلاهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَ هُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحاسِبينَ.

Wilayat al-Takwini can have three meanings as follows:

  1. Having Wilayat over creation of the world: This means that Allah (swt) gives one of His creation an ability by which he can create or emit a world. Although, it is not impossible for Allah to do so, as He is surely able to do anything and give such ability to anyone He prefer, but verses of the Holy Quran show that Surely Allah has power over all things and He is the only Creator.
  2. Wilayat Takwini is a path towards Allah’s grace: This means that every blessing, grace and power of Allah has been giving to the human by awleyââ­allâh (the friends of Allah) and the special servant of Allah. This type of Wilaya is one of main of belief that Shia believe in.

In forth volume of the book Sharh e Nahjul Balagha Ibn Abi al-Hadid narrated the Lady Fatimah Zahra’s (sa) sermon regarding Fadak in the presence of Muhajir and Ansar in which Hazrat Zahra (sa) under the verse 25 of Surah Maeda has said: “O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to)  Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” She said: I praise Allah that whoever is in the heavens and the earth makes obeisance to Him only, … and We are means among the creations.[5]

و الحمد الله الذی لعظمته و نوره یبتغی من فی السموات و الارض إلیه الوسیله و نحن وسیلة فی خلقه

  1. Having Wilayat in a certain scale like giving life to the dead and curing the sick by the Prophets and the friends of Allah (pbuth). There are many traditions regarding this type of Wilayat al-Takwini in which the Holy Prophet and the Infallibles Imam (pbuth) did so.

The following are some examples of such Wilayat about the prophets (as) that have perfectly mentioned in the Holy Quran:

A: Surah Ale Imran, verses 48 & 49: “And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom and the Tawrat and the Injeel. And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord That I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s Permission And I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allah’s Permission And I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses Most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers”.

So, such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but it is attributed to the prophet (as) secondarily.

وَ يُعَلِّمُهُ الكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَ التَّوراةَ وَالانْجيلَ- وَ رَسُولًا الى بَنى اسْرائيلَ انّى قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِآيةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ انّى اخْلُقُ لَكُمْ مِنَ الطِّينَ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَانْفُخُ فيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْراً بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْرِءُ الاكْمَهَ وَ الابْرَصَ وَ احْيِى الْمَوْتى بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ انَبِّئُكُمْ بما تَأكُلُونَ وَ ما تَدَّخِرُونَ فى بُيُوتِكُمْ انَّ فى ذلِكَ لآيَةَ لَكُمْ انْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤمِنينَ‏.

  1. Surah al-Naml, verse 40: “The one who had knowledge of the Book said,” I will bring it to you in the twinkling of an eye.” So when he saw it set near him, he said,” This is by the grace of my Lord, to test me if I will give thanks or be ungrateful. And whoever gives thanks, gives thanks only for his own sake. And whoever is ungrateful [should know that] my Lord is indeed all-sufficient, all-generous.”

قالَ الَّذى عِنّدَهُ عِلّمٌ مِنَ الّكِتابِ انَا آتيكَ بِه قَبْلَ انْ يَرْتَدَّ الَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَما رَآهُ مُسْتَقِراً عِنْدَهُ قالَ هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبّى لَيَبْلُوَنى أَاشْكُرُ امْ اكْفُرْ وَ مَنْ شَكَرَ فَانَّما يَششْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَانَّ رَبّى غَنىٌّ كَريم

Wilyat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:  During the Battle of Khaybar, when several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combats failed, that night the Holy Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed, “By Allah, tomorrow I shall give it [the banner] to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, whom Allah and His Messenger love. Allah will bestow victory upon him.” That morning, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) called out for Ali ibn Abi Țalib (as) while His eyes were painful. Ali (as) came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh), who cured him of his ophthalmia, an inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva in them. The holy Prophet (pbuh) sent him with his flag and Ali (as) attacked the Khaybar and conquered it.

According to the tradition, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has cured Imam Ali’s (as) ophthalmia by His Wilayat al-Takwini.[6]

The Infallible Imams’ (pbuth) Wilayat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:

  1. Ibn Abbas narrated: Abdullah ibn Salam along with a few of Muslims went to the house of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) around noon and shared his problems with Him. The Wilayat verse of the Hoy Quran has sent down at that time. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse to them, they said: We are satisfied with the Wilayat of Allah, His Messenger and Believers, then Bilal performed Adhan and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque. People have been offering their prayers, some were at ruku, some sujud and others at the state of qiyam. The holy Prophet (pbuh) saw a beggar circulating around people. The Prophet (pbuh) called him and asked: Did anyone give you anything? Yes, the man said. The Holy Prophet asked: What did he give you? A silver ring, the man replied. Who gave you the ring? The Prophet (pbuh) asked. That man who is standing, the man replied. The holy Prophet looked at that man ad saw He is Ali ibn Abitalib (as). The Prophet asked again: At which state He gave you the ring? He gave me the ring while He was bowing down, the man replied. And then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse of the Holy Quran: “Only Allah is your Vali) Friend or Guardian (and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow”.[7]

In Durrul Manthour So’youti narrated this issue and in the end he writes: When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked the man, Who gave you the ring? And the mand replied, the one who is at the state of Qiyam and pointed Imam Ali by his hand, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: He is Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), said Takbir and then recited this verse of the Holy Quran:  “And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the Party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant”[8]

وَ مَن یَتَوَلَّ اللهَ وَ رَسُولَه وَ الَّذینَ آمَنوا فَاِنَّ حِزْبَ اللهِ هُمُ الْغالِبُونَ

  1. In Shawahid al-Tanzil Hakim Haskani narrated 24 traditions under the Wilaya verse of the Holy Quran. Some of the people he narrated hadith from are, Ibn Abbas, Ammar bin Yaser, Jaber ibn Abluddal Ansari, Ami al-Momeneen Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), Miqdad ibn Aswad Kenedi and Abuzar Ghifari.[9]
  2. In Tafsir al-Kabir, Fakhr Razi narrated three hadith and he also narrated a hadith from Abuzar in which he has proven the Wilyah al-Takwini by the verse of the Holy Quran that has send down for Imam Ali (as).[10]

For further information regarding other traditions narrated in this regards from Ahlul Sunna sources, please refer to the Book Al-Ghadir by Allama Amini, 52-2/53, Book Ahqaq al-Haq. 409-2/399 and Ruh al-Ma’ani, 6/167.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

[1] . Refer to: https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/631006433717334/

[2] . Surah al-Baqara, verse 117.

[3] . Surah Luqman, verse 26.

[4] . Surah al-Anaam, verse 62.

[5] . Sharh e Nahjul Balagha, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 4, Pg. 79. For further information regarding Intercession, please refer to the following answer:

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/583488091802502/) 

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/511560225661956/)

[6] . Kamil, ibn Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 219;  Shia sources: Allama Majlesi, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 21, Pg. 298.

[7] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 55;  Ma Nazala min al-Quran fee Ali (as), n 66.

[8] . al-Durrul Manthour, 2/520;   Surah Maedah, verse 56.

[9] . Shawahed al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Pg. 209, H 216.

[10] . al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. 2, Pgs. 52-53.

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Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin

Question 621: Sallam O Alaikum. This Hadith is circulating in the social media and I really wanna know the authenticity of the Hadith will you confirm if it’s fake or a real Hadith. A man entered on Imam Sadeq and said: Salam Alikum ya Ameeral Mu’meneen. The Imam have stood up and said angerly: Behold! This is a title only suitable for Imam Ali! Allah have named him with it, and anyone who claim the title for himself, he is a penetrated homo [and if he isn’t, he will be]. Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin?

Tafsyr Al Ayashi v1 p276. Wasael al Shia v14 p600.

I would appreciate it. Thank you very much

Answer 621: As for the Hadith narrated from an unknown man without mentioning other chain of narrations it is considered as mursal and a weak hadith.

Note: Mursal is a hadith whose chain of transmitters lacks one or more narrators, and asserts that: The hadith is mursal and therefore unacceptable.

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَامَ عَلَى قَدَمَيْهِ فَقَالَ مَهْ هَذَا اسْمٌ لَا يَصْلُحُ إِلَّا لِأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع- سَمَّاهُ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَ لَمْ يُسَمَّ بِهِ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُ فَرَضِيَ بِهِ إِلَّا كَانَ‏ مَنْكُوحاً وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ (ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ) وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ فِي كِتَابِهِ‏ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِناثاً وَ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطاناً مَرِيداً- قَالَ قُلْتُ: فَمَا ذَا يُدْعَى بِهِ قَائِمُكُمْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بَقِيَّةَ اللَّهِ- السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ.

The followings are some ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) in which relied on using this title only for Imam Ali (as).

  1. A man asked Imam Sadiq (as) if we are allowed to call Imam of the time (as) by Amir al-Momenin (Commander of the Faithful)? He said: No. Because, this name is specialized by Allah to Imam Ali (as). No one before him has been called by this name nor after him will be called, unless they are Kafir. The man asked how to say Salaam to Him? The Imam replied: say: Assalamu Alaika Ya Baqiyatallah.[1]
  2. The holy Prophet (pbuh) said: O people, Say whatever I’ve been telling you and say Salaam to Ali by Amir al-Momenin and say: O Allah, we understood and obeyed and seek your forgiveness, we will return to you. Say: All praises are for Allah who guide us to this order of Wilaya and if there wasn’t your guidance we have never guided, O people, the values that Ali bin Abi Talib has toward Allah that have been sent down in the holy Quran are more than what we can count and say.[2]
  3. Salman Farsi (ra) said: O people, follow Ale Muhammad who guide you to the Heaven and obey Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib, I swear to Allah that we said salaam to Ali (a) by Wali and Amir al-Momenin in front of the holy Prophet (pbuh) and He (the Prophet) bided us and relied on doing so.[3]
  4. Sulaim bin Qays said: I sat beside Salaman, Abuzar and Miqdad that a man of Ahl e Kuffa said to them: Be upon you to follow the holy Quran and Ali bin Abi Talib. Because, He is with the Quran and never be separated from it. We give testimony that

According to the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) order, we are all being ordered to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin.[4]

According to the previous mentioned traditions especially the first one, Amir al-Momnin is one of the specialized titles of Imam Ali (as) that chosen by Allah (swt) and the holy Prophet (s). Their saying was to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin. This title has never used for other Imams (as) in Shia sect. Because, it is only specialized to Imam Ali (as) [5]. [6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, Tehran,

[2] . Alam al-Huda, Khurasani, Nahj al-Khitabah, Sukhanan Payambar (s) wa Amir al-Momnin, Vol. 1, Pg. 154, Sadr Library, Tehran, second edition,

[3] . Allamah Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 29, Pg. 81, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, Lebanon, 1404 A.H.

[4] . Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl al-Lujaj, Vol. 1, Pg. 157.

[5] . Atarodi, Azizullah, Zendegani Chahardah Masoom (as), Pg. 229, Islamiyyah, Tehran, first edtion, 1390 A.H.

[6] . Adopted from answer 11125 IQ.

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Ziyarat Nahiya Muqaddasah

Question 147: I was reading Ziyaret Nahiyah and I came across a part of the Ziyaret that says, “I will continue to weep morning and evening and weep for you with tears of blood.” Can someone give me the tafsir on this Ziyaret and the meaning of this statement?

I was reading Ziyaret Nahiyah and I came across a part of the Ziyaret that says, “I will continue to weep morning and evening and weep for you with tears of blood.” Can someone give me the tafsir on this Ziyaret and the meaning of this statement?

Answer 147: The ziyarah of Nahiyah Muqaddasah is an ‘absolute’ or ‘unconditional’ ziyarah, meaning that it can be recited anytime; on Ashura or any other day.

This ziyarah begins with greeting the Prophet of Islam (pbuh), the other Prophets and the Imams (as), and is followed by greeting Imam Hussain (as) and his loyal companions. Afterwards, the ziyarah explains in detail the honorable characteristics, traditions and way of life of the Imam before his rise, the affection of Imam Mahdi (aj) for him, the circumstances that led to his rise, gives a description of what took place in Karbala, tells us of his martyrdom and the tragedies he suffered and underwent, and about the mourning of all earthly and heavenly creatures for him. The ziyarah ends with a tawassul (asking for mediation and intercession) to the imams and supplications to Allah (swt).

The famous Ziyarah Nahiyah Muqaddasah has an authentic and reliable chain of narrators [sanad] and has been issued by Imam Mahdi (as) to one of his “special” representatives [one of the four representatives that were specifically appointed by the imam (as) himself in the third century (ah) during his minor occultation] in the form of a tawqi’ [letters written by the imam in response to questions that were asked from him].

This ziyarah was passed down to great scholars such as Sheikh Mufid and Sayyid Murtadha through Shia narrators, and from them to others like Ibnul-Mashhadi. Finally from them on to later scholars, namely, Sayyid ibn Tawus and Allamah Majlisi.

In this Ziarat Imam Mahdi (ajtf) has said:

«فَلَأَنْدُبَنَّكَصَبَاحاً وَ مَسَاءً، وَ لَأَبْكِيَنَّعَلَيْكَ بَدَلَ الدُّمُوعِ دَماً،حَسْرَةً عَلَيْكَ وَ تَأَسُّفاً عَلَىمَا دَهَاكَ وَ تَلَهُّفاً، حَتَّىأَمُوتَ بِلَوْعَةِ الْمُصَابِ وَ غُصَّةِالِاكْتِيَاب»

Transliteration: “Fala’andubannaka šabāħan wa masā’ā, wa la’abkiyanna lakabadalad-dumū3i damā, ħasratan 3alayka wa ta’assufan 3alā mādahāka wa talahhufā”

Translation: “I will, therefore, lament you morning and evening, and will weep blood in place of tears, out of my anguish for you and my sorrow for all that befell you”.

We can figure out how much the above mentioned phrases allusively indicate Imam Mahdi’ (ajtf) anguish for Imam Hussain (a.s). This doesn’t mean, that its the actual meaning of such phrases. Imam Mahdi (ajtf) wouldn’t like to weep blood by using external devices. He wants to shed many tears in a way that make his eyes bloody, instead. Weeping and moaning is not damaging yourself when you are filled with a lot of grief, especially when it is related to divinely religious affairs.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index: Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman, answer 150.

Index: Ziyarat Ashura, Arabaeen, Ameenullah and Warith, answer 253.

Index: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala, answer 057.

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

[1] . Ibn Mashhadi, Muhammad bin Jafar, al-Mazar al-Kabir, editor and researcher: Qayoumi Esfahani, Jawad, Pg. 501, Qom, first edition 1419A.H. – Al-Mazar, Pg. 27 & 496. – Noori, Hussain, Khatimatul Mustadrak, Vol. 1, Pg. 360, first edition, Alul Bayt institution,Qom, 1415 A.H. – Qomi, Sheikh Abbas, al-Alqab, Vol. 1, Pg. 409, Maktabat al-Sard, Tehran, Bita. – Al-Mazar, introduction, Pg. 6.

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Spiritual and Material Beauty and the Light of Faith

Question 245: There are hadith that state that you can recognize a mumin by characteristics of his face. Are these physical characteristics or more of the metaphysical realm that only one on the same level could recognize? I have heard that praying fajr prayer on time causes a light/glow to emit from one’s face. Is this referring to the energetic attraction we feel towards others as their spirit uplifts ours?

Answer 245: According to Islam, beauty is divided into two divisions: Spiritual and material. Getting the spiritual beauty has been more emphasized by Islam, though the material beauty has also been recommended.

An important thing that should be taken into consideration is that the spiritual beauty can be accessible by spiritual affairs like prayers and the material beauty would be available by some material affairs.

The following are some recommendations our Infallibles (pbuth) have suggested us to observe:

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “The beauty of a man can be seen in his patience, because, the patience gives our soul tranquility by which our ethics and behavior would become beautiful and brilliant if it is faced with afflictions and difficulties.”[1]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “The beauty of a believer is his\her self-restraint, virtue and piety.”[2]

– The Holy Prophet of Islam (saws) has said, “Whomever offers Salatul Tahajjod, his\her face would become brilliant in the day.”[3]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “Night prayer (salatul tahajjod) makes the face brilliant.”[4]

– Imam Sadiq (as) has said, “The night prayer can make our face look bright.”[5]

– Imam Sadiq (as) has said, “The repetition of performing wudu, upon the last wudu is like the light (noor) upon light.”[6]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “If you sleep less at night and worship Allah (swt) the Almighty during the night, your face would become brilliant.”[7]

– The Imam (as) has also said, “The believers brilliant face is because of the kindness that Allah (swt) has given him. If you seek Allahs (swt) goodness, you have to worship Him by doing the righteous deeds and avoiding forbidden acts.”[8]

Note: The Holy Qur’an says, “Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly [white] star lit from [the oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by fire. Light upon light. Allah guides to His light to whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is knowing of all things.”[9]

There is a special light that Allah (swt) gives believers in order to become brilliant if they do the righteous deeds. This light is the light of knowledge. The method in which we can get such divine light, is to do what Allah (swt), the Almighty bids us and avoid of what Allah (swt) forbids us.[10]

When Muslims want to describe the spiritual characteristics of a believer, they say we see the light of faith in his face. According to this definition, it doesn’t matter which color your skin is, if you are white or black, red or yellow, if you act based on the above recommendations, your face would get the light of faith.

This is not physical light that we can see easily. This is the light of knowledge that anyone with any skin color can have, if given by Allah (swt), the Almighty. Anyone, even those who have the lowest level of faith, can recognize it.

As you know, Hazrat Adam and the Holy Prophet (pbuth) had tawny skin. Luqman Hakeem from Ethiopia was a black man and Imam Jawad (as) had dark-colored skin, however all people became captivated when they saw them. It’s because of the light of faith.

Let’s mention some recommendations of Practical Irfan that Imam Ali (as) has suggested us to observe:

– Imam Ali (as) explained the concept of spiritual wayfaring with such words, “The true arif is the one who has enlivened his intellect and who has mortified his desires, till the point where his coarseness has become broken and his severity has been softened. A luminous light is lit for him which illuminates the path towards God for him and under its guidance he goes forward…”[11]

– Imam Ali (as) has also said, “O’ creatures of Allah! The most of Allah is he whom Allah has given power (to act) against his passions, so that his inner side is (submerged in) grief and the outer side is covered with fear. The lamp of guidance is burning in his heart. He has provided provisions for the day that is to befall him.”[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl (Tahajjud, Night Prayer), answer 234.

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu, answer 274.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

[1] . Tamimi Amedi, Abdul Wahed bin Muhammad, Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 285, H. 6392, office of Tablighat publication, Qom, 1987.

[2] . Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 269, Hadith 5862.

[3] . Toosi, Abu Jafar, Muhammad bin Hasan, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, Vol. 2, Pg. 119, Hadith 217, Darel Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H. «مَنْ صَلَّى بِاللَّيْلِ حَسُنَ وَجْهُهُ بِالنَّهَارِ».

[4] . Shaeeri, Tajuddeen, Jame’ al-Akhbar, Pg. 72, Radhi Publication, Qom, 1984.

[5] . Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 151 – 152, Hadith 10278.

[6] . Ibn Babawayh, Muhammad bin Ali, Man la Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 1, Pg. 41, Office of Islamic Publication, Qom, second edition, 1413 A.H.

[7] . Mustadrak al-Wasael, Vol. 6, Pg. 340.

[8] . Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 346.

[9] . Surah Noor, verse 35.

[10] . Tafseer al-Mizan, Vol. 15, Pg. 168.

[11] . Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 210.

[12] . Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 86.

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Ashra Mubashra, the ten Sahaba Promised Paradise

Question 221: Assalamu alikum, what u think about ashabs esp Abu bakr, umer n usman? Why u call them bidati, did prophet consider them as munafiq. And also explain your views regarding ashr-e-mubashara. thank you.

Answer 221: According to Shia school of thought, such traditions are classified into da’if (weak) and are considered as fake. The following are some reasons by which these ahadith have been rejected.

There are some traditions have been narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd and Zubair in which both but Imam Ali (as) were mentioned among those ten sahaba’s promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra). A question is now raised that how’s it possible that Imam Ali (as) was among them, but they refused allegiance to (like Abi Waqas) and fought against him?

The following hadith was narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd in which the Prophet (saws) said: “10 sahaba’s are promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra) are: Abu Bakr in paradise, Omar in paradise, ‘Uthman in paradise, Ali in paradise, Talha in paradise, Al-Zubair Bin Al-‘Awwam in paradise, Abdul Rahman Bin ‘Awf in paradise, Saad Bin Abi Waqqass in paradise, Saeed Bin Zaid, and Abu ‘Ubaida Bin Al-Jarrah in paradise.”[1]

The Arabic version of this tradition is as follows:

«حَدَّثَنَا صَالِحُ بْنُ مِسْمَارٍ المَرْوَزِی قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِی فُدَیكٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ یعْقُوبَ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعِیدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ حُمَیدٍ، عَنْ أَبِیهِ، أَنَّ سَعِیدَ بْنَ زَیدٍ، حَدَّثَهُ فِی نَفَرٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَیهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: عَشَرَةٌ فِی الجَنَّةِ: أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُمَرُ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُثْمَانُ وَعَلِی وَالزُّبَیرُ وَطَلْحَةُ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ وَأَبُو عُبَیدَةَ وَسَعْدُ بْنُ أَبِی وَقَّاصٍ

During the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (as) called Zubair and Talha, “O Aba Abdillah and Talha come here. I administer an oath to both of you. Do you know that the companions of the battles of Jamal and Nahrawan have been cursed by the Holy Prophet (saws)?”

Zubaid said: “How is it possible that we were cursed, whereas we are among the 10 sahaba’s promised paradise?” The Imam (as) said, “If I knew you were among the dwellers of the heaven, I would never have fought against you!” Zubair said, “Didn’t you hear that the Prophet (saws) said, on the day of the Uhud battle, “Talha deserves heaven?” The Imam (as) said, “Name those who are promised paradise for me?” Zubair told him the names of nine people. The Imam (as) said, “Who is the tenth person?” Zubair replied, “You are the tenth one!” The Imam (as) said, “You confess that I am one of the dwellers of the heaven, but I deny those sahaba you named. They will be dwelled in a coffin at the lowest place of the Hell.” The Imam (as) said, “The Holy Prophet (saws) said it to me.” Zubair went back to his armies while he was crying![2]

The Holy Prophet (saws) variously promised so many believers heaven: E.g. Imam Ali (as) and His followers will be dwelled in the heaven.[3]He also said, “Heaven will eagerly anticipate four persons to come: Ali bin Abi Talib, Ammar, Salman and Miqdad, however none of these four persons except Imam Ali (as) were mentioned in that hadith![4] Those who narrated these (Ashra Mubasharah) tradition have only tried to justify the hadith as sahih by mentioning the name of Imam Ali (as). How is possible for those who have cruelly fought against Imam Ali (as) to be dowelled in the heaven, while we know that the Holy Prophet (saws) has said, “Anyone who fight against Ali, fight against me?”[5]

Conclusion: Although, this tradition has been mentioned in Sunni sources, it is classified as da’if (weak), according to the above mentioned reliable sources.

This hadith is contrary to the Holy Qur’an as Allah (swt) has never mentioned any names of the dwellers of the heaven. In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) always say, “And (as for) those who believe and do good deeds, these are the dwellers of the garden, in it they shall abide.”[6]

Some of the sahaba mentioned in the hadith have been considered as unbelievers by each other, such as Othman who is considered an unbeliever by Talha and Zubair. Both (Talha and Zubair) have issued a fatwa, by which Othman has deserved to be killed, as he is Kafir. That’s why Othman has been killed by such fatwas!

If this hadith is sahih, after choosing Abu Bakr as the first caliph, why did Omar order that anyone of the six persons that participated in the council, who may disagree with the decision, would be killed?[7]

If this hadith is sahih, why did Abdullah ibn Umar who has narrated this hadith deny allegiance to Imam Ali (as).[8] Thus, this hadith due to the above mentioned reasons is not considered as sahih. It is such a fake and da’if one which has no reliable sources.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha, answer 180.

Index: The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida, answer 028.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Al-Tirmidhi, Muhammad bin Isa, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Pg. 648.

[2] . Ibn Uqdah Kufi, Ahmad bin Muhammad, the virtues of Amirul Momenin (as), researcher and editor: Hirzuddin, Abdul Razzaq Muhammad Hussain, Pgs. 166-167; Tabarsi, Ahmad bin Ali, Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl e al-Lujaj, researcher and editor: Khorasan, Muhammad Baqir, Vol. 1, Pg. 162, Murtadha Publisher, Mashhad, first edition, 1403 A.H.

[3] . Tabari Amoli Kabir, Muhammad bin Jurair bin Rostam, al-Mostarshed fee Imamat Ali bin Abi Talib (as), researcher: Mahmoodi, Ahmad, Pg. 401, Kooshanpoor, Qom, first edition, 1415 A.H; Bahrani, Sayyid Hashim, al-Borhan fee Tafseer al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 347, Bonyad Be’sat, Tehran, first edition, 1416 A.H.

[4] . Sheikh Sadouq, al-Khisal, researcher: Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Vol. 1, Pg. 303, office of Islamic publication, first edition, 1983; Ibn Kathir Basari, Esmaeel bin Omar, Jame’ al-Masanid wa al-Sonan al-Hadi, Vol. 3, Pg. 495, Dar e Khizr liltaba’at wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzei, Beirut, second edition, 1419 A.H.

[5] . Khazaz Razi, Ali bin Muhammad, Kifaya al-Athar fee al-Nass ala al-A’imma al-Ithna Ashar, researcher: Hussaini Koohkamari, Abdul Latif, Pg. 181, Bidar, Qom, 1401 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, etigadat al-Imamiyah, Pg. 105, Sheikh Mofid Congress, Qom, second edition, 1414 A.H.

[6] . Surah Baqarah, verses: 25- 82.

[7] . Amini, al-Ghadir, Beirut, Dar al-Kotob al-Arabi, 1397 A.H, Vol. 10, Pgs. 156-157.

[8] . Ibid, Pgs. 149- 161.

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Greeting with Salam is mustahab responding to it is wajib

Question 062: Why shouldn’t we greet fellow Muslims with Salam on Ashura day? Is it a cultural tradition or there’s an Islamic justification to this?

Answer 062: There is a tradition narrated from Ali bin Ibrahim from his father from al-Nawfeli from al-Sakooni, from Imam Sadiq (as) that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: Greeting with Salam (peace) is recommended and voluntary, but responding to it is obligatory.[1] The Prophet (s) also says: Do not give answer to one who doesn’t initiate saying Salaam before his speech.[2]

Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

السَّلَامُ تَطَوُّعٌ وَ الرَّدُّ فَرِيضَةٌ.

  1. Greeting is one of the desirable acts that have been recommended. It is not makrooh (abominable) to greet someone from this perspective. However, according to some religious authorities (maraje’), if not doing an action such as shaking hands is considered in common view as a way of mourning and expressing grief, it is better not to do it.[3]
  2. Imam Baqir (as) was asked about how we should console each other on the Day of Ashura? The Imam answered: Say: May God increase our rewards as a result of what has befallen us through Hussein’s sufferings. May God make both you and us men who seek vengeance for him together with his great successor (wali), the Imam, the Mahdi from the family of Muhammad (a).[4]

The Arabic version of this recommendation:

“أعظَمَ اللهُ اجورَنابمُصابِنابِالحُسَینِ،وَجَعَلَناوایّاکُم مِنَ الطّالِبینَ بِثارِهِ مَع وَلیّهِ الامامِ المَهدیِّ مِن آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ”

  1. The word ‘Salaam’ has been mentioned 22 times and the word ‘Assalam’ 7 times in the holy Quran. Some of the verses in which the word has been mentioned are as follows:

– When they entered into his presence, they said,” Peace!”” Peace!” He answered,”[5]

– Certainly Our messengers came to Abraham with the good news, and said,” Peace!”” Peace!” He replied.[6]

– Peace is to me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I am raised alive.”[7]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ways to Greet in Islam with Muslims and Non-Mahram, answer 369.

Index:  Lamentation: Normal mourning for Imam Hussain (as), answer 049.

[1] . Kulainy, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 644, H. 1.

[2] . Ibid, H. 2.

[3] . Tabrizi, Jawad, New Isteftaat, vol.1, p. 454, Qom, first edition (date and place of publication not known).

[4] . Tusi, Muhammad bin al-Hasan, Mesbah al-Mujtahid wa Selah al-Muta’abbed, p. 772, Fiqh al-Shi’ah, Beirut, first edition, 1411 A.H.

[5] . Surah adh-dhariyat, verse 25.

[6] . Surah Hood, verse 69.

[7] . Surah Mariam, verse 33.

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Prophet Noah cursed Blacks / The Story of Noah’s Sons

Question 198: Question: What does Islam say about blacks? What is their position among people seeing as they bear the azab of their progenitor Ham?

Answer 198: In book Elalul Sharaye’a, the story of Noah’s sons are mentioned as follows:

One day the Prophet Noah (as) fell asleep in his ship. A wind was blowing and pushed aside his clothes. His private parts became exposed. Ham and Japheth were laughing at him, but Shem forbid them from laughing at their father. Shem covered his fathers private parts, but they pushed the cloth aside again. Suddenly, Noah (as) woke up and saw what happened. He asked, “Why are you are laughing?” Shem replied to his father, the story!

Noah raised his hands and said, “O Allah, change the loins of Ham, and Japheth” and Allah (swt) changed it. This is why why all black people come from Ham’s generation; all Turkish people and Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj (Gog and Magog) come from Japheth’s generation; and all white skinned people come from Shem’s generation. “O Allah, set the children of Ham and Japheth as slave’s for the children of Shem, until the Day of Judgment”.[1]

The Arabic version of this narration is as follows:

عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْكُوفِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَهْلُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ الْآدَمِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَظِيمِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَسَنِيُّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ الْعَسْكَرِيَّ ع يَقُولُ عَاشَ نُوحٌ ع أَلْفَيْنِ وَ خَمْسَمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ وَ كَانَ يَوْماً فِي السَّفِينَةِ نَائِماً فَهَبَّتْ رِيحٌ فَكَشَفَتْ عَنْ عَوْرَتِهِ فَضَحِكَ حَامٌ وَ يَافِثُ فَزَجَرَهُمَا سَامٌ ع وَ نَهَاهُمَا عَنِ الضَّحِكِ وَ كَانَ كُلَّمَا غَطَّى سَامٌ شَيْئاً تَكْشِفُهُ الرِّيحُ كَشَفَهُ حَامٌ وَ يَافِثُ فَانْتَبَهَ نُوحٌ ع فَرَآهُمْ وَ هُمْ يَضْحَكُونَ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا فَأَخْبَرَهُ سَامٌ بِمَا كَانَ فَرَفَعَ نُوحٌ ع يَدَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ يَدْعُو وَ يَقُولُ اللَّهُمَّ غَيِّرْ مَاءَ صُلْبِ حَامٍ حَتَّى لَا يُولَدَ لَهُ إِلَّا سُودَانٌ اللَّهُمَّ غَيِّرْ مَاءَ صُلْبِ يَافِثَ فَغَيَّرَ اللَّهُ مَاءَ صُلْبِهِمَا فَجَمِيعُ السُّودَانِ حَيْثُ كَانُوا مِنْ حَامٍ وَ جَمِيعُ التُّرْكِ وَ السَّقَالِبَةِ وَ يَأْجُوجَ وَ مَأْجُوجَ وَ الصِّينِ مِنْ يَافِثَ حَيْثُ كَانُوا وَ جَمِيعُ الْبِيضِ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ سَامٍ وَ قَالَ نُوحٌ ع لِحَامٍ وَ يَافِثَ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ ذُرِّيَّتَكُمَا خَوَلًا لِذُرِّيَةِ سَامٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لِأَنَّهُ بَرَّ بِي وَ عَقَقْتُمَانِي فَلَا زَالَتْ سِمَةُ عُقُوقِكُمَا لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِكُمَا ظَاهِرَةً وَ سِمَةُ الْبِرِّ بِي فِي ذُرِّيَّةِ سَامٍ ظَاهِرَةً مَا بَقِيَتِ الدُّنْيَا

It is also said that since the Noah’s Deluge happened in the month Dhil Hijjah and the Ark reached Bayt al-Haram (the temple of Mecca), Noah (as) recommended the people of the Ark not to have intercourse with their wives during this time. He then cursed those who disobeyed and said that Allah changed their loins. Therefore, when Ham did so his loin had been changed.[2]

According to Tabari, Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers.[3]

Accordingly, a question that may now arise is, “Is it mentioned in the holy Quran that white people are better than yellow, red, brown and black colored races?”

A: The verse mentioned above does not say that white people are better than other races, actually it has nothing to do with the abovementioned issue, the words used in the verse may seem to relate to races but they have a meaning other than being black and white. In Arabic people who reach salvation and prosperity are called “white faced people” and those who do not are called “dark/black faced people”, these sorts of expressions and other similar ones such as “a dark heart” or “the night was pitch black” that have nothing to do with races are not only found in Arabic, but in other languages as well.

In respect to the hadith cited above, aside from the fact that some parts of it aren’t in conformity with Islamic teachings, and its chain of narrators isn’t a decent one, making its authenticity disputable, we must pay attention to the fact that although youth, health and beauty aren’t of Islam does not deny that white skin is more beautiful and attractive, but it denies the notion that being white is a spiritual advantage and value; therefore it makes complete sense for black people to turn white when entering heaven. Add to above that this hadith is not considered authentic.

Actually, there are many verses in the Quran which clearly explain that despite the differences that are found among humans, they are all from the same root and nothing will make one more valuable or respectful other than his righteousness and piety, let it be physical features, family ties or gender, some of these verses are as follows:

1- “O mankind! Indeed we created you from a male and a female, and made you nations and tribes that you may identify yourselves with one another. Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most God wary among you.”[4]

2- “O mankind! Be wary of your Lord who created you from a single soul, and created its mate from it, and, from the two of them, scattered numerous men and women. Be wary of Allah, in whose Name you adjure one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is watchful over you”[5]

The Arabic version of this verse:

“يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَةٍ وَ خَلَقَ مِنْها زَوْجَها وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالاً كَثيراً وَ نِساء ”

3- “It is He who created you from a single soul”[6]

The Arabic version of this verse:

” وَ هُوَ الَّذی أَنْشَأَکُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَة”

Imam Ali would equally pay people their share which was three “dinars” from the “Beitulmal” (the treasury). A man from the Ansar came to him and received his three dinars and then a black person came and received the same amount of money.

The man from the Ansar was surprised and protestingly said: “Up until yesterday this black man was my servant, does it make sense for me to get as much money as he does?!” The Imam replied that the argument had no reasoning and that none of the two was higher than the other.”[7]

In a similar story the Imam faced his brother “Aqil” that said: “Do you think my share equals the share of a black man?!” The Imam strongly denied such a notion and replied: “It is only if you are more righteous and have done more for Islam that will make you more respectful and valuable, otherwise you are completely equal to him.”[8]

According to Tabari, Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers.[9]

Also, all mankind are the same as each other. There is no superiority. They are equal to each other in worshiping Allah (swt) the Almighty, as Allah, the Almighty says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. [10]

The Arabic version of this holy verse:

“يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْناكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثى وَ جَعَلْناكُمْ شُعُوباً وَ قَبائِلَ لِتَعارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقاكُم”

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah (swt) has never used the words, O White people! Instead, Allah (swt) has always said, “O mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those who were before you, so that you may be God wary.” [11]

Although, the hadith mentioned in Alalul Saraye’a is considered as Sahih in its chain of narration, but it is also said that Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers. [12]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned verses of the holy Quran and Ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) and according to Tabari that Ham had a happy ending we can come to this conclusion that all mankind are the same as each other. And there is no superiority. They are equal to each other in worshiping Allah (swt) the Almighty, as He (SWT) says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. [13]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following link:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/598502863634358/

Related Link: Facebook.

[1] . Elalul Sharaye’a, Vol. 1, Pg. 32.

[2] . Abu Hisham, Book al-Tijan fee Muluk Hamir, Vol. 1, Pg. 34, San’a, 1979;  Tabari, Tarikh (History), Bierut, Vol. 1, Pg. 188;  Abul Fat’h Razi, Rawz al-Jinan wa Rooh al-Jinan fee tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 10, Pg. 270, Muhammad Jaafar Yahaqi, and Muhammad Mahdi Naseh, Mashhad;  Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayat wa al-Nihayat, Vol. 1, Pg. 116, Beirut, 1190 / 1411 A.H.

[3] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204. Tabari’s name is Muhammad bin Jarir ibn Yazid ibn Kathir bin Ghalib, although he appeared to be Sunni due to Taqiyah and the condition that was obtained there, however he was a follower of the School of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and loved them. For more information, please refer to: Rawzatul Jannat; Shahabi, Ali Akbar, Tehran, Tehran University, Publisher Institution, Third edition.

[4] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

[5] . Surah Nisa, verse 1.

[6] . Surah An’am, verse 98.

[7] . Muhammad ibn Yaqub Kuleini¸ Kafi, vol. 8, pg. 69, hadith 26.

[8] . Ibid, vol. 8, pg. 182, hadith 204.

[9] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204. For more information, please refer to: Rawzatul Jannat; Shahabi, Ali Akbar, Tehran, Tehran University, Publisher Institution, Third edition.

[10] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

[11] . Surah Baqarah, verse 21.

[12] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204.

[13] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

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Getting Married on Wednesday / Praised or Condemned Days

Question 077: Asalamu Alaikum. Is getting married on Wednesday allowed in Islam? I read something that said it is makrooh to have sex or approach wives on Wednesday. Is that an authenticated hadith? Please let me know, as soon as possible. Thank you.
Answer 077: There is a tradition narrated from Imam Ali (as) in which certain days of the week have been praised while other days have been condemned. These are: Saturday is the day of beguilement and deceit, Sunday is good day for constructing, planting and wedding, Monday is the day of travel and business, Tuesday is the day of war and bloodshed, Wednesday is a sinister day, Thursday is the day of visiting the ruler and getting needs fulfilled and Friday is a good day of proposal and marriage. [1]

The Hell has been created on Wednesday, according to the Imam (as).[2] People consider it as a bad omen.

Marriage is a recommended act in Islam, therefore, there is no problem in getting married on each day of a year. All days are good and there is no such thing as a bad day to get married, except when one intends to marry while in a state of Ihram (for Umrah or Hajj) or if a woman is still in the waiting period (iddah) after leaving a husband by divorce or when her husband has died.

It is noteworthy to mention that getting married on a special days are recommended, these are: First, forth, sixth, seventh, ninth, twelfth, seventeenth, twenty-third and thirtieth day of each Lunar Month.[3] If you want to get married during the days of martyrdom of the infallible Imams (pbuth), you should also consider, respect, and observe the rules of etiquette of these days completely.

It should be noted that reciting the marriage contract during the time when the moon is in Scorpio (Qamar dar Aqrab), is considered as a forbidden act, according to some traditions. However, you may still get married when the moon is in Scorpio.[4]

One of the things which is haram for the menstruating woman, is vaginal intercourse. This is haram both for the man and woman, even if only the glans enters and there is no seminal discharge. As a matter of fact, as an obligatory precaution, it is forbidden for even less than the entire glans to enter. As for anal intercourse, it is extremely makruh but not haram. Even on the days where the woman’s menstruation isn’t certain but she has to legally consider it to be so, intercourse is haram. Now if one commits this forbidden act of intercourse during menstruation, he/she will be liable to kaffarah (atonement) and has to act according to what has been mentioned in the risalahs (tawdih al-masa’il/books of legal verdicts) of the maraji’. [5] [6]

Note: There are many ahadith in which we are recommended to give Sadaqah (charity) or recite Ayatul Kursi in order to get rid of the evil omen, some of which are as follows:

Imam Sadiq (as) says: Whoever gives Sadaqah on every morning Allah (SWT) would ward off the bad omen on that day.[7] The Imam also says: If you want to travel on Wednesday give Sadaqah and recite Ayatul Kursi.[8]

These traditions are for getting rid of such bad omen. If you are able not to pay attention on such bad omen of some days of the week it would be much better for you to do so, but if you don’t have such ability, take refuge in Allah, the Almighty, recite the holy Quran and make dua.[9]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam, answer 515.

[1] . Sheikh Sadouq, al-Khisal, Vol. 2, Pg. 384, Office of Islamic Publication (daftar Intisharat Islami), first edition.

[2] . Ibid, Pgs. 387-388.

[3] . Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasā’il al-Shīʿa, Vol. 11, Pg. 399, Alul Bayt, Qom, 1409 AH.

[4] . Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Man La Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 2, Pg. 276, Qom, office of Islamic Publication, second edition, 1404 AH; adopted from answer 71076; al-Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Kafi, Vol. 8, Pg. 275, Dar al-kotob al-Islamiyah, Tehran, 1404 AH; Adopted from answer 8340 IQ; For further information regarding these times, please refer to the astrological table.

[5] Sistani: And this ruling does not apply to anal intercourse…; Zanjani: Apparently, it isn’t permissible for less than the entire glans to enter…

[6] See: Tawdih al-Masa’il of the maraji’, vol. 1, issue 450, pp. 260-265.

[7] . Muhaddith Noori, Mustadrak al-Wasael, Aalul Bayt Li Ihya al-Turath Institution, Qom first edtion, 1408 A.H, Vol. 56, Pg. 31.

[8] . Ibid, Pg. 28.

[9] . Allamah Tabatabee, Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 19, Pg. 143.

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Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu

Question 274: Salam, “Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu” One who truely knows himself has already come to know Allah. Could you please eleborate further on that? How can one know Allah if he recognizes himself? What does that mean? What is the “self” (nafsu) which makes us recognize God? Does this mean that if we recognize the true purpose of our existance in this world we have recognised God i.e True existance belings to Him because He is independant and Needless and He alone is worthy of being worshiped. Everything belongs to Him and under his control (InaliAllah wa ina ilayhe rajaoon)?

Answer 274: The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said: “Whoever knows himself knows his Lord.[1]

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

«قَالَ النَّبِیُّ(ص) مَنْ عَرَفَ نَفْسَهُ فَقَدْ عَرَفَ رَبَّهُ ثُمَّ عَلَیْکَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ بِمَا لَا یَصِحُّ الْعَمَلُ إِلَّا بِهِ وَ هُوَ الْإِخْلَاص.  وَ قَالَ عَلِیٌّ (ع) اطْلُبُوا الْعِلْمَ وَ لَوْ بِالصِّینِ وَ هُوَ عِلْمُ مَعْرِفَةِ النَّفْسِ وَ فِیهِ مَعْرِفَةُ الرَّبِّ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ.»

The following are some different interpretations regarding this noble hadith.

  1. This hadith refers to the Argument of Design. This means that if one discovers wonders of his spirit, soul and body and detects the secrets and mysteries of the complex system of the creation then a way of knowing Allah (SWT) would be opened for him to know Allah.
  2. The hadith refers to the Argument of Necessity and Contingency, meaning that if we pay attention on ourselves we would definitely realize that all parts of our body -such as knowledge, power, ability, consciousness, health and etc. are dependent on Allah, the Almighty. Therefore, considering the previous mentioned issue, if we know ourselves we would know Allah, the Almighty because it is impossible to imagine a dependent creature without an independent creator (i.e. Allah, the Almighty).
  3. This hadith can refer to the argument of Nature (fitrat). This means that if we deeply discover our spirit, soul and heart the Divine and Tawhidi Light which is in our nature (Fitrat) would be appeared. In other words, we will reach to the level of knowledge that we can know Allah by knowing ourselves even without considering any reason and argument.
  4. According to some scholars, since knowing soul is impossible knowing Allah is impossible too. According to them, there are some verses of the holy Quran that improve their opinion. 1) “And they ask you about the soul Say: The soul is one of the commands of my Lord, and you are not given aught of knowledge but a little”[2] 2) “So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him”[3]. Therefore, when it is impossible to know the soul that is created by Allah, the Almighty then how is it possible to know Him, especially when Allah has said “you are not given aught of knowledge but a little”.
  5. According to most of scholars, since the human beings have been created by Allah and breathed into them of His spirit, then knowing human being’s spirit require knowing Allah, the Almighty.[4] In this regards Imam Sadiq (as) has said: “Servitude is a gem whose core is Lordship [rubūbiyyat]. Whatever is lost of servitude is found in the Lordship, and whatever is hidden of Lordship is obtained by servitude.” [5]
  6. The other meaning we can take from this hadith is that the human being’s spirit is as the same as its creator, so recognizing Allah’s attributes and names can be possible through recognizing the spirit affairs such as essence, attributes and etc. as Imam Ali (as) has said: “He is with everything but not in nearness. He is different from everything but not in separation.”[6] In other words, perceiving this issue that Allah (SWT) is present in everything can be obtained through self-knowledge.

The Arabic version of this saying:

مَعَ کُلِّ شَیْ‏ءٍ لَا بِمُقَارَنَةٍ وَ غَیْرُ کُلِّ شَیْ‏ءٍ لَا بِمُزَایَلةٍ

There are three ways for acquiring knowledge of Allah (awj). In other words, the intellectual or gnostic journey of the philosopher or the spiritual wayfarer [respectively] could fall under one of three categories:

  1. The traveller (salik), the path (maslak), and the goal (maslk ‘ilayh) are distinct; such as if one reaches the conclusion [that Allah (awj) exists] by observing and contemplating the order and harmony of the universe, by realizing that all things are needy and so there must be something needless they depend on, hence the Originator. Some Qur`anic verses encourage people to take up this method.[7]
  2. The traveller and the path are one and the same; such as if one contemplates the world within himself, addressing questions such as, “Who am I?”; “Where am I from?”; “Why aren’t my inclinations, my allegiances under my control?”; “Why can I not tame my wild mind so as to control what memories it recalls?”

Imam ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (ع) alludes to this method in the following words: “I came to know Allah by observing the strong wills that trembled, the difficult entanglements that were disentangled, and the decisions that were crushed.”[8] In another instance he says, “Whoever comprehends himself has indeed comprehended his Lord.”[9]

  1. The path and the goal are one and the same. That is, the traveller—the philosopher or the spiritual wayfarer—by contemplating the destination discovers the object of his desire (maqsud). This is the most profound way of understanding, for it transcends the levels of extroversive and introversive journeys, thereby realizing, through contemplating the Absolute Witness, that Allah (awj) is the Absolute Witness.

The Quran states:

“Is it not sufficient that your Lord is witness to all things?”[10]

First, He is witnessed and comprehended, and then [in His light] all other things, for He is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. The Essence of Unicity [i.e. Allah (awj)] is the clearest witness to and proof of Himself and as such, renders unnecessary any intermediary for comprehension of Him.[11]

So it is that in addressing His messenger He says,

“You were certainly oblivious of this. We have removed your veil from you, and so your sight is acute today.”[12]

The veil is removed from the individual, not from the reality or from Allah (awj).

In the Supplication of ‘Arafah, Imam Husayn b. ‘Ali (ع) deals with this third method. He says, “O Allah!  Do others possess a light that You lack so that they must shed light upon You? When have You been absent so as to be needy of proof? When have You ever been distant so that Your effects and creatures should move us close to You?”[13]

The same theme resonates in the following couplet: “You have never distanced Yourself so that I should seek Your presence. You have never been hidden so that I should make You manifest.”

And again in the words of Imam Husayn b. ‘Ali (ع), “Blind be the eye that does not behold You … It is You whom I beseech in seeking union with You, and it is Your own existence that I seek as proof for Your existence.” In this phrase, it is expressed that for the spiritual wayfarer, Allah (awj) is more manifest than the sky, the earth, the leaves of trees, etc.

Imam Ja’far b. Muhammad as-Sadiq (ع) alludes to this point in the following words: “When someone is present and manifest, we first know him through his self, then we get to know his attributes. But in the case of something absent, knowledge of its attributes precedes knowledge of its essence … Just as in the case of Yusuf’s brother, they studied Yusuf himself and recognized it was him. They asked him, ‘Are you really Yusuf?’ They did not formulate their question the other way around[14] (14); meaning, they reflected on the qualities of the person whom they were confronted with and realized that he was Yusuf. They did not ask others to identify Yusuf for them.”[15]

Based on the aforementioned explanations, it has been concluded that contingent existents are realities whose existence is nothing but their relation to the Necessary Existent. Otherwise, they would be needless in their essences which would in turn mean that they would be necessary by their essences, which is obviously false.

Thus, they are in their entire existence dependent on the Necessary Essence and it is impossible to view the relation [i.e. the creature, for as previously mentioned the contingent existent is nothing but that relation] without the object to which it is related (marbut ‘ilayh). That is, comprehending the effect independent of its cause is impossible. Thus, the comprehension of everything, even purely material existents, is concomitant with comprehending the Necessary Existent.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Estrangement from people comes about as a result for knowing them too well, answer 060.

[1] . Allamah Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 2, Pg. 32, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, 1404 A.H.

[2] . Surah Asra, verse 85.

[3] . Surah al-Hijr, verse 29.

[4] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 57, Pg. 324.

[5] . YazdanPanah, Yadullah, Mabani wa Usul Erfan Nazari (the principle and fundamental of theoretical Mysticism), Pg. 67, Imam Khomeini Institution, Qom, first edition.

[6] Nahj al-Balaghah, Vol. 1.

[7] Surat al-Baqarah (2), Verse 164:

} إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمٌوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنْزَلَ اللٌّهُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَأَحْـيَا بِهِ الأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَآءِ وَالأَرْضِ لآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُون{

[8] Nahj al-Balaghah, Short Saying 250:

عَرَفْتُ اللٌّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ بِفَسَخِ الْعَزَائِمِ وَحِلِّ الْعُقُودِ.

[9] Jawahir al-Saniyyah, pg. 116:

مَنْ عَرَفَ نَفْسَهُ فَقَدْ عَرَفَ رَبَّهُ.

[10] Surat al-Fussilat (41), Verse 53:

} أَوَلَـمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلـى كُلِّ شَيءٍ شَهِيدٌ {

[11] Surat Ibrahim (14), Verse 10:

} قَالَتْ رُسُلُهُمْ أَفِي اللٌّهِ شَكٌّ فَاطِرِ السَّمٌوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ {

[12] Surat Qaf (50), Verse 22:

} لَقَدْ كُنْتَ فِي غَفْلَةٍ مِنْ هٌذَا فَكَشَفْنَا عَنْكَ غِطَاءَكَ فَبَصَرُكَ الْيَوْمَ حَدِيدٌ {

[13] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 95 pg. 226; also Mafatih al-Jinan:

أَيَكُونُ لِغَيْرِكَ مِنَ الظُّهُورِ مَا لَيسَ لَكَ حَتَّى يَكُونَ هُوَ الْمُظْهِرَ لَكَ؟ مَتَى غِبْتَ حَـتَّى تَحْتَاجَ إِلـى دَلِيلٍ يدُلُّ عَلَيْكَ؟ وَمَتَى بَعُدْتَ حَتَّى تَكُونَ الآثَارَ هِيَ الَّتِي تُوصِلُ إِلَيكَ؟

[14] It must be pointed out that in Farsi and ‘Arabic in asking if the person being addressed is the same one the former had heard about or known previously, he can put the question forth in two ways. He can say, in the case of ‘Arabic, a anta fuln (lit. Are you …?) or a fuln ant (lit. Is… you?). The latter case is not used in English. Therefore, the reasoning forwarded in the text should be understood in the context of the ‘Arabic language. (Tr.)

[15] Tuhaf al-’Uqul, pg. 327:

إِنَّ مَعْرِفَةَ عَيْنِ الشَّاهِدِ قَبْلَ صِفَتِهِ وَمَعْرِفَةَ صِفَةِ الْغَائِبِ قَبْلَ عَيْنِهِ. قِيلَ: وَكَيْفَ نَعْرِفُ عَيْنَ الشَّاهِدِ قَبْلَ صِفَتِهِ؟ قَالَ (ع): تَعْرِفُهُ وَتَعْلَمُ عِلْمَهُ وَتَعْرِفُ نَفْسَكَ بِهِ وَلاَ تَعْرِفُ نَفْسَكَ بِنَفْسِكَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ. وَتَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَا فِيهِ لَهُ وَبِهِ كَمَا قَالُوا لِيُوْسُفَ: }إِنَّكَ لأَنْتَ يُوسُفَ قَالَ أَنَا يُوسُفُ وَهٌذَا أَخِي{ فَعَرَفُوهُ بِهِ وَلَمْ يَعْرِفُوهُ بِغَيرِهِ.