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Wilayat e-Takwini in Sunni traditions

Question 351: Salam Maulana, Can wilayat e takwini be explained by sunni hadith’s?

Answer 351: Wilayah Takwini means guardianship over all things in this world and to have control over them and to be able to render change in them in any way; such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but can also be attributed to the prophets and infallible imams (pbuth) and complete individuals secondarily.[1]

The word Takwin is derived from “Kawn” meaning “Be” or “Being”. Considering the Saying of Allah is the Act of Him not His Words, Voice and the like, in the Holy Quran the meaning of Takwin is: “Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth And when He decrees an affair, He only says to it: Be, so there it is”[2]

بَدیعُ السَّماواتِ وَ اْلأَرْضِ وَ إِذا قَضی أَمْرًا فَإِنَّما یَقُولُ لَهُ کُنْ فَیَکُونُ.

The Holy Quran says: “What is in the heavens and the earth is Allah’s Surely Allah is the Self-sufficient, the Praised”[3]

لِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَميد.

The Holy Quran also says: “Then are they sent back to Allah, their Master, the True One Now surely His is the judgment and He is swiftest in taking account”[4]

ثُمَّ رُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلاهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَ هُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحاسِبينَ.

Wilayat al-Takwini can have three meanings as follows:

  1. Having Wilayat over creation of the world: This means that Allah (swt) gives one of His creation an ability by which he can create or emit a world. Although, it is not impossible for Allah to do so, as He is surely able to do anything and give such ability to anyone He prefer, but verses of the Holy Quran show that Surely Allah has power over all things and He is the only Creator.
  2. Wilayat Takwini is a path towards Allah’s grace: This means that every blessing, grace and power of Allah has been giving to the human by awleyââ­allâh (the friends of Allah) and the special servant of Allah. This type of Wilaya is one of main of belief that Shia believe in.

In forth volume of the book Sharh e Nahjul Balagha Ibn Abi al-Hadid narrated the Lady Fatimah Zahra’s (sa) sermon regarding Fadak in the presence of Muhajir and Ansar in which Hazrat Zahra (sa) under the verse 25 of Surah Maeda has said: “O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to)  Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” She said: I praise Allah that whoever is in the heavens and the earth makes obeisance to Him only, … and We are means among the creations.[5]

و الحمد الله الذی لعظمته و نوره یبتغی من فی السموات و الارض إلیه الوسیله و نحن وسیلة فی خلقه

  1. Having Wilayat in a certain scale like giving life to the dead and curing the sick by the Prophets and the friends of Allah (pbuth). There are many traditions regarding this type of Wilayat al-Takwini in which the Holy Prophet and the Infallibles Imam (pbuth) did so.

The following are some examples of such Wilayat about the prophets (as) that have perfectly mentioned in the Holy Quran:

A: Surah Ale Imran, verses 48 & 49: “And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom and the Tawrat and the Injeel. And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord That I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s Permission And I heal the blind and the leprous, and bring the dead to life with Allah’s Permission And I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses Most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers”.

So, such power primarily belongs only to Allah (swt), but it is attributed to the prophet (as) secondarily.

وَ يُعَلِّمُهُ الكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَ التَّوراةَ وَالانْجيلَ- وَ رَسُولًا الى بَنى اسْرائيلَ انّى قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِآيةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ انّى اخْلُقُ لَكُمْ مِنَ الطِّينَ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَانْفُخُ فيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْراً بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْرِءُ الاكْمَهَ وَ الابْرَصَ وَ احْيِى الْمَوْتى بِاذْنِ اللَّهِ وَ انَبِّئُكُمْ بما تَأكُلُونَ وَ ما تَدَّخِرُونَ فى بُيُوتِكُمْ انَّ فى ذلِكَ لآيَةَ لَكُمْ انْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤمِنينَ‏.

  1. Surah al-Naml, verse 40: “The one who had knowledge of the Book said,” I will bring it to you in the twinkling of an eye.” So when he saw it set near him, he said,” This is by the grace of my Lord, to test me if I will give thanks or be ungrateful. And whoever gives thanks, gives thanks only for his own sake. And whoever is ungrateful [should know that] my Lord is indeed all-sufficient, all-generous.”

قالَ الَّذى عِنّدَهُ عِلّمٌ مِنَ الّكِتابِ انَا آتيكَ بِه قَبْلَ انْ يَرْتَدَّ الَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَما رَآهُ مُسْتَقِراً عِنْدَهُ قالَ هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبّى لَيَبْلُوَنى أَاشْكُرُ امْ اكْفُرْ وَ مَنْ شَكَرَ فَانَّما يَششْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَانَّ رَبّى غَنىٌّ كَريم

Wilyat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:  During the Battle of Khaybar, when several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combats failed, that night the Holy Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed, “By Allah, tomorrow I shall give it [the banner] to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, whom Allah and His Messenger love. Allah will bestow victory upon him.” That morning, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) called out for Ali ibn Abi Țalib (as) while His eyes were painful. Ali (as) came to the Holy Prophet (pbuh), who cured him of his ophthalmia, an inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva in them. The holy Prophet (pbuh) sent him with his flag and Ali (as) attacked the Khaybar and conquered it.

According to the tradition, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has cured Imam Ali’s (as) ophthalmia by His Wilayat al-Takwini.[6]

The Infallible Imams’ (pbuth) Wilayat al-Takwini according to Ahlul Sunna:

  1. Ibn Abbas narrated: Abdullah ibn Salam along with a few of Muslims went to the house of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) around noon and shared his problems with Him. The Wilayat verse of the Hoy Quran has sent down at that time. When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse to them, they said: We are satisfied with the Wilayat of Allah, His Messenger and Believers, then Bilal performed Adhan and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque. People have been offering their prayers, some were at ruku, some sujud and others at the state of qiyam. The holy Prophet (pbuh) saw a beggar circulating around people. The Prophet (pbuh) called him and asked: Did anyone give you anything? Yes, the man said. The Holy Prophet asked: What did he give you? A silver ring, the man replied. Who gave you the ring? The Prophet (pbuh) asked. That man who is standing, the man replied. The holy Prophet looked at that man ad saw He is Ali ibn Abitalib (as). The Prophet asked again: At which state He gave you the ring? He gave me the ring while He was bowing down, the man replied. And then the Holy Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse of the Holy Quran: “Only Allah is your Vali) Friend or Guardian (and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow”.[7]

In Durrul Manthour So’youti narrated this issue and in the end he writes: When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked the man, Who gave you the ring? And the mand replied, the one who is at the state of Qiyam and pointed Imam Ali by his hand, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: He is Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), said Takbir and then recited this verse of the Holy Quran:  “And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the Party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant”[8]

وَ مَن یَتَوَلَّ اللهَ وَ رَسُولَه وَ الَّذینَ آمَنوا فَاِنَّ حِزْبَ اللهِ هُمُ الْغالِبُونَ

  1. In Shawahid al-Tanzil Hakim Haskani narrated 24 traditions under the Wilaya verse of the Holy Quran. Some of the people he narrated hadith from are, Ibn Abbas, Ammar bin Yaser, Jaber ibn Abluddal Ansari, Ami al-Momeneen Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), Miqdad ibn Aswad Kenedi and Abuzar Ghifari.[9]
  2. In Tafsir al-Kabir, Fakhr Razi narrated three hadith and he also narrated a hadith from Abuzar in which he has proven the Wilyah al-Takwini by the verse of the Holy Quran that has send down for Imam Ali (as).[10]

For further information regarding other traditions narrated in this regards from Ahlul Sunna sources, please refer to the Book Al-Ghadir by Allama Amini, 52-2/53, Book Ahqaq al-Haq. 409-2/399 and Ruh al-Ma’ani, 6/167.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

[1] . Refer to: https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/631006433717334/

[2] . Surah al-Baqara, verse 117.

[3] . Surah Luqman, verse 26.

[4] . Surah al-Anaam, verse 62.

[5] . Sharh e Nahjul Balagha, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 4, Pg. 79. For further information regarding Intercession, please refer to the following answer:

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/583488091802502/) 

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/511560225661956/)

[6] . Kamil, ibn Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 219;  Shia sources: Allama Majlesi, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 21, Pg. 298.

[7] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 55;  Ma Nazala min al-Quran fee Ali (as), n 66.

[8] . al-Durrul Manthour, 2/520;   Surah Maedah, verse 56.

[9] . Shawahed al-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Pg. 209, H 216.

[10] . al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. 2, Pgs. 52-53.

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Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin

Question 621: Sallam O Alaikum. This Hadith is circulating in the social media and I really wanna know the authenticity of the Hadith will you confirm if it’s fake or a real Hadith. A man entered on Imam Sadeq and said: Salam Alikum ya Ameeral Mu’meneen. The Imam have stood up and said angerly: Behold! This is a title only suitable for Imam Ali! Allah have named him with it, and anyone who claim the title for himself, he is a penetrated homo [and if he isn’t, he will be]. Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin?

Tafsyr Al Ayashi v1 p276. Wasael al Shia v14 p600.

I would appreciate it. Thank you very much

Answer 621: As for the Hadith narrated from an unknown man without mentioning other chain of narrations it is considered as mursal and a weak hadith.

Note: Mursal is a hadith whose chain of transmitters lacks one or more narrators, and asserts that: The hadith is mursal and therefore unacceptable.

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَامَ عَلَى قَدَمَيْهِ فَقَالَ مَهْ هَذَا اسْمٌ لَا يَصْلُحُ إِلَّا لِأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع- سَمَّاهُ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَ لَمْ يُسَمَّ بِهِ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُ فَرَضِيَ بِهِ إِلَّا كَانَ‏ مَنْكُوحاً وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ (ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ) وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ فِي كِتَابِهِ‏ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِناثاً وَ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطاناً مَرِيداً- قَالَ قُلْتُ: فَمَا ذَا يُدْعَى بِهِ قَائِمُكُمْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بَقِيَّةَ اللَّهِ- السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ.

The followings are some ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) in which relied on using this title only for Imam Ali (as).

  1. A man asked Imam Sadiq (as) if we are allowed to call Imam of the time (as) by Amir al-Momenin (Commander of the Faithful)? He said: No. Because, this name is specialized by Allah to Imam Ali (as). No one before him has been called by this name nor after him will be called, unless they are Kafir. The man asked how to say Salaam to Him? The Imam replied: say: Assalamu Alaika Ya Baqiyatallah.[1]
  2. The holy Prophet (pbuh) said: O people, Say whatever I’ve been telling you and say Salaam to Ali by Amir al-Momenin and say: O Allah, we understood and obeyed and seek your forgiveness, we will return to you. Say: All praises are for Allah who guide us to this order of Wilaya and if there wasn’t your guidance we have never guided, O people, the values that Ali bin Abi Talib has toward Allah that have been sent down in the holy Quran are more than what we can count and say.[2]
  3. Salman Farsi (ra) said: O people, follow Ale Muhammad who guide you to the Heaven and obey Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib, I swear to Allah that we said salaam to Ali (a) by Wali and Amir al-Momenin in front of the holy Prophet (pbuh) and He (the Prophet) bided us and relied on doing so.[3]
  4. Sulaim bin Qays said: I sat beside Salaman, Abuzar and Miqdad that a man of Ahl e Kuffa said to them: Be upon you to follow the holy Quran and Ali bin Abi Talib. Because, He is with the Quran and never be separated from it. We give testimony that

According to the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) order, we are all being ordered to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin.[4]

According to the previous mentioned traditions especially the first one, Amir al-Momnin is one of the specialized titles of Imam Ali (as) that chosen by Allah (swt) and the holy Prophet (s). Their saying was to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin. This title has never used for other Imams (as) in Shia sect. Because, it is only specialized to Imam Ali (as) [5]. [6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, Tehran,

[2] . Alam al-Huda, Khurasani, Nahj al-Khitabah, Sukhanan Payambar (s) wa Amir al-Momnin, Vol. 1, Pg. 154, Sadr Library, Tehran, second edition,

[3] . Allamah Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 29, Pg. 81, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, Lebanon, 1404 A.H.

[4] . Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl al-Lujaj, Vol. 1, Pg. 157.

[5] . Atarodi, Azizullah, Zendegani Chahardah Masoom (as), Pg. 229, Islamiyyah, Tehran, first edtion, 1390 A.H.

[6] . Adopted from answer 11125 IQ.

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Ziyarat Nahiya Muqaddasah

Question 147: I was reading Ziyaret Nahiyah and I came across a part of the Ziyaret that says, “I will continue to weep morning and evening and weep for you with tears of blood.” Can someone give me the tafsir on this Ziyaret and the meaning of this statement?

I was reading Ziyaret Nahiyah and I came across a part of the Ziyaret that says, “I will continue to weep morning and evening and weep for you with tears of blood.” Can someone give me the tafsir on this Ziyaret and the meaning of this statement?

Answer 147: The ziyarah of Nahiyah Muqaddasah is an ‘absolute’ or ‘unconditional’ ziyarah, meaning that it can be recited anytime; on Ashura or any other day.

This ziyarah begins with greeting the Prophet of Islam (pbuh), the other Prophets and the Imams (as), and is followed by greeting Imam Hussain (as) and his loyal companions. Afterwards, the ziyarah explains in detail the honorable characteristics, traditions and way of life of the Imam before his rise, the affection of Imam Mahdi (aj) for him, the circumstances that led to his rise, gives a description of what took place in Karbala, tells us of his martyrdom and the tragedies he suffered and underwent, and about the mourning of all earthly and heavenly creatures for him. The ziyarah ends with a tawassul (asking for mediation and intercession) to the imams and supplications to Allah (swt).

The famous Ziyarah Nahiyah Muqaddasah has an authentic and reliable chain of narrators [sanad] and has been issued by Imam Mahdi (as) to one of his “special” representatives [one of the four representatives that were specifically appointed by the imam (as) himself in the third century (ah) during his minor occultation] in the form of a tawqi’ [letters written by the imam in response to questions that were asked from him].

This ziyarah was passed down to great scholars such as Sheikh Mufid and Sayyid Murtadha through Shia narrators, and from them to others like Ibnul-Mashhadi. Finally from them on to later scholars, namely, Sayyid ibn Tawus and Allamah Majlisi.

In this Ziarat Imam Mahdi (ajtf) has said:

«فَلَأَنْدُبَنَّكَصَبَاحاً وَ مَسَاءً، وَ لَأَبْكِيَنَّعَلَيْكَ بَدَلَ الدُّمُوعِ دَماً،حَسْرَةً عَلَيْكَ وَ تَأَسُّفاً عَلَىمَا دَهَاكَ وَ تَلَهُّفاً، حَتَّىأَمُوتَ بِلَوْعَةِ الْمُصَابِ وَ غُصَّةِالِاكْتِيَاب»

Transliteration: “Fala’andubannaka šabāħan wa masā’ā, wa la’abkiyanna lakabadalad-dumū3i damā, ħasratan 3alayka wa ta’assufan 3alā mādahāka wa talahhufā”

Translation: “I will, therefore, lament you morning and evening, and will weep blood in place of tears, out of my anguish for you and my sorrow for all that befell you”.

We can figure out how much the above mentioned phrases allusively indicate Imam Mahdi’ (ajtf) anguish for Imam Hussain (a.s). This doesn’t mean, that its the actual meaning of such phrases. Imam Mahdi (ajtf) wouldn’t like to weep blood by using external devices. He wants to shed many tears in a way that make his eyes bloody, instead. Weeping and moaning is not damaging yourself when you are filled with a lot of grief, especially when it is related to divinely religious affairs.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index: Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman, answer 150.

Index: Ziyarat Ashura, Arabaeen, Ameenullah and Warith, answer 253.

Index: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala, answer 057.

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

[1] . Ibn Mashhadi, Muhammad bin Jafar, al-Mazar al-Kabir, editor and researcher: Qayoumi Esfahani, Jawad, Pg. 501, Qom, first edition 1419A.H. – Al-Mazar, Pg. 27 & 496. – Noori, Hussain, Khatimatul Mustadrak, Vol. 1, Pg. 360, first edition, Alul Bayt institution,Qom, 1415 A.H. – Qomi, Sheikh Abbas, al-Alqab, Vol. 1, Pg. 409, Maktabat al-Sard, Tehran, Bita. – Al-Mazar, introduction, Pg. 6.

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Ashra Mubashra, the ten Sahaba Promised Paradise

Question 221: Assalamu alikum, what u think about ashabs esp Abu bakr, umer n usman? Why u call them bidati, did prophet consider them as munafiq. And also explain your views regarding ashr-e-mubashara. thank you.

Answer 221: According to Shia school of thought, such traditions are classified into da’if (weak) and are considered as fake. The following are some reasons by which these ahadith have been rejected.

There are some traditions have been narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd and Zubair in which both but Imam Ali (as) were mentioned among those ten sahaba’s promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra). A question is now raised that how’s it possible that Imam Ali (as) was among them, but they refused allegiance to (like Abi Waqas) and fought against him?

The following hadith was narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd in which the Prophet (saws) said: “10 sahaba’s are promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra) are: Abu Bakr in paradise, Omar in paradise, ‘Uthman in paradise, Ali in paradise, Talha in paradise, Al-Zubair Bin Al-‘Awwam in paradise, Abdul Rahman Bin ‘Awf in paradise, Saad Bin Abi Waqqass in paradise, Saeed Bin Zaid, and Abu ‘Ubaida Bin Al-Jarrah in paradise.”[1]

The Arabic version of this tradition is as follows:

«حَدَّثَنَا صَالِحُ بْنُ مِسْمَارٍ المَرْوَزِی قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِی فُدَیكٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ یعْقُوبَ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعِیدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ حُمَیدٍ، عَنْ أَبِیهِ، أَنَّ سَعِیدَ بْنَ زَیدٍ، حَدَّثَهُ فِی نَفَرٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَیهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: عَشَرَةٌ فِی الجَنَّةِ: أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُمَرُ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُثْمَانُ وَعَلِی وَالزُّبَیرُ وَطَلْحَةُ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ وَأَبُو عُبَیدَةَ وَسَعْدُ بْنُ أَبِی وَقَّاصٍ

During the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (as) called Zubair and Talha, “O Aba Abdillah and Talha come here. I administer an oath to both of you. Do you know that the companions of the battles of Jamal and Nahrawan have been cursed by the Holy Prophet (saws)?”

Zubaid said: “How is it possible that we were cursed, whereas we are among the 10 sahaba’s promised paradise?” The Imam (as) said, “If I knew you were among the dwellers of the heaven, I would never have fought against you!” Zubair said, “Didn’t you hear that the Prophet (saws) said, on the day of the Uhud battle, “Talha deserves heaven?” The Imam (as) said, “Name those who are promised paradise for me?” Zubair told him the names of nine people. The Imam (as) said, “Who is the tenth person?” Zubair replied, “You are the tenth one!” The Imam (as) said, “You confess that I am one of the dwellers of the heaven, but I deny those sahaba you named. They will be dwelled in a coffin at the lowest place of the Hell.” The Imam (as) said, “The Holy Prophet (saws) said it to me.” Zubair went back to his armies while he was crying![2]

The Holy Prophet (saws) variously promised so many believers heaven: E.g. Imam Ali (as) and His followers will be dwelled in the heaven.[3]He also said, “Heaven will eagerly anticipate four persons to come: Ali bin Abi Talib, Ammar, Salman and Miqdad, however none of these four persons except Imam Ali (as) were mentioned in that hadith![4] Those who narrated these (Ashra Mubasharah) tradition have only tried to justify the hadith as sahih by mentioning the name of Imam Ali (as). How is possible for those who have cruelly fought against Imam Ali (as) to be dowelled in the heaven, while we know that the Holy Prophet (saws) has said, “Anyone who fight against Ali, fight against me?”[5]

Conclusion: Although, this tradition has been mentioned in Sunni sources, it is classified as da’if (weak), according to the above mentioned reliable sources.

This hadith is contrary to the Holy Qur’an as Allah (swt) has never mentioned any names of the dwellers of the heaven. In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) always say, “And (as for) those who believe and do good deeds, these are the dwellers of the garden, in it they shall abide.”[6]

Some of the sahaba mentioned in the hadith have been considered as unbelievers by each other, such as Othman who is considered an unbeliever by Talha and Zubair. Both (Talha and Zubair) have issued a fatwa, by which Othman has deserved to be killed, as he is Kafir. That’s why Othman has been killed by such fatwas!

If this hadith is sahih, after choosing Abu Bakr as the first caliph, why did Omar order that anyone of the six persons that participated in the council, who may disagree with the decision, would be killed?[7]

If this hadith is sahih, why did Abdullah ibn Umar who has narrated this hadith deny allegiance to Imam Ali (as).[8] Thus, this hadith due to the above mentioned reasons is not considered as sahih. It is such a fake and da’if one which has no reliable sources.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha, answer 180.

Index: The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida, answer 028.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Al-Tirmidhi, Muhammad bin Isa, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Pg. 648.

[2] . Ibn Uqdah Kufi, Ahmad bin Muhammad, the virtues of Amirul Momenin (as), researcher and editor: Hirzuddin, Abdul Razzaq Muhammad Hussain, Pgs. 166-167; Tabarsi, Ahmad bin Ali, Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl e al-Lujaj, researcher and editor: Khorasan, Muhammad Baqir, Vol. 1, Pg. 162, Murtadha Publisher, Mashhad, first edition, 1403 A.H.

[3] . Tabari Amoli Kabir, Muhammad bin Jurair bin Rostam, al-Mostarshed fee Imamat Ali bin Abi Talib (as), researcher: Mahmoodi, Ahmad, Pg. 401, Kooshanpoor, Qom, first edition, 1415 A.H; Bahrani, Sayyid Hashim, al-Borhan fee Tafseer al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 347, Bonyad Be’sat, Tehran, first edition, 1416 A.H.

[4] . Sheikh Sadouq, al-Khisal, researcher: Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Vol. 1, Pg. 303, office of Islamic publication, first edition, 1983; Ibn Kathir Basari, Esmaeel bin Omar, Jame’ al-Masanid wa al-Sonan al-Hadi, Vol. 3, Pg. 495, Dar e Khizr liltaba’at wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzei, Beirut, second edition, 1419 A.H.

[5] . Khazaz Razi, Ali bin Muhammad, Kifaya al-Athar fee al-Nass ala al-A’imma al-Ithna Ashar, researcher: Hussaini Koohkamari, Abdul Latif, Pg. 181, Bidar, Qom, 1401 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, etigadat al-Imamiyah, Pg. 105, Sheikh Mofid Congress, Qom, second edition, 1414 A.H.

[6] . Surah Baqarah, verses: 25- 82.

[7] . Amini, al-Ghadir, Beirut, Dar al-Kotob al-Arabi, 1397 A.H, Vol. 10, Pgs. 156-157.

[8] . Ibid, Pgs. 149- 161.

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Prophet Noah cursed Blacks / The Story of Noah’s Sons

Question 198: Question: What does Islam say about blacks? What is their position among people seeing as they bear the azab of their progenitor Ham?

Answer 198: In book Elalul Sharaye’a, the story of Noah’s sons are mentioned as follows:

One day the Prophet Noah (as) fell asleep in his ship. A wind was blowing and pushed aside his clothes. His private parts became exposed. Ham and Japheth were laughing at him, but Shem forbid them from laughing at their father. Shem covered his fathers private parts, but they pushed the cloth aside again. Suddenly, Noah (as) woke up and saw what happened. He asked, “Why are you are laughing?” Shem replied to his father, the story!

Noah raised his hands and said, “O Allah, change the loins of Ham, and Japheth” and Allah (swt) changed it. This is why why all black people come from Ham’s generation; all Turkish people and Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj (Gog and Magog) come from Japheth’s generation; and all white skinned people come from Shem’s generation. “O Allah, set the children of Ham and Japheth as slave’s for the children of Shem, until the Day of Judgment”.[1]

The Arabic version of this narration is as follows:

عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْكُوفِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَهْلُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ الْآدَمِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَظِيمِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَسَنِيُّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ الْعَسْكَرِيَّ ع يَقُولُ عَاشَ نُوحٌ ع أَلْفَيْنِ وَ خَمْسَمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ وَ كَانَ يَوْماً فِي السَّفِينَةِ نَائِماً فَهَبَّتْ رِيحٌ فَكَشَفَتْ عَنْ عَوْرَتِهِ فَضَحِكَ حَامٌ وَ يَافِثُ فَزَجَرَهُمَا سَامٌ ع وَ نَهَاهُمَا عَنِ الضَّحِكِ وَ كَانَ كُلَّمَا غَطَّى سَامٌ شَيْئاً تَكْشِفُهُ الرِّيحُ كَشَفَهُ حَامٌ وَ يَافِثُ فَانْتَبَهَ نُوحٌ ع فَرَآهُمْ وَ هُمْ يَضْحَكُونَ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا فَأَخْبَرَهُ سَامٌ بِمَا كَانَ فَرَفَعَ نُوحٌ ع يَدَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ يَدْعُو وَ يَقُولُ اللَّهُمَّ غَيِّرْ مَاءَ صُلْبِ حَامٍ حَتَّى لَا يُولَدَ لَهُ إِلَّا سُودَانٌ اللَّهُمَّ غَيِّرْ مَاءَ صُلْبِ يَافِثَ فَغَيَّرَ اللَّهُ مَاءَ صُلْبِهِمَا فَجَمِيعُ السُّودَانِ حَيْثُ كَانُوا مِنْ حَامٍ وَ جَمِيعُ التُّرْكِ وَ السَّقَالِبَةِ وَ يَأْجُوجَ وَ مَأْجُوجَ وَ الصِّينِ مِنْ يَافِثَ حَيْثُ كَانُوا وَ جَمِيعُ الْبِيضِ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ سَامٍ وَ قَالَ نُوحٌ ع لِحَامٍ وَ يَافِثَ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ ذُرِّيَّتَكُمَا خَوَلًا لِذُرِّيَةِ سَامٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لِأَنَّهُ بَرَّ بِي وَ عَقَقْتُمَانِي فَلَا زَالَتْ سِمَةُ عُقُوقِكُمَا لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِكُمَا ظَاهِرَةً وَ سِمَةُ الْبِرِّ بِي فِي ذُرِّيَّةِ سَامٍ ظَاهِرَةً مَا بَقِيَتِ الدُّنْيَا

It is also said that since the Noah’s Deluge happened in the month Dhil Hijjah and the Ark reached Bayt al-Haram (the temple of Mecca), Noah (as) recommended the people of the Ark not to have intercourse with their wives during this time. He then cursed those who disobeyed and said that Allah changed their loins. Therefore, when Ham did so his loin had been changed.[2]

According to Tabari, Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers.[3]

Accordingly, a question that may now arise is, “Is it mentioned in the holy Quran that white people are better than yellow, red, brown and black colored races?”

A: The verse mentioned above does not say that white people are better than other races, actually it has nothing to do with the abovementioned issue, the words used in the verse may seem to relate to races but they have a meaning other than being black and white. In Arabic people who reach salvation and prosperity are called “white faced people” and those who do not are called “dark/black faced people”, these sorts of expressions and other similar ones such as “a dark heart” or “the night was pitch black” that have nothing to do with races are not only found in Arabic, but in other languages as well.

In respect to the hadith cited above, aside from the fact that some parts of it aren’t in conformity with Islamic teachings, and its chain of narrators isn’t a decent one, making its authenticity disputable, we must pay attention to the fact that although youth, health and beauty aren’t of Islam does not deny that white skin is more beautiful and attractive, but it denies the notion that being white is a spiritual advantage and value; therefore it makes complete sense for black people to turn white when entering heaven. Add to above that this hadith is not considered authentic.

Actually, there are many verses in the Quran which clearly explain that despite the differences that are found among humans, they are all from the same root and nothing will make one more valuable or respectful other than his righteousness and piety, let it be physical features, family ties or gender, some of these verses are as follows:

1- “O mankind! Indeed we created you from a male and a female, and made you nations and tribes that you may identify yourselves with one another. Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most God wary among you.”[4]

2- “O mankind! Be wary of your Lord who created you from a single soul, and created its mate from it, and, from the two of them, scattered numerous men and women. Be wary of Allah, in whose Name you adjure one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is watchful over you”[5]

The Arabic version of this verse:

“يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَةٍ وَ خَلَقَ مِنْها زَوْجَها وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالاً كَثيراً وَ نِساء ”

3- “It is He who created you from a single soul”[6]

The Arabic version of this verse:

” وَ هُوَ الَّذی أَنْشَأَکُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَة”

Imam Ali would equally pay people their share which was three “dinars” from the “Beitulmal” (the treasury). A man from the Ansar came to him and received his three dinars and then a black person came and received the same amount of money.

The man from the Ansar was surprised and protestingly said: “Up until yesterday this black man was my servant, does it make sense for me to get as much money as he does?!” The Imam replied that the argument had no reasoning and that none of the two was higher than the other.”[7]

In a similar story the Imam faced his brother “Aqil” that said: “Do you think my share equals the share of a black man?!” The Imam strongly denied such a notion and replied: “It is only if you are more righteous and have done more for Islam that will make you more respectful and valuable, otherwise you are completely equal to him.”[8]

According to Tabari, Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers.[9]

Also, all mankind are the same as each other. There is no superiority. They are equal to each other in worshiping Allah (swt) the Almighty, as Allah, the Almighty says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. [10]

The Arabic version of this holy verse:

“يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْناكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثى وَ جَعَلْناكُمْ شُعُوباً وَ قَبائِلَ لِتَعارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقاكُم”

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah (swt) has never used the words, O White people! Instead, Allah (swt) has always said, “O mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those who were before you, so that you may be God wary.” [11]

Although, the hadith mentioned in Alalul Saraye’a is considered as Sahih in its chain of narration, but it is also said that Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers. [12]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned verses of the holy Quran and Ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) and according to Tabari that Ham had a happy ending we can come to this conclusion that all mankind are the same as each other. And there is no superiority. They are equal to each other in worshiping Allah (swt) the Almighty, as He (SWT) says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. [13]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following link:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/598502863634358/

Related Link: Facebook.

[1] . Elalul Sharaye’a, Vol. 1, Pg. 32.

[2] . Abu Hisham, Book al-Tijan fee Muluk Hamir, Vol. 1, Pg. 34, San’a, 1979;  Tabari, Tarikh (History), Bierut, Vol. 1, Pg. 188;  Abul Fat’h Razi, Rawz al-Jinan wa Rooh al-Jinan fee tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 10, Pg. 270, Muhammad Jaafar Yahaqi, and Muhammad Mahdi Naseh, Mashhad;  Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayat wa al-Nihayat, Vol. 1, Pg. 116, Beirut, 1190 / 1411 A.H.

[3] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204. Tabari’s name is Muhammad bin Jarir ibn Yazid ibn Kathir bin Ghalib, although he appeared to be Sunni due to Taqiyah and the condition that was obtained there, however he was a follower of the School of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and loved them. For more information, please refer to: Rawzatul Jannat; Shahabi, Ali Akbar, Tehran, Tehran University, Publisher Institution, Third edition.

[4] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

[5] . Surah Nisa, verse 1.

[6] . Surah An’am, verse 98.

[7] . Muhammad ibn Yaqub Kuleini¸ Kafi, vol. 8, pg. 69, hadith 26.

[8] . Ibid, vol. 8, pg. 182, hadith 204.

[9] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204. For more information, please refer to: Rawzatul Jannat; Shahabi, Ali Akbar, Tehran, Tehran University, Publisher Institution, Third edition.

[10] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

[11] . Surah Baqarah, verse 21.

[12] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204.

[13] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

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PQ4R Method: Ways to Improve Your Memory

Question 093: Can you please introduce some methods by which we can improve and optimize our memory according to the traditions (Ahadith)?

Answer 093: Effective ways to improve memory and comprehension can be classified into some divisions which are as follows:

  1. Remembering Allah (by worshiping Him and doing the canonical duties specially praying on time).
  2. Reciting those duas which are effective for improving memory like the Dua that has been narrated from the Infallible Imam. In which He says: “Ask Allah the Almighty to improve our intellect and beg Him to give us comprehension and perception”.[1]

We explain some kinds of Duas which are effective for improving memory as a sample, that are as follows:

1: The one that the Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) taught Imam Ali (a.s). In which He recommended Imam Ali (a.s) to say:

«سبحان من لايعتدى على اهل مملكته، سبحان من لايأخذ اهل الارض بالوان العذاب، سبحان الرؤوف الرحيم، اللهم اجعل لى فى قلبى نورا و بصرا و فهما و علما انك على كل شى‏ء قدير».[2]

2: “for re-establishment of heart please read this following Dua thrice” Seyed Ibn Tawoos said.

«يا حى يا قيوم يا لااله الا انت اسئلك أن تحيى قلبى اللّهم صل على محمد و آل محمد».[3]

3: Recite this following Dua when you are going to study:

«اللهم اخرجنى من ظلمات الوهم و اكرمنى بنور الفهم اللّهم افتح علينا ابواب رحمتك و انشر علينا خزائن علومك برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين».[4]

4: It is supposed to repeat this Dua per day before you talk any:

«يا حى يا قيّوم فلا يفوت شيئا علمه و لايؤده».[5]

  1. Reciting the Holy Quran, especially Ayatul Kursi.

” اللَّهُ لا إِلهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَ لا نَوْمٌ لَهُ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَ ما فِي الْأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ ما بَيْنَ أَيْديهِمْ وَ ما خَلْفَهُمْ وَ لا يُحيطُونَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِما شاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضَ وَ لا يَؤُدُهُ حِفْظُهُما وَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظيمُ. (255) لَا إِكْرَاهَ فىِ الدِّينِ  قَد تَّبَينَ‏َ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَىّ‏ِ  فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّغُوتِ وَ يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى‏ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا  وَ اللَّهُ سمَِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ(256). اللَّهُ وَلىِ‏ُّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلىَ النُّورِ  وَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلىَ الظُّلُمَاتِ  أُوْلَئكَ أَصْحَبُ النَّارِ  هُمْ فِيهَا خَلِدُون‏”.[6]

  1. Avoiding those things which cause forgetfulness like sin, loving wealth eagerly and above everything, being so captive by the world and worrying much more about it.[7]
  2. Attenuating anxiety and finding tranquility especially when you are studying.
  3. Reducing mental thoughts.
  4. Improving our concentration and attention.

Note: whatever that has been explained in regards to improve memory and intelligence from the traditional and prayer (dua) book is not counted as the absolute reason. Because, some factors which are in regards to intelligence and memory are actually related to heritage and genetic elements and they are beyond our control.

In other words, every human’s intelligence, memory and talent are a consequence of various environment and genetic factors such as the abovementioned factors that some of them are beyond human control like the role of the past generation’s genetic factors, though some of them in our hand.

Therefore, we shouldn’t expect that a miracle will be performed if suddenly your intelligence quotient (I.Q) promoted to the highest levels, from 90 to 130, by doing the abovementioned tasks which are actually effective, but not as we expected so. Otherwise, if it hasn’t performed, we do not have to tend to undervalue Imam’s recommendations in this regards.

Actually, we can enhance an intelligence which has 100 points in order to be more effective. However, we can increase the intelligence quotient (I.Q) based on the regular and accurate program that have been organized for mother and child nutrition. Moreover, we can increase the child intelligence quotient (I.Q) if we enrich child’s growth environment by providing any healthy environmental provocations. We are supposed to remove all obstacles were created on the way of promoting intelligence even at the age of youth and middle-ages in order to provide capabilities and developments factors.

It should be noted that these traditions and recommendations have been provided for these matters.

B) Observing material things

  1. Providing natural and Physiological necessities like proper nutrition, sport and sanitation.
  2. Brushing teeth.
  3. Using more articles of food which contains glucose like date, honey, natural sweets; also using those foodstuffs which contain calcium, phosphor and vitamins like milk products, fish oil, orange, tomato, bran, fresh vegetables, carrot and liver.

It is mentioned in Mafatih al-Jinan that if we continually eating currants specially when it is red and has 21 in number before breakfast, and eating sweet paste, meat of around the neck, honey and lentil, our memory will be enhanced.

  1. Practicing and repeating those topics we learned.
  2. If you want to study smarter, take about 10 minutes break every 45 minutes.
  3. Respiratory practice: you are supposed to fill you lug with the air and then breath our gradually while you are standing. This practice help you concentrate better.

C) Observing psychological recommendations:

“You will be able to enhance your memory if you use these following solutions” Psychologists said.

  1. Scanning: which means to classify all the words you want to learn into some lexical sections, then classify these sections into some phrases. So that we can change those words or numbers into the meaningful sections by using this method of scanning in order to increase the capacity of our memory. E.g. changing this numerical chains (149-2177-619-83) to this chain (1983-1176-1492) which is the Christian era. As a result, we can increase and enhance our memory.
  2. Make it meaningful: this method can help us enhance our memory much better than the others. Moreover, we will keep and memorize what we learned better if we make it meaningful profoundly and even with more detailed. So, whenever we are going to keep a note of a book in our mind we will remember it faster in case we focus our attention not on the words but on its meaning. Therefore, we will learn it better if we pay more attention on its meaning profoundly and completely.
  3. Organizing: we can learn, memorize and remember any topics easily if we organize it. Which means, if the topics we are going to learn have numerous collections and branches, the best way of keeping them in our mind is to set it into the rational hierarchy and then divide them into some slightest divisions. E.g. we can divide it from the whole part into the slightest one (major topics into subtopics) and from the top into the down. As a result, we will learn and keep them in our mind easily.
  4. Providing safe environment: When we want to learn something, we usually do it in the special place, time and condition. These situations and conditions in which we learn is actually defined as “Ba’ft”. So, we are able to easily remember those topics we had learned them in case we arrange the same situation and condition as we learned there. E.g. when you want to easily remember the names of your guidance school classmates, you are supposed to walk throughout the school’s aisle where you graduated in order to remind that time when you had been studying with your classmates, so that you can remember their names very easily.
  5. Teaching the PQ4R Method: This method helps students to memorize their textbooks as it is explained under. This name is the abbreviation of the following words:

Preview. Survey or scan the material quickly to get an idea of the general organization and major topics and subtopics. Pay attention to headings and subheadings, and identify what you will be reading about and studying.

In another words: Look through the pages of your reading passage and read the headings of the chapter and any sections dividing the chapter. Read the first and last paragraph in each section. View the illustrations in each section. Read the captions under the pictures and take a few minutes to look at charts, graphs, or maps.

Question. Ask yourself questions about the material before you read it. Use headings to invent questions using the Wh words: who, what, why, where.

In other words: Think about the information you learned in the Preview. Ask yourself questions about it. Think about what you already know about ideas you saw during your Preview. What do you think are main points that will be raised in the chapter? What do you expect to learn from reading this material?

Read. Read the material. Do not take extensive written notes. Try to answer the questions that you posed prior to reading.

In other words: Read the passage. If there are ideas seem important, make a note of them on paper. If the book belongs to you, consider making notes in the margins and highlight important parts in the book. If you just can’t imagine writing in your book, make notes on paper.

Reflect on the material. Try to understand and make meaningful the presented information by (1) relating it to things you already know, (2) relating the subtopics in the text to primary concepts or principles, (3) trying to resolve contradictions within the presented information, and (4) trying to use the material to solve problems suggested by the material.

In other words: Take time to reflect on what you have read. How are the passages or chapters inter-related? How does the information fit into things you have already learned? What new information did you learn? Did the passage include the information you expected it to cover? Was there information that surprised you?

Recite. Practice remembering the information by stating points out loud and asking and answering questions. You may use headings, highlighted words, and notes on major ideas to generate those questions.

In other words: Think about the material. Discuss it with someone else or write down the main points you learned. Generally, writing information down by hand will improve memory of the material. If writing is a problem for you, consider brief notes or discuss the material with other students. It is important to summarize the material in writing using your own words. Explain it aloud to someone else or recite your notes aloud to yourself. Consider using a graphic organizer to increase your understanding of how concepts in the reading relate to each other.

Review. In the final step, actively review the material, focusing on asking yourself questions; re-read the material only when you are not sure of the answers.[8]

Also, consider the main points of the material. Were your questions answered? Do you feel that the writer’s points are fully understood?

Conclusion: We can classify those effective methods of enhancing and optimizing memory and comprehension into some divisions which are as follows:

A) Spiritual methods:

  1. Remembering Allah (by worshiping Him and doing the canonical duties especially praying on time)
  2. Reciting those duas which are effective for enhancing and optimizing memory such as the Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) taught Imam Ali (a.s). In which He recommended Imam Ali (a.s) to say:

«سبحان من لايعتدى على اهل مملكته، سبحان من لايأخذ اهل الارض بالوان العذاب، سبحان الرؤوف الرحيم، اللهم اجعل لى فى قلبى نورا و بصرا و فهما و علما انك على كل شى‏ء قدير»[9]

  1. Reciting the verses of the Holy Quran especially Ayatul Kursi.
  2. Avoidance of those things which cause forgetfulness like sin.
  3. Attenuating anxiety and finding tranquility especially when you are studying.
  4. Reducing those things which our memory become obsessed with.
  5. Improving our concentration and attention.

B) Observing material things.

  1. Providing natural and Physiological necessities like proper nutrition, sport and sanitation.
  2. Brushing teeth.
  3. Using more articles of food which contains glucose like date, honey, natural sweets; also using those foodstuffs which contain calcium, phosphor and vitamins like milk products, fish oil, orange, tomato, bran, fresh vegetables, carrot and liver.
  4. Practicing and repeating those topics we learned.

C) Observing psychological recommendations:

Psychologist said: “you will be able to enhance your memory if you use these following solutions”

  1. Scanning.
  2. Make it meaningful.
  3. Organizing.
  4. Providing safe environment.
  5. PQ4R method.

[1] . Bihar al-Anwar, vol 1, p 224, first tradition of Unwan al- Basri.

[2] . Mafatih-ul Jinan, the first chapter one of the first section, Taqeebat-e-Namaz.

[3] . , the book Baghiyat –e- Salehat.

[4] . Ibid.

[5] . Ibid.

[6] . “There is no God but Allah, the Eternal- Live; slumber does not overtake Allah, nor does sleep. To Allah Belongs whatever is in the heavens and On the earth. Who dares to intercede In Allah’s Presence without His Leave? Allah Knows what happens to The people now and what happens to Them in the future; and none of Them will ever encompass anything of Allah’s Knowledge except as much Allah Wills. Allah’s Throne is Extended over the heavens and The earth; but preserving both of Them] at the same time [does not Trouble Allah. And Allah is The Supreme-Exalted Great;

There is no compulsion in accepting Religion,] since [Truth has verily Become distinct from Falsehood] in The Qur’an and through The Messenger and Miracles [; whoever Rejects Satan and believes in Allah, Then indeed he has grasped the firmest Handle that will never break off. And Allah is the Knowing Hearer;

Allah is the Guardian of those who Believe; He takes them out from The darkness into the Light; and Those who reject Faith, their Guardians are the rebels who take Them out from the Light into The darkness and they will be The dwellers of the Hell, therein they Shall abide forever.”

[7] . Ibid

[8] . Adapted from Porseman CD, but with changing and rewriting a lot.

[9] . Mafatih-ul Jinan, the first chapter one of the first section, Taqeebat-e-Namaz.

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Mourning for Imam Hussain (as) while you are grieving

Question 047: Is mourning for Imam Hussain (a.s) while you are grieving allowed?

Answer 047: There are no restrictions limiting the time of mourning for Imam Hussain (as) to the Day of Ashura. When you are grieving for any worldly things and want to forget about them you can remember the tragic incidents that took place in Karbala against Imam Hussain (as) and His family and Followers.

In this regards, Imam Reza (as) said: O Son of Shabib! If you want to cry over something, then do so over Husain bin Ali bin Abi Talib (as). This means that if you are grieving you would be recommended to mourn for Imam Hussain (as).[1]

Arabic version:

يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ كُنْتَ بَاكِياً لِشَيْ‏ءٍ فَابْكِ‏ لِلْحُسَيْنِ‏ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع‏

Also, there is a hadith in which Imam Ali (as) said: If you cannot be patient, then act as if you are patient (i.e. behave like a patient person), because it is very unlikely that a man make himself like a group of people but does not become like one of them.[2] We can find a similar saying suggested by psychologists: Fake it till you make it.

Arabic version:

إِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ حَلِيماً فَتَحَلَّمْ فَإِنَّهُ قَلَّ مَنْ تَشَبَّهَ بِقَوْمٍ إِلَّا أَوْشَكَ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْهُم

So, according to the previous mentioned ahadith, you can mourn and cry for Imam Hussain (as) anytime you want even when you are grieving.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Cry or Pretend to Cry over our Sins, for Imam Hussain (as) or Fear of Allah (SWT), 048.

Index: Qama Zani / How the Infallible Imams (pbuth) mourned for Imam Hussain (as), answer 507.

[1] . Al-Amali of Sheikh Sadouq, al-Nass, Pg. 130; Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā (as), Vol. 1, Pg. 299; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 14, Pg. 502; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 44, Pg. 286.

[2] . Nahj al-Balaghah, H. 203.

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Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala

Question 071: Is the statement “Every day is Ashura and every place is Karbala” a hadith? How reliable is its chain of narrators (sanad)?
Answer 071: We weren’t able to find such a hadith[1] saying: “Every day is Ashura and every place is Karbala”.[2]

Yet, this sentence is a correct conclusion obtained from the incident of Karbala and the line of movement of our imams and contains some valuable and instructive points; because although another Ashura will never take place, but oppression and tyranny will always continue, until Imam Mahdi (as) reappears and roots out and eliminates all of it.  The culture of Ashura will go on forever and Karbala will remain the symbol of resistance and fighting against injustice and oppression.  Our religious leaders have taught us to stand up against tyranny, and would do so themselves.  Therefore, it isn’t true that Ashura was an incident that took place in a certain time and place and is to be forgotten afterwards.

The sentence “Every day is Ashura and every place is Karbala” signifies that the battle between good and evil is to go on and isn’t limited to any time or place, and that this battle is linked to the ones before, forming a single chain.  The incident of Ashura and Karbala is one of the clearest links of this very long chain.  Good and evil are always face to face, and libertarians are responsible for the guardianship of the good and fighting the evil, thus, being careless regarding this battle is considered turning away from religion.

Imam Khomeini, who was the establisher of the Islamic Republic, a true follower of Imam Husein (as) and fought against the oppressors of his time, refers to this statement (Everyday is Ashura and…) as “The Great Statement” and stresses on keeping the message of Ashura alive and putting it into practice saying: “This statement is a great one…our nation must always pay attention to the fact that even today is Ashura and that we must stand up against oppression and that we are currently in Karbala and must act according to it, Karbala isn’t limited to a specific land.  The incident of Karbala isn’t limited to a group of seventy-something people in the land of Karbala, all lands must play the same role as Karbala did.”[3]

In reality, with the belief that the rise and martyrdom of Imam Hussain (as) must be the guideline for all Muslim social activities, Imam Khomeini made the rise of Imam Hussain (as) the foundation of his movement.  “…what Imam Hussain (as) did, the idea that he had and his way and his victory after his martyrdom and consequently, the victory of Islam.  This statement brings forth a responsibility for us, while bringing about good news as well.  The responsibility is that the oppressed, no matter how little in number, must stand up like Imam Hussain (as) against their oppressors, regardless of their number, how armed they might be and the evil power they might possess.  The good news being that this statement has considered our martyrs (that stand up as a result of following Imam Husein [as]) as part of the martyrs of Karbala.”

During the imposed war on Iran, the great leader of the revolution stated: “Although the battle of Ashura was the shortest one time wise (half a day), it is the longest battle between good and evil as far as length goes , therefore, whenever one wishes that he/she were one of the companions of the imam (as) and one of the martyrs of Karbala (یا لیتنا کنا معکم‏ فنفوز فوزا عظیما)[4], the battle of Karbala is still going on and the clash of Ashura is continuous (so there still is hope to be able to reach such a rank).”[5]

In other words, as Imam Hussain (as) is the inheritor and successor (wareth) of Prophets: Adam, Ibrahim, Nuh, Musa, Isa, and Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them), the followers of Imam Hussain (as) are the inheritors and successors of the red line of Jihad and Shahadah (martyrdom) and will never put down the flag of Karbala, and this is the valuable asset of Shi’ism in its political dimension, as Imam Hussain (as) himself says: “فلکم فی اسوة‏،  در کار من برای شما الگو است  (there is a good exemplar in me for you)”[6].  This viewpoint of Imam Khomeini, rejects theories that say Karbala and Imam Hussain’s (as) movement were all a personal responsibility that were only for the imam himself and others can’t follow him in it.

One writer even says: “We are certain that if Imam Hussain (as) were to be alive today, he would create another Karbala out of Quds, southern Lebanon, and most Islamic regions, holding the same grounds he held against Mu’awiyyah and Yazid.[7]

Index: Cry or Pretend to Cry over our Sins, for Imam Hussain (as) or Fear of Allah (SWT), 048.

Index: Qama Zani / How the Infallible Imams (pbuth) mourned for Imam Hussain (as), answer 507.

[1]  Of course, some quote this statement from Imam Sadiq (as) without any hadithic backup, see: Abbas Azizi, Payame Ashura (The Message of Ashura), pg. 28 and Javad Muhaddethi, Farhange Ashura, pg. 371.

[2] Some have even submitted evidence that this statement isn’t a hadith. See: Ulume Hadith Magazine, no. 26.

[3] Sahifeye Noor (A collection of the late Imam Khomeini’s sayings), v.9, pg. 202.

[4] Ziyarat Ashura

[5] Sahifeye Noor, v.20, pg. 195.

[6] Tabari, v.4, pg304.

[7] Hashem Ma’ruf Al-Hasani, Al-Intifadhat al-Shi’iyyah, pg.387; Adopted from answer 822 IQ.

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Nazr, Religious vows of Imam Sadiq on the 22nd Rajab

Question 343: Assalam o alAikum, I wanted to ask about Nazr (Religious vows) of 22nd Rajab ul Murjib. Which relates with Imam Jafer Sadiq as. In Pakistan and India Sunni and Shia are observing it every year. But, as I came across with some Saudi , Lebanese and Bahraini shia, they are not aware of it. Kindly explain

Answer 343: In Shia sources, there has not been mentioned any hadith related to this topic. Perhaps, the reason why the 22th day of Rajab has been considered as a joyful day unto the believer is that an enemy of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) had been killed on this day, according to Sheikh Mufid.[1]

So, as a sign of gratitude for the perdition of the enemy (i.e. Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Ṣufyān), it is Mustahab to fast on this day.[2]

[1] . Sheikh Mufid, Muhammad bin Muhammad, Masar al-Shia, Pg. 59, Sheikh Mufid Congress, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[2] . Sayyid ibn Tawus, Iqbal al-A’mal, Pg. 667, Dar al-Kutub al-Islmaiya, Tehran, 1988; Ibid, Pg. 176.

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Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman

Question 150: Is the saying authentic that reciting Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman for 100 times is recommended for granting our wishes?

Answer 150: In the book Miṣbāḥ al-Kaf’amī the Du-A’a Ilaahee Kayfa Ad-O’oka (Dua muqatil bin sulaiman) has been narrated from Imam Sajjad (as), as follows: [1]

إِلَهِي كَيْفَ أَدْعُوكَ وَ أَنَا أَنَا وَ كَيْفَ أَقْطَعُ رَجَائِي مِنْكَ وَ أَنْتَ أَنْتَ إِلَهِي إِذَا لَمْ أَسْأَلْكَ فَتُعْطِيَنِي فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي أَسْأَلُهُ فَيُعْطِيَنِي إِلَهِي إِذَا لَمْ أدعوك [أَدْعُكَ] فَتَسْتَجِيبَ لِي فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي أَدْعُوهُ فَيَسْتَجِيبَ لِي إِلَهِي إِذَا لَمْ أَتَضَرَّعْ إِلَيْكَ فَتَرْحَمَنِي فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي أَتَضَرَّعُ إِلَيْهِ فَيَرْحَمَنِي إِلَهِي فَكَمَا فَلَقْتَ الْبَحْرَ لِمُوسَى عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ وَ نَجَّيْتَهُ أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تُنَجِّيَنِي مِمَّا أَنَا فِيهِ وَ تُفَرِّجَ عَنِّي فَرَجاً عَاجِلًا غَيْرَ آجِلٍ بِفَضْلِكَ وَ رَحْمَتِكَ يَا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ

Transliteration: Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem Elaahi Kayfa Ad’ooka Wa Anaa Anaa Wa Kayfa Aqta-O’ Rajaaee Minka Wa Anta Anta Elaahi Iz Lam As-Aloka Fa-Too-Teenee Faman Zal-Lazee As-Alohu Fayo’teenee Elaahi Iz Lam Ad-Oo’ka Fa-Tastajeebo Lee Faman Zal Lazee Ad-Oo’ho Fa Yastajeebo Lee Elaahi Iz Lam Atazarra’ Elayka Fa Tarhamoni Faman Zal Lazee Atazarra-O’ Elayhe Fa Yarhamonee Elaahi Fakamaa Falaqtal Bahra Le Moosaa A’layhis Salaamo Wa Najjaytahu As-Aloka An Tosalle A’laa Mohammadin Wa Aale Mohammadin Wa An Tonajjeyanee Mimmaa Anaa Feehe Wa Tafarreja A’nnee Farajan A’aajelan Ghaira Aajelin Be Fazleka Wa Be Rahmateka Yaa Arhamar Raahemeen.

Translation: My God how can I call on You (for help) for I am me (a sinful servant)? How can I cut off hope from You, for You are You (the merciful lord)? My God (even) when I did not beseech You, You gave me. So who is he who gives, if I beseech him? My God (even) when I did not call out, You fulfilled my desire. So who is he who satisfies, if I call him? My God (even) when I did not humbly solicit, You took pity on me. So who is he who shows mercy, I’ll solicit him? My God I beseech You, that just as You parted as under the sea for Musa (pbuh) to save him, send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, and come to my rescue, and deliver me (from these troubles), and disperse (afflictions), and do it quickly, without delay, through Your kindness, through Your mercy, O the most merciful.

In his book Mafatih al-Jinan Sheikh Abbas Qummi (ra) said: In book Balad al-Amin, sheikh Kaf’ami quoted a Dua from Imam Zainul Abedin (as) and said that Muqatil bin Sulaiman narrated it from the Imam (as). He (Muqatil) also said that whoever recited it 100 times and his duas haven’t been granted, curse me (Muqatil).[2]

The followings are some issues we should take into consideration:

Kaf’ami has narrated this Dua by only mentioning this phrase: “مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْن” (meaning that it has narrated from Ali bin al-Hussain (as)).

– There hasn’t mentioned any name of Muqatil bin Sulaiman in this Dua nor how many times we are recommended to recite this Dua.

– As Muqatil bin Sulaiman died in the year 150 (A.H.), he was unable to directly narrate this Dua from Imam Sajjad (as).[3] He was one of the companions of Imam baqir (as) and Imam Sadiq (as).[4]

But, if we recite this Dua with the intention to get the reward from Allah, the Almighty and also as what Sheikh Abbas Qummi (ra) has narrated in Mafatih al-Jinan, our righteous wishes will be granted by Allah (SWT). In sha Allah.

[1] . Kaf’amī, Ebrahim bin Ali, al-Miṣbāḥ, Pg. 292-293, Qom, Dar al-Radi (Zahedi), second edition, 1405 A.H.

[2] . Qummi, Sheikh Abbas, Mafatih al-Jinan, Pg. 113, Qom, Osveh Publication.

[3] . Khayr alDīn Ziriklī, al-Aalam, Vol. 7, Pg. 281, Beirut, Dar al-Elm lil Malaeen, fiftieth edition, 2002.

[4] . Allamah hilli, Khuasat al-Aqwal, Pg. 260, Qom, Dar al-Zakhayer, 1411 A.h; hussaini Tafreshi, Sayyid Mustafa bin Hussain, Naqd al-Rijal, Vol. 4, Pg. 412, Qom, Aalul Bayt (pbuth) Institution, first edtion, 1418 A.H.