Definition of Bid’ah in Islam

Question 273: Salam, My question is what is the definition of Fitna especially in modern world. Is there anything called Bidat e Hasana? What is the definition of Bid’ah in Islam?

Answer 273: Bid’ah literally means something new, as the Quran describes Allah (swt) as the originator of the heavens and the earth (بَدِيعُ السَّمَوتِ وَالاَرضِ)[1] (badi’ meaning originator and bid’ah are words of the same root) and in Islamic terms, means to relate to religion what isn’t part of religion.

There are two points regarding the description of bid’ah:

1- Bid’ah is a type of bringing about change in religion by adding or omitting something from it. Therefore, any type of change and newness that has nothing to do with religion and is considered something normal isn’t bid’ah. For instance, if a nation chooses a certain day as a day of celebration and joy, not with the intention of relating such matter to religion and saying that religion has asked for such a thing, it isn’t considered bid’ah, although it needs to be analyzed from other points of view to make sure that it isn’t haram for any other reasons (but it isn’t bid’ah).

One can conclude from this that many of the developments and innovations that take place in arts, sports, industry etc. have nothing to do with bid’ah and the only thing that needs to be determined about them is if they are halal or not, nothing more.

2- What is meant by something being new and of no previous record in Islam is for it to not have any accordance with any Islamic laws and in no way fit under any of its guidelines or not be considered an application and instance of an Islamic assertion or doctrine.[2]

In other words, if one says that a certain act is haram or wajib or mustahabb or makrooh, while nothing in religion can be found to justify and explain what relationship this act has with religion, it is bid’ah, or else it isn’t. According to this explanation, many of the doubts and questions that might come up on bid’ah for many can easily be solved and answered. For instance, a great deal of Muslims all over the world celebrate the birthday of the holy Prophet (pbuh) while some consider this act as bid’ah! But according to what we said, bid’ah doesn’t apply here because even if we assume that such an act hasn’t been encouraged (although we might be able to say it has been) by Islam, yet it fits under another category that we are sure that Islam has indeed encouraged and is one of the clear principles of our religion, which is the showing of love and affection to the Prophet (pbuh) and his household (as).

None of the different Islamic sects have ever doubted that bid’ah is extremely forbidden and haram. Naraqi, one of the great Shia scholars says: “There is a consensus by all Muslim nations that bid’ah is haram and its being haram is a clear Islamic principle.”[3] The biggest reason for bid’ah being haram are the many hadiths that can be claimed that they reach the level of tawatur (when a hadith has been narrated so much by many different narrators, in a way that one becomes sure that all of the narrators can’t be mistaken or lying and that the tradition is authentic) that both Shias and Sunnis have narrated saying: “Adding something to religion that has no previous record in religion is bid’ah and all bid’ah is misguidance and all misguidance is in the Hellfire.”[4]

Although all Islamic sects see bid’ah as haram, but since its essence isn’t completely clear, sometimes some groups and individuals have gone too far in confronting it and have accused other Muslims of being kafirs while such accusations are incorrect.

A certain group consider any form of worship that wasn’t practiced during the time of the Prophet (pbuh) or the khalifas as bid’ah and haram, and believe that one should stay away from these acts. For instance, a famous Hanbali scholar had announced theology haram and called it the root and cause of all bid’ahs and misguidance.[5] He writes that any inner knowledge that people claim they have that can’t be found in the Quran and tradition is bid’ah and no one has the right to act according to it and invite others to it. He calls upon all Muslims to return to the old religion that was in practice during the time of the first three khalifahs.[6]

These radical beliefs were strengthened in the theories of Ibn Teymiyyah and after him, by Muhammad ibn Abdil-Wahhab and ended in many Muslims being seen as innovators in religion and even mushriks (polygamists). Suleiman ibn Sahman al-Najdi, the grandson of Muhammad ibn Abdil-Wahhab, speaks of the common bid’ahs of the Muslims saying: “The four altars that are built in the mosques for each of the four Islamic sects (Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafe’i and Maleki), reciting the Quran with a high voice, sending blessings on the Prophet (pbuh) (salawat), reciting supplications and doxologies after the adhan and on the night of Friday, the nights of Ramadhan, the night of Eidul-Fitr and Eidul-Adha, gathering for birthdays and deaths of great religious individuals and singing songs on birthdays with a specific tone, mixing poems with sending blessings on the Prophet (pbuh) and Quranic recitation and reciting them after Tarawih prayers, holding dhikr beads for saying dhikr, raising one’s voice while saying the dhikr of لا اله الا الله during taking the dead for burial and while splashing water on their graves after burial, wearing long sufi like clothes, hanging swords and flags in Huseiniyyahs and other places where gatherings are held, beating on tambourines and other musical instruments that make the same sounds such as trumpets, repeating the great name of Allah and His other names etc. are all bid’ah.[7] These fanatical beliefs have caused the killing and massacre of Muslims all over the world.

In response to these extremist beliefs, we say that if we are to look at the laws of Islam like this, then we can no longer accept any change in Muslim lives. We would all have to pray using the same clothes worn during the advent of Islam, think of the same things that they would think of, and pay respect to our dead the same that they would. It is clear that this type of being religious is accepted by no Islamic scholar. All scholars, including Shia scholars have been against these overindulgences and have criticized them in their books.

Because of this, Shia scholars and some Sunni scholars, have divided bid’ah into two groups; haram and halal bid’ah. The author of Jawahir says that some scholars like Muhaqqiq and Sheikh Tusi say that bid’ah is of two types; haram and halal.[8] Shafe’I has been quoted saying that bid’ah is of two types; desirable and undesirable. Bid’ah that is in accordance with Islamic tradition is desirable, while bid’ah which against it is undesirable.[9]

The great Allamah Majlisi says: “In Islamic law, bid’ah refers to something innovated in religion after the demise of the Prophet (pbuh) (that one considers as a part of religion) and there is no general or specific law or principle that applies to it.”[10] Naraqi, also a great Shia scholar, accepts this viewpoint saying: “Bid’ah means for someone other than the Shari’ (the true legislator of Islamic law, being Allah) to falsely claim that something is part of religion without any religious proof or evidence. But if a certain act that hasn’t been specifically “legislated” by religion is done by someone not in way that shows that it is part of religion, it is no longer forbidden because of being bid’ah, although it might be haram because of another reason (but it surely isn’t bid’ah).[11] Shatebi, a Sunni faqih (fiqh expert), has the same viewpoint and says: “Bid’ah is a way in religion that has been added and has no base in Islamic law. But on the outside, it looks like it is part of Islamic law and is mistaken with it.”[12] Therefore, if a Muslim practices something new that isn’t part of religion without relating it to religion, and without doing it with the intention that it is part of religion, it is permissible.

[1] . Surah Baqarah, verse 117.

[2] . With the help of Manshure Aqa’ed of Ayatullah Subhani, pp. 219 and on.

[3] . Awa’idul-Ayyam, pp. 319, quoted by Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[4] . Biharul-Anwar, vol. 2, pg. 126. “کل محدثة بدعة و کل بدعة ضلالة و کل ضلالة في النار”.

[5] . Tabaqatul-Hanabilah, vol. 2, pp. 19,27, 34, 37 according to the site of The Islamic Encyclopedia.

[6] . Tabaqatul-Hanabilah, vol. 2, pg. 35, according to the quote of Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[7] . Majmu’atul-Tafsir of Ibn Teymiyyah, pg. 340, quoted by ibid.

[8] . Jawahirul-Kalam, vol. 11, pg. 300, quoted by ibid.

[9] . Fathul-Bari fi Sharh Sahihul-Bukhari, vol. 17, pg. 10, quoted by ibid.

[10] . Biharul-Anwar, vol. 74, pg. 202: “و البدعة في الشرع ماحدث بعد الرسول ]بماانه من الدين[ و لم يکن فيه نص علي الخصوص و لايکون داخلاً في بعض العمومات”.

[11] . Awa’idul-Ayyam,pg. 110, quoted by Dr. Yaqub Ali Burji in the weblog of religions and sects.

[12] . Al’I’tisam, Library of Maktabatul-Riyadh al-Hadithah, vol. 1, pg. 127 quoted by ibid.


Abu Hanifah Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā according to Shia

Question 098: What is the Shia, or specifically Ithna Ashari, view on Abu Hanifa?

Answer 098: Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā ibn Marzubān, also known as Imam Abū Ḥanīfah was the founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims.

Abu Hanifah lived during the time of changing power from Bani Umayah to Bani Abbas and that’s why he perceived the two systems. The Umayyad and Abbasian persistently requested him to cooperate with them, but he refused cooperation with both, rather he was known as an opponent of their system. Due to his cooperation with the Alawiyan and because he loved the Ahlul Bayt (pbuth), he was imprisoned by Manssor Abbasi and finally killed in the jail by poison.

His devotion and love for the Ahlul bayt (pbuth) was more than a Shia lover. He had the same approaches in regards to Imamat and Islamic system as the Zaidyah approach. This means, while accepting the Rashidun Caliphate (al- Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn), he believed that Imam Ali (as) was prior to Uthman and believe in the Caliphate of Imam Hasan (as) after the Imam (as). He also believed that after Imam Hasan (as) the Caliphate belonged to Imam Ali’ (as) children.

He believed that the Imam must be selected through free election between Imam Ali’ (as) children. He didn’t believe in appointing the Imam by the text expressly stated by the Holy Prophet (pbuh).

Abu Hanifah didn’t accept the justice of the Sahabah (companions) entirely. In one hand, he tried to restrain exaggerators from cursing Rashidun Caliphate (al- Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn) and on the other hand, he suggested they have a moderate method, instead. In general, he wanted the Shiite and Sunni to modify their approaches concerning Caliphates, Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and some other religious issues.

Due to the weak text and chain of transmission of those narrations that have been mentioned in some Shia and Sunni sources concerning the strained relationship between Abu Hanifah and Imams Baqir and Sadiq’ (pbuth) we cannot accept them. It seems these argument have been manipulated by some of the followers of the Imamiya and Hanafi sects. They have prejudicially bolded the scientific arguments between the Imams (pbuth) and Abu Hanifah and expressed it in an untrue way.

Thus, the approaches of contemporary Shia has been obtained by such manipulated stories, especially the Hanafiyan of Ahlul Sunna and Jimaat’ approach have been influenced by Bukhari’s method and approach mentioned in his Sahih.

In the end, his efforts of making compromise between Shia and Sunni proved the opposite of this case. This kind of effort exasperated those Hadithic Sunnis and then it caused a negative approach among the Shia society.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following:

References: Khatib Baqdadi, History of Baqdad, Vol. 13, Pg. 330; Ibn Bazazi, Manaqib Abi Hanifah, Vol. 2, Pgs. 121-316 and 399; The Great Islamic encyclopedia, Vol. 5, Chapter “Abu Hanifah”, Pg. 381; Dahabi, Mizan al-Itedal, Vol. 2, Pg. 18; Yaqout Baghdadi, Mojam al-Odaba, Vol. 5, Pg. 242; Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Tahdib al-Tahdib, Vol. 3, Pg. 343; Ibid, Lisan al-Mizan, Vol. 6, Pg. 249; Rasool Jaafariyan, history of Shiite in Iran, Vol. 1, Pgs, 28-29; Muhammad Hussain Solaiman Alami Hayeri, encyclopedia, Vol. 8, Pg. 9; Abu Bakarr, Khilal, Al-Sunnah, Vol. 1, Pgs. 394-395; Dahabi, Mizan al-Itedal, Vol. 3, Pg. 352; Nashi Akbar, Masael al-Imamah, Pg. 66; Rasool Jafariyan, Ibid, Pg. 22; Rijal alKashi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 426-433; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 10, Pg. 74, Taghi al-Din Abdul Jaqader Hanafi, Tabaghat al-Suniyat Fi Tarajem al-Hanafiyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 139; Sheikh Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, Pg. 203; Ibid, al-Irshad, Pg. 160; Ibid, al-Amali, Pg. 73, Muvafaq Mekki, Manaqib Abi Hanifah, Vol. 2, Pg. 18;…/جایگا


Shia View of the Mutazilah and Wasil ibn Ata

Question 095: What is the Shia view of the Mutazila and Wasil ibn Ata?

Answer 095: Mutazila were an intellectual group interested in mental issues. They have been trying to collect between religion and intellect. They have stipulated some principles by which everyone who acts based on these doctrines is counted as Mutazilah. As a result, every member of this group has believed in such principles.

The basic and salient points of their school of thoughts are as follows:

– Tawhid, (absence of plurality and attributes).

– ‘adl (Justice), (God is just and that He does not oppress His creatures).

– Divine retribution (al-wa’d wa al-wa’id), (God has determined a reward for the obedient and a punishment for the disobedient).

– Manzilah bayna al-manzilatayn (a position between the two positions). This means that a fasiq (i.e. one who commits one of the “greater sins,” such as a wine imbiber, adulterer, or a liar etc.) is neither a believer (mu’min) nor an infidel (kafir); fisq is an intermediary state between both belief and infidelity.

– al-‘amr bil ma’ruf wa al-nahy ‘an al-munkar (bid to do what is right and forbid what is wrong).

The opinion of the Mu’tazilah about this Islamic duty is firstly, that the Shari’ah is not the exclusive means of identifying the ma’ruf and the munkar; human reason can, at least partially, independently identify the various kinds of ma’ruf and munkar.

Since they follow their intellectual arguments, they have had different opinions with each other. The differentiating between their beliefs caused establishing some different groups that two important divisions of them are as follows:

  1. The Basrah school of thought: Basra is a place where the Mutazilah had been established since the second Hejira century.[1] We can also call the establisher of this school as the establisher of the Mutazilah. The foremost among the Mu’tazilah, who established Mu’tazilism (al-‘i’tizal) as a school of thought is Wasil ibn ‘Ata’.
  2. The Baqdad school of thought: The school of Baqdad had been established near the end of second Hejira century. This school was established by Boshr ibn Motamed. He had been taught al-I’tizal byhis two teachers, Boshr ibn Saeed and Abu Usman Zafarani.[2]

Generally, it is said that those Mutazilah, who belong to the school of Baqdad, were mostly inclined to Shia than the Basrah School, however most of both groups were Sunni.[3]

Some Baqdadian scholars like Jafar bin Harb, Jafar bing Mobsher and Eskafi have struggled to change the belief of Mutazilah as their own belief. They have believed in such belief that Ali (a.s) was superior to the Caliphs but Talha and Zobair were not so.[4]

They have also had faith that Ali (a.s) was the most virtuous person and superior to the Caliphs after the Holy Prophet (pbuh), however Abul-Hudhayl was one of the Basrah Mutazilah who believed in equality between Ali (a.s) and Abu Bakir.[5]

The Doctrine of Divine Justice in which Shia and Mutazilah have different opinions with each other:

It is evident that none of the Islamic sects denied justice as one of the Divine Attributes. No one has ever claimed that God is not just. The difference between the Mu’tazilah and their opponents is about the interpretation of Justice. The Asha’irah interpret it in such away that it is equivalent, in the view of the Mu’tazilah, to a denial of the Attribute of Justice. Otherwise, the Asha’irah are not at all willing to be considered the opponents of justice.

The Mu’tazilah believe that some acts are essentially ‘just’ and some intrinsically ‘unjust.’ For instance, rewarding the obedient and punishing the sinners is justice; and that God is Just. E.g., He rewards the obedient and punishes the sinners, and it is impossible for Him to act otherwise. Rewarding the sinners and punishing the obedient is essentially and intrinsically unjust, and it is impossible for God to do such a thing.

Similarly, compelling His creatures to commit sin, or creating them without any power of free will, then creating the sinful acts at their hands, and then punishing them on account of those sins. This is injustice, an ugly thing for God to do. It is unjustifiable and ungodly. The Asha’irah believe that no act is intrinsically or essentially just or unjust.

Justice is essentially whatever God does. If supposedly, God were to punish the obedient and reward the sinners, it would be as just. Similarly, if God creates His creatures without any will, power or freedom of action, then if He causes them to commit sins and then punishes them for that – it is not essential injustice.

For the same reason that the Mu’tazilah emphasize justice, they deny al-tawhid al-‘af’ali (It means that all beings, or rather all acts [even human acts] exist by the Will of God, and are in some way willed by His sacred Essence). They say that al-tawhid al-‘af’ali implies that God, not the human beings, is the maker of human deeds.

Also, thereby, the Mu’tazilah believe in human freedom, free will and are its staunch defenders, contrary to the Asha’irah who deny human freedom and free will.

Shia believe that there is no contradiction between the will of human and Tawhid Afali, because, the will of the human is at the length of the will of Allah (SWT) not at the width instead. Human beings are unable to reach his own will without the will of Allah (SWT).

In the Shi’ite faith the principle of Divine Justice is considered one of the five essential doctrines.

Conclusion: Both Shia and Mutazilah Schools of thought, have agreement in many religious tenets. They have different opinions about Justice, Imamat, (some of Mutazilah scholars believe that Imam Ali (a.s) is superior to the Caliphs and appointed by Allah (SWT), the Almighty, but some of them believe Abu Bakir is equal with Him rather superior to Him!) and other opinions that some of them have already been explained.

That’s why we Shia aren’t able to accept all their beliefs, not to reject.[6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

[1] . Farmaniyan, Mahdi, Feraq Tasannun, Pg.311.

[2] . Fayoumi, Muhammad Ibrahim, al-Mutazilah Takvin al-Aqlal_Arabi, Pg. 338.

[3] . Ibid, Pg. 135.

[4] . Al-Mutazilah Takvin al-Aqlal-Arabi, Pg. 350.

[5] . Ibid, 339.

[6] . For further information: refer to the Book of Buhuth fi al-Milal wal-Nihal, by Ayatollah Sobhani.


Ancestry of Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz to the Imams

Question 183: Is there an ancestry connection of Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz to the Holy Imams (as)?

Answer 183: Moinuddin Chishti (Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz. Benefactor of the Poor), introduced and established the Chishti Order of Sufism in the Indian subcontinent. The initial spiritual chain (silsila) of the Chishti order in India, comprising Chishti, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, Fariduddin Ganjshakar and Nizamuddin Auliya—each successive person being the disciple of the previous—includes the great Sufi saints of Indian history. Various Mughal emperors were followers of Chishti.

There is no reliable information available regarding his early life and background before he settled in Ajmer.

According to some books regarding Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz’s life and works, he is said to have been born in Chisht in a city between Afghanistan and Iran and is thought to be a “Sayyid”, and with some mediators’ descendant connected to Imam Hasan (as).[1]

[1] . Moin al-Awliya, Pgs. 37 – 38; For further information in this regards, please refer to Book Majales al-Nafaes.


Siyadat of Abdul-Qadir Al-Gilani

Question 281: Salaam to everyone! Can u plz answer the following question? From which imam (as) do the Galani sayeds descend from? Jzk everyone.

Answer 281: Abdul-Qadir ibn Abi Salih Musa ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Gilani titled Muhyiddin (the Reviver of the Religion)[1] was born in the north of Iran. He grew up in Baghdad and was buried there.[2] According to Qamoos al-A’laam wa Tabaqat of Sha’rani, Abdul Qadir Gilani was a descendant of Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s), thus he was a Hasani Sayed.[3] He is one of the sixth century mystics and a controversial personality of the Islamic world. He was born on a Wednesday the 10th Rabi at-Thani in 471 AH, 1077 AD, and died on Saturday night 1166 (8th Rabi’ al-Awwal 561AH) at the age of ninety years (by the Islamic calendar), and was entombed in a shrine within his Madrassa in Baghdad.[4]

At the youth age he went to Baghdad (488 A.H.),[5] where he pursued the study of Arabic with Abu Zakariya Razi.[6] Al-Gilani received lessons on Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Sa’d al-Mubarak bin Ali bin al-Hussain al-Mukharrimi al-Baghdadi.[7]

He also learned the mystical order from him.[8]

Some works in jurisprudence and legal theories are ascribed to him namel: “Bashaerul Khairat (Glad-tidings of Good Deeds)”; “Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of Truth and Religion)”, “Al-Fath ar-Rabbani (The Sublime Revelation)”, “Malfuzat (Utterances)”, “Futuh al-Ghaib (Revelations of the Unseen)”, “Al-Fuyuzat al-Rabbaniyah fil Awrad al-Qaderiyah”, “Adab al-Suluk wat-Tawassul ela manzil al-Muluk” and a “Collection” of his poems which is known as “A Collection of Ghaus-e A’azam’s Poems”.[9]

Ibn-e Arabi has made mention of Abdul Qadir Gilani’s name in many of his works with respect and dignity.

His Sufi order named after him is generally thought to be one of the most renowned Sufi orders of the Islamic world. He himself enjoyed a special place in the chain of Sufi orders.

Finally, in reply to your question about his relation with Imam Sadiq (a.s.), we must say that historically there is a huge time gap between him and the Imam; he lived very much after the period of the Imam (a.s.). Therefore, the allegation that he opposed Imam Sadiq (a.s) is untrue and baseless.

Note: Unfortunately, there is not enough reliable sources about Abdul Qader Gilani! That’s why we see many different opinions about Him.

According to the Book History of Sufism (Vol. 1, Pg. 168), He was a follower of Ashari Aqeedah (opinion) in Usul al-Deen and a follower of Hanbali and Shafi’i in Furu al-Deen.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The difference between Sayyid and Mirza, answer 562.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

[1] . Ali Akbar Dehkhuda, Dehkhuda Dictionary, Vol.10, (Shams Abad, Ali), p.15713, Tehran University Printing and Publication Institute, 2nd edition of new edition, 1998.

[2] . Martyr Mutahhari Collection of Works, vol.14, pg.570, vol.23, pg.57, Noor Software Program.

[3] . Dehkhuda Dictonary, vol.10 (Shams Abad Ali) p.15713.

[4] . Muhammad Ma’sum Shirazi, Taraequl Haqeq, (edited by Muhammad Ja’far Mahboob), vol.2, pg.32, Sinai Publications, 2nd edition.

[5] . Abdul Qadir Gilani, Futuhul Ghaib, pg.10, Darul Hadi Publications, Beirut, 1428 A.H. – 2007.

[6] . Dehkhuda Dictionary, vol.10, (Shams Abad ali), pg.15713.

[7] . Futuhul Ghaib, pg.10. ibid.

[8] . Taraequl Haqaeq, vol.2, pg.362, ibid.

[9] . Dehkhuda dictionary, vol.10 (Shams Abad Ali) p.15713.


Egyptian Pharaohs / List of pharaohs

Question 246: Salaam Alaikum,I came across this video on the internet, can you please help answer the questions raised?

A book was written by the Egyptologist concerned, but I have not gone through it. I simply do not know, my knowledge is very weak regarding ancient egypt. Also there is a biblical history, and I don’t know ANYTHING about the bible

I want to know firstly who that Pharoah was Ramses or his son. Secondly I want to know if the objections raised are founded.

Answer 246: The dynasties of the Egyptian Pharaohs were 26 in number.[1] They had the power for about three thousand years. The most famous Pharaohs were as under:

  1. A) Sanan: who was at the time of Abraham (as).[2] B) Ubayd b. al-Rayyan b. al-Walid, at the time of Hadhrat Yousef. C) Qaboos bin Mus’ab, who was contemporary with the birth of Hadhrat Moses (Musa). D) Walid bin Mus’ab or Walid bin Qaboos, the Pharaoh of the time of Musa when He exited.[3]

In the Holy Quran the word Pharaoh was mentioned 74 times. There has not mentioned in any verses of the holy Quran saying any name of Pharaoh of the time of the Prophet Musa (as), however, according to other sources we ought not to accept nor to reject, it is said the Ramesses II, the son of Seti I was the one who were contemporary with the Prophet Musa (as).[4]

Note: According to the ‘Ask Shia’ Inquiry Guidelines (N 3, 5 and 9) I cannot prepare a detailed answer in this regards.

Considering that I am unable to guarantee the validity of the following information regarding “Ramesses II and his father”, please refer to the following links:




For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: First idol worshiper, answer 006.

[1] . Al-Tahqiq fee Kalemat al-Quran al-Karim, Vol. 9, Pg. 65.

[2] . Atyab al-Bayan fee Tafseer al-Quran, Vol. 10, Pg. 202.

[3] . Aa’lam al-Quran (Shabestary, Abdul Hussain), Pg. 783.

[4] . Comparing between the Bible, Quran and knowledge, translator: Mahmood Noor Muhammadi, Pgs. 319 – 320.


Returning Fadak to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth)

Question 244: Why didn’t Imam Ali (as) give Fadak to Imam Hassan (as) and Hussain (as)?

Answer 244: “Fadak” was a thriving and flourishing village located near Khaybar, 140 kilometers from Medinah. In the seventh of hijrah, the fortresses of Khaybar were conquered one after another and the central power of the Jews was overthrown. The residents of Fadak surrendered and promised to give the prophet (pbuh) half of their lands and orchards on condition of no fighting and keep the rest for themselves. In addition, they accepted to do the farming of his lands for a wage.

Lands that fall into the hands of the Muslim army without any fighting and violence become the personal property of the prophet (pbuh), and he can make any decisions about them, that is why when the verse: “وَ آتِ ذَا الْقُرْبى حَقَّهُ وَ الْمِسْكينَ وَ ابْنَ السَّبيلِ وَ لا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذيرا”[1] was revealed unto him, he summoned his daughter and granted her Fadak.[2]

But unfortunately, after the prophet (pbuh) passed away and during the reign of Abu Bakr, Lady Fatimah (as) was deprived of the gift of Fadak.[3]

In his famous book of Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn Hajjaj Neyshabouri narrates the story of Lady Fatimah claiming Fadak in detail and has reported Ayishah saying that after the khalifah refused to return it to her, she sulked and didn’t speak another word with him until her demise.[4]

It has also been stated in the Nahjul-Balaghah that: “Of course, all that we had in our possession under the sky was Fadak, but a group of people felt greedy for it and the other party [its rightful owners; Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah (as)] withheld themselves from it. Allah is, after all, the best arbiter.”[5]

In order to get the answer to your question, one fact that should be paid attention to is that the imam’s first and foremost priority always, was to preserve Islam itself, despite all of his objections to those in power before him, and that is why he would cooperate with them and help them in internal affairs and governing the Muslim nation, as he himself beautifully put it: “We [the progeny of the prophet (pbuh)] have a right [which was to be the true successors to the prophet (pbuh)] in which if we are allowed to exercise, then all the better, and if not, we prefer to be the second person sitting in the back of the camel [behind the person guiding it, instead of completely getting off]”.[6]

Therefore, in reality, the imam considered political power a tool and means of fulfilling godly objectives, not a goal, and that is why he would prefer to keep quiet about many different issues, both during his reign and the reign of those before him, leaving judgment for future generations to come. As for why he didn’t act according to his own viewpoint during his own rule, although he had the authority to do so, a small example will clarify things. During his own rule, when he attempted to bring an end to the “tarawih” prayer [that had been innovated by one of previous khalifahs and wasn’t a tradition of the prophet (pbuh)], he was confronted with objections and forced to leave the people to themselves.[7] Also, you surely know of his discontent regarding the arbitration of Abu Musa Ash’ari and that he was forced to give in to it. Essentially, the imam’s coming to power was preceded by twenty five years of continuous justification of all the actions and things the previous khalifahs had done, making it almost impossible to oppose their methods and bring change to some of them; one of those being returning the Fadak to its rightful owners, because some would think that the imam was making use of his power for his own benefit. Add to that the fact that Fadak was important to the household of the prophet (pbuh) and Lady Fatimah (as) because it was a gift and remembrance from him and more importantly, a financial asset and backing for them, especially Ali (as), and that is why the government of the time confiscated it; because it was their financial support; doing so would ensure that Ali (as) wouldn’t be able to do anything against them. Keeping in mind all of these and other circumstances, such as the battles and sabotage the nation was experiencing, preventing the imam (as) from making even important and primary changes that the nation was in need of, how was Ali (as) to take back Fadak? It would surely harm the Muslim nation and shadow over more important national issues, and that is why he chose not to.

Hadiths from the imams somewhat point to these issues:

1- Time had passed since the incident [of Fadak’s usurpation] and there was no need for Ali (as) to speak of it after so many years:

Abu Basir says: “I asked Imam Sadiq (as) why Imam Ali (as) didn’t repossess Fadak after he came to power. The imam (as) answered: “Because both the oppressed [Lady Fatimah (as)] and oppressor [those who deprived her of Fadak] had both died and Allah (swt) had punished the oppressor and rewarded the oppressed by then, and Ali ibn Abitaleb didn’t like the idea of returning a property in which its usurper had been punished and the one usurped from had been rewarded already.”[8]

2- Sacrificing personal benefits for higher and universal goals. Ibn Ibrahim Karakhi says: “I asked Imam Sadiq (as) about why Imam Ali (as) didn’t return Fadak after becoming khalifah. He answered: “When the prophet (pbuh) conquered Mekkah, he was asked if he would return to his homeland. He said: Aqil has sold my house. The people asked: Why don’t you take it back? He answered: We belong to a household that doesn’t take back what has been wrongfully taken from them; Imam Ali (as) did the same in order to have followed the prophet (pbuh) [in not taking back what rightfully belonged to him].[9]

A person asked Imam Kadhim (as) the same question; the imam answered: “Our household [the progeny of the prophet (pbuh)] whose guardian is Allah (swt); He is the one who makes sure what belongs to us comes back to us, and we are the guardians of the people and make sure what belongs to them returns to them, but we don’t take back what belongs to us.”[10]

Having said that, it’s good to see what the fate of Fadak was and what happened to it after the martyrdom of Imam Ali (as).
What historic records says is that after Mu’awiyyah took power, he divided it amongst Marwan, Amr ibn Uthman and his son Yazid. During Marwan’s rule, he took control of all of Fadak and he granted it to his son Abdul-Aziz, who later granted it to his son, Umar. Umar ibn Abdil-Aziz gave Fadak back to the descendants of Lady Fatimah (as). After his death, it once again fell into the hands of the Umayyid dynasty and remained there.

After rule of the Muslim empire shifted to the Abbasid dynasty, it was once again given back to Abdullah ibn Hasan [from the progeny of Imam Hasan (as)]. Mansour Davaneqi took it back from them when he took over, but his son returned it to them after his death.

After Mahdi, the son of Mansour, Musa and Haroun took it back again, but after them Ma’moun officially returned it to the progeny of Fatimah (as). It continued to be returned and taken after Ma’moun.

During that era, Fadak was considered a political issue, and wasn’t looked at as a financial asset, because the khalifahs of both dynasties were in no way in any need of the profits it yielded; that is why when Umar ibn Abdil-Aziz returned it, the Umayyids scolded him, saying: “By doing so, you have rejected Abu Bakr and Umar [who had refused to return it during their time]!”[11]

Eventually, during the Abbasid ruler, Mutawakkil, it was seized, its trees cut down by the order of a person by the name of “Abdullah ibn Umar Mazyar”. This shameful act remains a sign of disgrace for the wrongdoers of that time. It must be noted that even the eleven date palms that the prophet (pbuh) had planted with his own hands were cut down. History says Bashran ibn abi Umayyah Thaqafi, the person who had cut them down, suffered from paralysis after returning to Basrah.[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

[1] . Isra’:26.

[2] . See: Tabarsi, Majma’ul-Bayan, vol. 3, pg. 411.

[3] . Sharhe Nahjul-Balagheh, vol. 16, pg. 274.

[4] . Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, pg. 1380.

[5] . Nahjul-Balaghah, letter 45.

[6] . Nahjul-Balaghah, pg. 472.

[7] . Ibn Abil-Hadid, Sharhu Nahjil-Balaghah, Library of Ayatullah Mar’ashi Najafi, vol. 12, pg. 283.

[8] . “فَقَالَ لَهُ لِأَنَّ الظَّالِمَ وَ الْمَظْلُومَةَ قَدْ كَانَا قَدِمَا عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَثَابَ اللَّهُ الْمَظْلُومَةَ وَ عَاقَبَ الظَّالِمَ، فَكَرِهَ أَنْ يَسْتَرْجِعَ شَيْئاً قَدْ عَاقَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ غَاصِبَهُ وَ أَثَابَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَغْصُوبَةَ” Biharul-Anwar, vol. 29, pg. 395, hadith 1.

[9] . Ibid, hadith 2.

[10] . Ibid, hadith 3.

[11] . Jafar Sobhani, Furughe Abadiyyat, vol. 2, pg. 669.

[12] . Ahmadi Miyanji, Makatibul-Rasul.


Mukhtar al-Thaqafi according to Shia

Question 094: What is the shia opinion of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi?

Answer 094: There are two different opinions about Mukhtar al-Thaqafi. Some commended him and others blamed him.

The following are some reliable traditions in which Mukhtar has been commended and accepted by scholars of hadith and Rijal sciences:

Based on reports in history books, Mukhtar killed Umar bin Saad and sent his head along with some money to Muhammad bin Hanafiyah. Seeing Umarbin Saad’s head, Muhammad bin Hanafiyah prayed for Mukhtar as such, “O Allah, grant Mukhtar the best of rewards on behalf of Muhammad (saws) and his Ahlul-Bayt[1].”

Indeed, according to another tradition which has been related by Kashi in his book, it says, “When Ubaidullah bin-Ziad and Umar bin Saad heads were brought to Imam Zainul Abedeen (a.s), the Imam prostrated praising and thanking Allah (SWT) and praying for Mukhtar and wishing him well[2].”

Based on a another report by Ya’qubi, Ubaidullah bin Ziad’s head was sent to the fourth Imam, Imam Sajjad (a.s) and Umar bin Saad’s head were sent to Muhammad bin Hanafiyah. It was said, “Do not blame Mukhtar, because he killed our enemies[3].”

However, there were some traditions in which Mukhtar has been blamed,[4] but most of Shia scholars haven’t approved such traditions[5].

For further information, please read the following answer:

Index: The number of soldiers who came to Karbala to fight against Imam Hussain (as), answer 568.

Index: Enemies killed by Imam Hussain (as) in Karbala on the Day of Ashura, answer 598.

[1] . Ibn A’tham Kufi, Ahmad bin A’tham,al-Fotuh, researched by, Shiri, Ali, vol.6, p. 247, Dar al-Azwaa, Beirut, 1411 A.H; al-Bedayah wa al-Nehayah, vol.8, p. 274; Balazari, Ahmad bin Yahya, Ansaab al-Ashraf, researched by Zakaar, Suhayl,Zarkali, Reyadh, vol.6, p. 406, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1417 A.H.

[2] . The Arabic version of the report is as under: «أَنَّعَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ(ع)لَمَّاأُتِيَ بِرَأْسِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِزِيَادٍ وَ رَأْسِ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعْدٍخَرَّ سَاجِداً وَ قَالَ الْحَمْدُلِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَدْرَكَ لِي ثَأْرِيمِنْ أَعْدَائِي وَ جَزَى الْمُخْتَارَخَيْراً» Kashi, Muhammad bin Umar, Ikhtiyar Ma’refat al-Rejal, researched and edited: Shaykh Tusi, Muhammad bin Hasan, Mustafawi, Hasa, p. 127, Mashad University Press, first edition, 1409 A.H.

[3] . Biharal-Anwar, Vol. 45, Pg. 343.

[4] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 45, Pg. 343; Ibid, Pg. 126.

[5] . Mojam al-Rijal, Vol. 18, Pg. 100.


Zayd ibn Ali the brother of Imam Baqir according to Shia

Question 056: What is the Ithna Ashari view on Zayd Ibn Ali, brother of Imam Baqir?

Answer 056: According to Sheikh Mofid (r.a), Zayd ibn Ali ibn al-Hussain was the son of Imam Sajjad (a.s), the grandson of Imam Hussain ibn Ali (as), and great-grandson of Imam Ali (as). Zayd was born in Medina in 695 and martyred in Kufa.[1] He was one of the greatest figures and prominent personalities among his brothers after Imam Baqir (a.s), in the School of Ahlulbayt (a.s) and the entirety of the Islamic world.

He was very pious, jurisprudential, generous and brave. He rose with the intention of directing others to enjoin what is lawful and forbid what is unlawful.

He also intended to take revenge on those who killed his grandfather Imam Hussain ibn Ali (a.s). The reason he was called Halif al-Qur’an, was because he was so well acquainted with and continuously recited the Holy Qur’an.[2] Zayd al-Shahid, Zayd the martyr was his another title, because he was martyred in an uprising against tyranny.[3]

Imam Sadiq (a.s) said such things as: “May Allah (swt) bless my uncle”. Imam Ridha (a.s) said such things as: “Zayd ibn Ali was one of the great scholars of the Ahlulbayt (a.s)”.

He was angered for pleasure of Allah (swt), fought in holy war against enemies of Allah (swt) and was martyred in the way of Allah (swt).[4]

[1] . ‘Umraji, al-Hayat al-Siyasat wa al-Fikriyyat Lil Zaydiyyat fee al-Mashriq al-Islami, Pg. 30; Saberi, Tarikh Firaq Islami, Vol. 2, Pg. 64.

[2] .Ibid, Pg. 43; Esfahani, Maqatil al-Talebin, Pg. 127.

[3] . Maqatil al-Talebin, Pg. 127.

[4] . Ahmad bin Ali ibn al-Hussain, (birth 288 A.H), Omdatul Mataleb, Pg. 255. Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā (Arabic: عیون اخبار الرضا), Vol. 1, chapter 25, Pg. 248. Allamah Tabatabaee, Shia in Islam, Pg. 66.


Death of Asiya Bint Muzahim / Pharaoh ordered her be nailed to the floor

Question 528: Has Pharaoh stitched nails on fingers of his wife Hazrat Asiya Bint Muzahim and has he ordered to remove her skin before her death.

Answer 528:  When Asiya, Pharaoh’s wife, witnessed Moses’ miracle in front of the sorcerers, her heart was lit with the light of Iman (belief in the One God). She started to believe in Moses. She was trying to hide her faith from Pharaoh but faith and love of God is not something to be concealed. When Pharaoh learned about her faith, he forbade her times and again from believing in Moses; he pressured on her to give up his religion and abandon his God but she never surrendered herself to Pharaoh’s demand.

Finally, Pharaoh ordered his men to tie her up under the scorching sun and put a heavy stone on her chest and let her die there. Pharaoh ordered Asiya Bint Muzahim to be nailed to the floor. He put nails through her body to affix her to the floor under the scorching sun.

Again, the Pharaoh has ordered his courtiers to remove the skin of the queen. Due to the kind help of Allah, she still hasn’t died upon removing of the skin from her body, but they’re full of blood on her body. Still the Pharaoh was not satisfied by his severe punishment in this matter, so he ordered his courtier to put a heavy stone on her chest and let her die there.

When she was breathing the last moments of her life, she prayed to God as such: “O my Lord! Build for me, in nearness to Thee, a mansion in the Garden, and save me from Pharaoh and his doings, and save me from those that do wrong.”[1] God, the Exalted, accepted the prayer of this faithful, chaste and devoted woman and put her beside some of the best women of the world like Maryam.[2]

Lady Asiya’s grave is in Egypt.[3] As for the age at which she died, there is no precise information available. We referred to historical sources to find information in this regard but to no avail[4].

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Four Women Chosen as the Best above the Women of the World, answer 542.

Index: Good women are for good men / Types of Family in Quran, answer 512.

[1] – Tahrim: verse 11.

[2] – Behar al-Anwar, Vol.13, pg.164 and 165; Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol.1, Pg. 183 – 185.

[3] – Yaqut Hamvi, Shahabuddin Abu Abdullah Yaqut bin Abdullah, Mu’jam al-Buldan, Vol.5, Pg.142.

[4] – Adopted from answer 14785 (Index: Deaths of Asiya and Maryam and Their Burial Places).


Four Women Chosen as the Best above the Women of the World

Question 542: Assalam o alaikum, Who is Khair Un Nissa in Quran? Which 6 respected ladies have been mentioned in Quran? Explain about them according to their status in eyes of Allah with reference of Quran


Answer 542: Lady Mary (sa) is the only woman has clearly mentioned in the Holy Quran by name. “And when the angels said: O Mary! Surely Allah has chosen you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the world”. But, in other verses of the holy Quran Allah (SWT) narrated some behaviors and conditions of a few women that show scope of the human beings actions. As a result, Quran has more emphasized on the actions rather the name of individuals.

The Story of some Unique Women mentioned in the Holy Quran:

A: Lady Fatima Zahra (sa): There are verses of the holy Quran have been sent down about Lady Fatima Zahra (sa), some have only been sent down about her and others about Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) that Lady Fatima (sa) is one of them. These verses are as follows:

  1. All verses of Surah al-Kauthar have been sent down about Lady Fatima (sa), according to interpreters of the Holy Quran. They said: the word Kauthar means Lady Fatima Zahra (sa).[1]
  2. The Verse of Tathir (The verse of purification): “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House!”[2]
  3. The Verse of Mawadda: “That is of which Allah gives the good news to His servants, (to) those who believe and do good deeds Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives”[3]
  4. The verse of Mubahilah: “But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars”[4]
  5. Verses related to sending down the holy Quran on the Night of Power: Verse 3 of Surah Dukhan and Surah al-Qadr have been sent down about Ahlul Bayt (pbuth). [5]
  6. There are other verses of the holy Quran have been sent down about Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) especially Lady Fatima (sa) that you can refer to these Books: Sharh e Ehqaq al-Haq, al-Ghadir, Aqabat al-Anwar, Ghayat al-Maram.

B: The Mother and Sister of Prophet Musa (as) and The Wife of Pharaoh: In surah al-Qasas and Taha Allah, the Most High points the story of Mother and Sister of the Prophet Musa (His mother’s name: Historians have different opinions about her name. Some of her names are: Youkhabed, Youkabed, Nakhib, Afahiyeh, Youkhbid, Youkhabil[6]), His sister and Asiya, the Wife of Pharaoh.

Surah Qasas: “And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: Suckle him and, when thou fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not nor grieve. Lo! We shall bring him back unto thee and shall make him (one) of Our messengers. And the family of Pharaoh took him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a sorrow, Lo! Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts were ever sinning. And the wife of Pharaoh said: (He will be) a consolation for me and for thee. Kill him not. Peradventure he may be of use to us, or we may choose him for a son. And they perceived not. And the heart of the mother of Moses became void, and she would have betrayed him if We had not fortified her heart, that she might be of the believers. And she said unto his sister: Trace him. So she observed him from afar, and they perceived not. And We had before forbidden foster-mothers for him, so she said: Shall I show you a household who will rear him for you and take care of him? So, We restored him to his mother that she might be comforted and not grieve, and that she might know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of them know not. [7]

Surah Taha: “When We revealed to your mother what was revealed. ” Saying: Put him into a chest, then cast it down into the river, then the river shall throw him on the shore; there shall take him up one who is an enemy to Me and enemy to him” And I cast down upon you love from Me, and that you might be brought up before My eyes. When your sister went and said: Shall I direct you to one who will take charge of him? So We brought you back to your mother, that her eye might be cooled and she should not grieve And you killed a man

And I have chosen you for Myself”[8]

In Surah Tahrim there is a verse in which Allah (SWT), for the believers, talks about Asiya, the Wife of the Pharaoh. “And Allah sets forth an example to those who believe: the wife of Firon when she said: My Lord! build for me a house with Thee in the garden and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doing, and deliver me from the unjust people”.[9]

C: Two Daughters of Jethro’s (The Father in Law of the Prophet Moses): In the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty also talk about two daughters of Shoaib (Jethro) as follows.

“And he went into the city at a time of unvigilance on the part of its people, so he found therein two men fighting, one being of his party and the other of his foes And he who was of his party cried out to him for help against him who was of his enemies, so Musa struck him with his fist and killed him He said: This is on account of the Shaitan’s doing Surely he is an enemy, openly leading astray. He said: My Lord! Surely I have done harm to myself, so do Thou protect me. So He protected him. He said: My Lord! Because, Thou hast bestowed a favor on me, I shall never be a backer of the guilty. And he was in the city, fearing, awaiting, when lo! he who had asked his assistance the day before was crying out to him for aid Musa said to him: You are most surely one erring manifestly. So, when he desired to seize him who was an enemy to them both, he said: O Musa! do you intend to kill me as you killed a person yesterday? You desire nothing but that you should be a tyrant in the land, and you do not desire to be of those who act aright. “And a man came running from the remotest part of the city. He said: O Musa! surely the chiefs are consulting together to slay you, therefore depart (at once); surely I am of those who wish well to you”. So he went forth therefrom, fearing, awaiting (And) he said: My Lord! deliver me from the unjust people. And when he turned his face towards Madyan, he said: Maybe my Lord will guide me in the right path. And when he came to the water of Madyan, he found on it a group of men watering) their flocks (, and he found besides them two women keeping back (their flocks). So, he watered (their sheep) for them, then went back to the shade and said: My Lord! surely I stand in need of whatever good Thou mayest send down to me. Then one of the two women came to him walking bashfully. She said: My father invites you that he may give you the reward of your having watered for us So when he came to him and gave to him the account, he said: Fear not You are secure from the unjust people. Said one of them: O my father! employ him Surely the best of those that you can employ is the strong man, the faithful one. He said: I desire to marry one of these two daughters of mine to you on condition that you should serve me for eight years But if you complete ten, it will be of your own free will And I do not wish to be hard to you If Allah please, you will find me one of the good. He said: This shall be (an agreement) between me and you Whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there shall be no wrong doing to me And Allah is a witness of what we say. So, when Musa had fulfilled the term, and he journeyed with his family, he perceived on this side of the mountain a fire. He said to his family: Wait, I have seen a fire, maybe I will bring to you from it some news or a brand of fire, so that you may warm yourselves”.[10]

Note: In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty sets forth an example to those who disbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot, as follows: “They were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the Fire with those who enter”[11]

Other names of women in the holy Quran: There are other names of women in the holy Quran that some of them are portrayed in a positive light, while others are condemned for their actions. Briefly, these women are as follows:

Eve (Hawwa)[12], Wives of Prophets Noah and Lot (as)[13], Daughters of Lot[14], Sarah, the Wife of Prophet Abraham (as)[15], Aziz’s wife (Zulaykha) and the ladies at that time of the Prophet Yousef (as)[16], Mother and Sister of Prophet Moses (as)[17], Wife of Prophet Moses (as), the Daughter of Shoiab (Jethro), (i.e. Safura)[18], Asiyah, the Wife of the Pharaoh[19], the Queen of Sheba (Bilqis)[20], Wife of Imran[21], Lady Mary (sa)[22], Wives of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)[23], Daughters of the Prophet[24], Khawla bint Tha’labah[25] and Wife of Abu Lahab[26].


Who are the best Woman according to the holy Quran and Traditions?

Lady Mary (sa): The Holy Quran has stated two choiceness for Lady Mary (sa). Absolut choiceness and being chosen above the women of the world.[27] In this verse of the holy Quran, her purification has also been emphasized. Also, Lady Mary is a sign of Allah. “And We made the son of Marium and his mother a sign, and We gave them a shelter on a lofty ground having meadows and springs (Baitul Moqaddas)”[28]

The reason why she has been considered as the sign of Allah is that she become pregnant without husband and having any relation with a man.[29]

Another reason is that she was of the obedient ones.[30] She was also Mother of Prophet Jesus (as). “and his mother was a truthful woman”[31]

Along with Asiyah, she was example to those who believe. “And Marium, the daughter of Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our inspiration and she accepted the truth of the Words of her Lord and His books, and she was of the obedient ones”[32]

What is the meaning of the word ‘Nisaa al-Alameen’ (Women of the World)? Does it mean that she has chosen above the women of the world such as women of her time or all women from the time of Adam to the present? The holy Prophet (pbuh) said to Imam Ali (as): O Ali there are four women chosen as the best above the women of the world: 1. Asiyah (the Wife of Pharaoh) bint Muzahim. 2. Mary, the daughter of Emran. 3. Khadijah bint Khuwailad. 4. Fatimah, My Daughter. But, Lady Fatimah is superior to the others. [33]

Conclusion: although, the Holy Quran does not directly name any woman except for Lady Mary (sa) who is the only woman mentioned in the Qur’an by name and chosen above the women of the world, but others’ names come from traditions and tafasir of the holy Quran. Some of the women are portrayed in a positive light, while others are condemned for their actions. There are four women, among those who are portrayed in a positive light, that have chosen above all women of the world. Three of them were above the women of their own time, while Lady Fatimah (sa) has chosen above all the women of the world for all times, according to the Holy Prophet (pbuh).

[1] . Surah al-Kauthar; Tafsir Al-Mizan, Vol. 20, Pgs. 638-643.

[2] . Surah al-Ahzab, verse 33.

[3] . Surah Shura, verse 23.

[4] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 61.

[5] . Sheikh Kuleini, Usul al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Kitab al-Hujjah, Chapter The Features of Surah al-Qadr.

[6] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 13, Pg. 5, Tafsir Tabari, Vol. 1, Pg. 271; Albidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 1, Pg. 276.

[7] . Surah al-Qisas, verses 7-13.

[8] . Surah Taha, verses 38-40.

[9] . Surah Tahrim, verse 11.

[10] . Surah Qisas, verse 15-29.

[11] . Surah Tahrim, verse 10.

[12] . Surah Taha, verse 117.

[13] . Surah Tahrim, verse 10.

[14] . Surah Hud, verse 79; Surah Hijr, verse 71.

[15] . Surah hud, verse 71-72.

[16] . Surah Yousef, verses 23, 51.

[17] . Surah Qasas, verse 7, 10, 12,13.

[18] . Surah Qasas, verse 26-27.

[19] . Surah Qasas, verse 9; Surah Tahrim, verse 11.

[20] . Surah Naml, verses 22-44.

[21] . Surah Ale Emran, verses 35-36.

[22] . Surah Maryam; Tahrim, verse 12; Surah Ale Emran, verses 39-42-45-47; Surah Anbiya, verse 91;

[23] . Surah Ahzab, verse 6.

[24] . Surah al-Ahzab, verse 59.

[25] . Surah Mujadilah, verse 1.

[26] . Surah al-Masadd, verses 4-5.

[27] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 42.

[28] . Surah Momenoon, verse 50.

[29] . Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 15, Pg. 46.

[30] . Surah Tahrim, verse 12.

[31] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 75.

[32] . Surah Tahrim, verse 12.

[33] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 43, Pgs. 36-37, Wafa Publication, Beirut; Amali, Sheikh Sadouq, Pgs. 175, 554, 575, first edition, Be’that Institution, 1417 A.H.


Henry Corbin a philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies / He Regarded Himself a Shia

Question 549: Salam. My teacher. last time I listened a clip very informative in which, the scholar told us a French christian researcher doing PhD, his topic on “shiat”

So he done his research on shiat, then he wrote a book on shiat. He said in universe shiat a greatest and brilliant religion.

I want to know the name of this researcher and plus name of book.

And send me another non-Muslim researchers good views on shiat with evidence.

Please send me these materials soon



Answer 549: His name is Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 – 7 October 1978). He was a philosopher, theologian, Iranologist and professor of Islamic Studies at the École pratique des hautes études in Paris, France. He resided in Iran for about 20 years. Corbin was also the professor at Tehran University. He discussed with Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Hussain Tabatabaee and other Iranian Muslim scholars. Henry Corbin was interested in Imam and Wilayat positions and specially about Imam of the Time (ajtf) in Shia teachings. According to Allamah Tabatabaee and Sayyid Hussain Nasr, he was spiritually a Shia Muslim. Corbin published some books (A Collection of Iranian Books) related to Hikmat (wisdom) and Islamic philosophy.


He believed that Madism (belief in the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (may God hasten his glad advent) and his establishment of a just government throughout the world is the basis of the dynamism in Shia societies. [1]


Corbin is among the most prominent orientalists and intellectuals of the 2th century who opened a new horizon for the West by introducing the profound thoughts of great Shia Sufis to the western world. Corbin studies Sufism and Shia and Islamic Philosophy with Louis Massignon, director of Islamic studies at Sorbonne University. It was Massignon who introduced Corbin to the writings of Sohrevardi, the 12th century Persian mystic and philosopher, including his Hikmat-ul-Ishraq. Sohrevardi’s work profoundly affected the course of Corbin’s scientific life and he decided to travel to the East.


He settled in Istanbul and for six years studied other works by Sohrevardi as well as works of other Muslim philosophers and mystics. In 1945 he published a collection of Sohrevardi’s works.
In 1946 he replaced Louis Massignon as the Islamic Studies Chair at the Sorbonne.
He also spent a number of years in Middle Eastern countries and served as head of the Franco-Iranian Institute’s Iranian studies department and published a number of works under the title of “A Collection of Iranian Books”.
He was fluent in German, Arabic and Sanskrit and was the first French translator of both Martin Heidegger and Karl Barth.
For 25 years, Corbin would travel back and forth to Iran and meet with prominent Iranian figures like Allameh Tabatabaee, Morteza Motahari, Seyyed Kazem Assar, and Mehdi Elahi Qomshe’i.


Henry Corbin died on October 7, 1978, in Paris.
His scholarly works include: Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn ‘Arabi, Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. Princeton University Press, 1960, The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism, En Islam Iranien: Aspects spirituels et philosophiques.[2]

[1] . Asghar Vaezi, Nim Qarn Pedhoohesh, Scientific life of Henry Corbin;  Maaref Magazine, Month of Aban and Azar , N. 88, Goftegoye Sharq and Gharb; Discussing with Sayyid Hussain Nasr, Itilaat hikmat wa Marefat, N. 2.

[2] . Adopted from Iqna (with a few changes has been made on).


Zoroaster The prophet of the Zoroastrian faith, Magus the followers of Zoroastrianism

Question 489: Salaamun Alaikum.  I read from Allamah tabatabai that Mazdeists are classified as Ahl Al Kitab, is it lawful to say that their messenger (Zarathustra), in the case he existed, he’s a legitimate prophet?

Thanks in advance.

Answer 489: Allama Tabatabaee (ra) said: the term ‘Magoosh’ are called “Magus”, which refers to the followers of Zoroastrianism.[1] It has only been mentioned once in the holy Quran[2], and considering the fact that it has been used in a way that shows it is in contrast with shirk and the mushriks and is next to other divine religions like the Jews and the Nazarenes, it can be concluded that it has been a substantial religion with a prophet and holy book.

Some of our hadiths also confirm this matter.  One day, Ash’ath ibn Qays asked Imam Ali (as): “How come you collect the jizya [tax collected from non-Muslims who are People of the Book by the Islamic government] from the Magi [if the jizya is only to be collected from the People of the Book] while they don’t even have a divine book?  The imam answered: “It isn’t as you perceive!  They had a holy book and Allah (swt) sent them a messenger…”[3]

Imam Zayn al-A’bedin (as) says: Behave with the Magoosh as Ahl al-Kitab.[4]

According to most, Zoroaster (prophet of the Zoroastrian faith) was born in 660 BC and was chosen prophet in 630 BC at the age of thirty.  He is said to have been murdered at the altar by the Turanians in the storming of Balkh (Afghanistan).

Zoroastrianism, which is the religion of the Magi, is related to the Torah and Bible.  In the Bible, there is no sign of this religion, but in eight books of the Torah, it has been mentioned.  In the Gospel of Matthew, we read: Some of the first to visit the newly born Messiah were people from the East called the “Magi”.

Over the past several years, Zoroastrians have been advocates of a religion that is based on ethnicity and in other words, a religion that doesn’t allow others to convert to it; in order to be Zoroastrian, you have to be born of two Zoroastrian parents.  Today, Zoroastrianism is the smallest religion amongst the eleven most important religions of the world.   150,000 of them live in India, and another 150,000 live in Yazd, Kerman and Tehran of Iran.

The book of Zoroastrians

Avesta is the book of Zoroastrians which literally means foundation, basis and scripture.  This book has been written in the Avestan language which belongs to ancient Persia and shares the same roots as the Pahlavi and Sanskrit.  In addition to the Avesta, Zoroastrians have a tafsir by the name of “Zand-Avesta” and another holy book written in the Pahlavi language.

Conclusion: The religion of Zoroaster was a divine one at birth, but the current book of Zoroastrians, Avesta, implies polytheism[5]. It is because of this that when we refer to Zoroastrianism, we say it is a distorted faith far from its original teachings.

[1] . Tafsir al-Mizan, Farsi translation, Vol. 14, Pgs. 532-537, Daftar Intisharat Islami Jamia Modarreseen, Qom.

[2] Hajj:17 “إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ الَّذِينَ هادُوا وَ الصَّابِئِينَ وَ النَّصارى‏ وَ الْمَجُوسَ وَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلى‏ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ شَهِيدٌ”

[3] Abd Ali ibn Jumah Arusi Huwayzi, Tafsir Nurul-Thaqalain, vol. 3, pg. 457.

[4] . Naser Makarem Shirazi and other authors, afsir Nemooneh, Vol. 14, Pgs. 45-46, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran.

[5] See: Din Shenasiye Tatbiqi,pg. 107.  Despite this fact, Zoroastrian thinkers try to somehow interpret implicative Zoroastrian teachings with a philosophical and gnostic perspective in order to justify them and prove that their religion is a pure monotheistic one.


Khosrow Parviz tore up the letter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)

Question 070: Did Khosrow Parviz II tear up the paper Rasool’Allah (saws) sent? Is it true that the reason his empire collapsed was because he tore this paper? How true are the narrations that say because he was a just king, his punishment would be lessened? Above all, how do the Shia view him – one of the grandfathers of Imam al-Baqir عليه السلام?

Answer 070: The peace afforded by the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah gave an opportunity to Holy Prophet (PBUH) to dispatch several representatives to rulers and kings of Arabia and different parts of the world, each with a letter in which he invited them to become Muslims and submit to Allah’s (SWT) faith. All these letters had the same purport, that is, the invitation to monotheism and Islamic fraternity. Many of the letters were met with a favorable response whilst others were rejected.
He sent ambassadors with his letters to Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, Khosrow Parviz II, the Kisra of Persia (the King of Iran), the kings of Egypt and Abyssinia, and to the chiefs of Yemen and Syria. These letters have been preserved and reproduced by Arab chroniclers.
The Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) letter has sent to Khosrow II Parviz son of Hormizd IV, the Sasanian Kisra of Persia, by ‘Abdullah ibn Hudhafah. It stated the following as recorded by the historian al-Ya’qubi:
The following are two different narrations regarding the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) invitation letter:

  1. In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate. From Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger, to Khosrow, the King of Persia. May peace be upon him who follows guidance, to those obedient to Allah and His Prophet, to those who bear witness to Allah’s Oneness, who worship the One God, and who bear witness to the prophecy of Allah’s servant, Muhammad. Truly I call upon you to obey Allah’s command and convert to Islam. I am Allah’s Messenger to all the people so that living hearts will be awakened and illuminated and so that infidels will have no excuses. Submit to Islam so you will be safe and immune, and if you disobey me and turn down my invitation, you will be blamed for the sins of the magi.[i]

The Arabic version of this Letter:

بَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ حُذَافَةَ بْنِ قَيْسٍ إِلَى كِسْرَى بْنِ هُرْمُزَ مَلِكِ فَارِسَ وَ كَتَبَ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِلَى كِسْرَى عَظِيمِ فَارِسَ سَلَامٌ عَلى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدى وَ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ شَهِدَ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ أَدْعُوكَ بِدَاعِيَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَإِنِّي أَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى النَّاسِ كَافَّةً لِأُنْذِرَ مَنْ كانَ حَيًّا وَ يَحِقَّ الْقَوْلُ عَلَى الْكافِرِينَ فَأَسْلِمْ تَسْلَمْ فَإِنْ أَبَيْتَ فَإِنَّ إِثْمَ الْمَجُوسِ عَلَيْكَ.

  1. In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful

From Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to Khosrow son of Hormizd. Accept Islam, so you will be safe (from Allah’s wrath); otherwise, be forewarned of a war from Allah and His Messenger, and peace be with whoever follows the right guidance. [ii]
The Arabic version of this Letter:

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ كَتَبَ إِلَى كِسْرَى مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِلَى كِسْرَى بْنِ هُرْمُزْدَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَأَسْلِمْ تَسْلَمْ وَ إِلَّا فَأْذَنْ بِحَرْبٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ السَّلامُ عَلى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدى فَلَمَّا وَصَلَ إِلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ مَزَّقَهُ وَ اسْتَخَفَّ بِهِ وَ قَالَ مَنْ هَذَا الَّذِي يَدْعُونِي إِلَى دِينِهِ وَ يَبْدَأُ بِاسْمِهِ قَبْلَ اسْمِي وَ بَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ بِتُرَابٍ فَقَالَ ص مَزَّقَ اللَّهُ مُلْكَهُ كَمَا مَزَّقَ كِتَابِي أَمَا إِنَّهُ سَتُمَزِّقُونَ مُلْكَهُ وَ بَعَثَ إِلَيَّ بِتُرَابٍ أَمَا إِنَّكُمْ سَتَمْلِكُونَ أَرْضَهُ فَكَانَ كَمَا قَالَ

On receiving the letter, Khosrow Parviz ordered it to be translated. When it was translated, he noticed that the Prophet Mohammad (saws) had written his own name before the king’s and this proved too hard for him to digest. He tore the letter in fury, totally ignored Abdullah ibn Hudhafah and refrained from responding to the letter.
When the Holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) was informed of this act, he prayed: “O’ Lord! You too tear apart his kingdom.” [iii]
The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

فَلَمَّا قَرَأَ كِتَابَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص شَقَّقَهُ وَ قَالَ يَكْتُبُ إِلَيَّ بِهَذَا الْكِتَابِ وَ هُوَ عَبْدِي فَبَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص قَالَ مَزَّقَ اللَّهُ مُلْكَهُ حِينَ بَلَغَه.

Answer 2: When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) prayed: “O’ Lord! You too tear apart his kingdom.” Khosrwo Parviz was killed by His own son Shiroweih, on the Tuesday, night of tenth day of Dhil Hijjah, Year 7 A.H.
Therefore, the answer of your second question is yes, according to this following Hadith. “… the Holy Prophet (PBUH) received information through the angel Gabriel (Jabra’il) that Allah (SWT) had caused Khosrow Parviz to be killed by Shirweih, his own son, giving him the exact time of night and the date when Khosrow Parviz was killed in Persia.”[iv] The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

… و أتى رسول الله ص الخبر من السماء أن الله عز و جل قد سلط على كسرى ابنه شيرويه فقتله في شهر كذا و كذا لكذا و كذا من الليل فلما أتيا رسول الله ص قال لهما إن ربي قد قتل ربكما ليلة كذا و كذا …

Answer 3: Regardless of those sins Khosrow Parviz had committed, after the event, Khosrow Parviz wrote to Badhan, who was the governor of Yemen, a Persian province: “It has reached my ears that a person has claimed prophethood in Hijaz. Arrange to send two brave and courageous persons to him so that they may bring him to me as a captive.” So, according to above mentioned history, He was deserved such punishment.[v]
Answer 4: Although, His grandfather was Khosrow whom the Holy Prophet (PBUH) prayed for “O’ Lord! You too tear apart his kingdom.”, but according to Holy Quran, when Allah (SWT) decides on a matter, He just says to it,” Be! and it is.
“He brings forth the living from the dead, and brings forth the dead from the living”. Like the son of Adam who was disbeliever but his father was Prophet (a.s), and on the other hand, some were born believer like the children of our Infallibles (pbuth), however some of their grandparents weren’t believer.[vi]

[i] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 20, Pg. 389.

[ii] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 20, p. 382; Ibid, Vol. 18, Pg. 17.

[iii] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 20, p. 390.

[iv] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 20, p. 390.

[v] . Ibid.

[vi] . Surah Baqarah, verse 117; Surah Room, verse 19.


Shibli Shumayyil Praised the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali (pbuth)

Question 538: Asslam o alikum. Sea of knowledge, I have important question from you, I listen the name of “Shibli Shumayyil”, I only just name that name of philosopher ,who was materialist but he attracted from ali a.s

Please tell about the biography or pic any some data about him please?

Answer 538: Shibli Shumayyil was a controversial Greek Catholic doctor, scientist, journalist, philosopher, poet, social reformer and polymath educated at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. He was born in Kafr Shima (Syria).

Shymayyil studied and taught medicine at the College, then traveled to Paris and Istanbul to complete his studies. He practiced medicine in Egypt for about ten years, and founded Al-Shifa Magazine in Cairo in the year 1886 in order to publicize medical advances.

In addition, he lived in the Europe for a short period of time then traveled to Egypt and settled in Alexandria, Tantar and finally in Cairo.

Shumayyil also wrote the program of the socialist party in Egypt. He was the foremost popularizer of Darwinism in the Arab World, considering science the hey to the secret of the universe. Apart from his works on Darwin’s theory of the Evolution, he published many articles on science, history, literature, criticism and politics; a work of Hippocrates; a treatise on the plague; a book on the urgent need for science and liberty in the Ottooman Empire (1895); a novel al-Hubb ‘ala al-fatra; ‘Human Society or Civilization’ that was published in 1885 in Al-Muqtataf, ‘The history of natural society’ (Tarikh al-ijtima al-tabi’i), ‘Physiology of groups’ (fisiologiyat al-ijtima’at). Shumyyil also translated Racin’e Iphigence, and wrote a play on Work War 1. [1]  It is said that Shumayyil had consciously adapted Ibn Khaldun to the intellectual framework of his time and had bent his concepts of society and political authority in significant ways.[2]

It is most noteworthy that although Shumayyil was a Christian and the Arab atheist, but he composed some poetry in praise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Imam Ali (as).

Shumayyil said about Imam Ali (as): “The leader, Ali bin Abi Taleb, the greatest of the great, is the only exemplar that neither the East nor the West, has never seen the likes of, neither in the past nor the present.[3]

One of the good poetry he composed in praise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Quran which is available in Arabic language is as follows:[4]

أنی و إن أک قد کفرت بدینه *** هل أکفرن بمحکم الآیات

أو ما حوت فی ناصع الألفاظ من *** حکم روادع للهوی وعظات

و شرائع لو أنهم عقلو بها *** ماقید العمران بالعادات

نعم المدبر و الحکیم و إنه *** رب الفصاحه مصطفی الکلمات

رجل الحجی رجل السیاسه والدها *** بطل حلیف النصر و الغارات

ببلاغه القرآن قد غلب النهی *** و بسیفه انهی علی الهامات

من دونه الأبطال من کل الوری *** من غائب أو حاضر أو آت

[1] . Haroun, G, Sibli Sumayyil, Une Pensee Evolutionniste arabe a l’epopue a’an-Nahda, Beirut (1985) which is available in French language;  Hourani, A., Arabic Thought in the liberal age, 1798-1939, London (1962), 248-53;  Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Volume 2, Pg. 716.

[2] . Muhammad Ridha Hakimi, Adabiyyat wa Ta’ahhud dar Islam, Pgs. 250-252.

[3] . George Gordaq, Sawtul-Adalah al-Insaniyyah, pg. 19 (quoted by the translation and commentary of the Nahjul-Balaghah, Jafari, Muhammad Taqi, vol. 1, pg. 171).

[4] . Muhammad Ridha Hakimi, Adabiyyat wa Ta’ahhud dar Islam, Pgs. 250-252.


Who was the First Idol Worshiper: Yard or Namrud

Question 006: Who was the first idol worshiper?
Answer 006: It is not possible to mention an exact time regarding the start point of polytheism, but there were two kinds of idol worship: open polytheism and hidden polytheism.

  1. Open polytheism – there has been found three reports in this regards by researching throughout narrative and historical resources:

  • The People of the time of Yard ibn Mahlaeel bin Qaynaan bin Anush bin Shees bin Adam (a.s) who built idols and were idol worshippers [1]. The Holy Enoch (Idris) (a.s) was the son of Yard. [2]
  • The people of the time of the Holy Prophet Noah (a.s). He himself fought against idolatry. Some of these idols names that existed at that time have been mentioned in the Holy Quran. The Quran says about the idol worshippers: “They say, “Do not abandon your gods. Do not abandon Wadd, nor Suwa, nor Yaghouth, Ya’ouq and Nasr,” ” [3]
  • Namrud ibn Kanaan ibn Kush bin Ha’m bin Noah, was the first person who tyrannized after Noah’s (a.s) Deluge. He wore a crown and occupied the land of Babel. He assigned Arab and non-Arab people to build an idol-temple, idolatrized and built golden and silver idols, embellished them with jewelry, and followed astrology. He appointed Azar, the idol maker, as his treasurer and idol keeper. There is a great chance that those idols were made based on the form of the stars and were worshipped by them[4].
  1. Hidden polytheism – this means neglect of pure monotheism. (E.g. neglect thanksgiving). This kind of polytheism had been done by the Holy Prophet Noah’s (a.s) children.

[1] . Tabari, Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Jarir, Tarikh ul-omam wa al-moluk (Tarikh Tabari), by: Abraham, Muhammad AbulFazl, Vol. 2, Pg. 276, Darul-Toras, Beirut, second edition, 1387 ah; refer to: Ibn Asir, Ali bin Muhammad, al-Kamel Fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 1, Pg. 57 and 59, Dar Sader, Beirut, 1385 ah.

[2] . Belazari, Ahmad bin Yahya, Ansab al-Ashraf by: Zekar, Sohail, Zarkoli, Riyadh, Vol. 1, Pg. 3, Dar ul-Fikr, Beirut, 1385 ah.

[3] . Surah Nooh, verse 23. (Waqâlô  lâ  tadharonna  ââlehatakom  wa  lâ  tadharonna  waddaw  wa  lâ  sowâ’w­wa  lâ  yaghôtha  wa  ya’ôqa  wanas­râ)

(وَ قَالُواْ لَا تَذَرُنَّ ءَالِهَتَكمُ‏ْ-p وَ لَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَ لَا سُوَاعًا وَ لَا يَغُوثَ وَ يَعُوقَ وَ نَسْرًا)

[4] Tabaqat Nasiri Tarikhe Iran va Islam, Minhaj Siraj, vol. 1, pg. 138, researched by Habibi Abd al-Hayy, Tehran, Donyaye Ketab, first edition, 1984.

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