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Offering congregational prayers behind a Sunni Imam

Question 237: Salam, wanna ask if I am praying behind a Sunni imam then do i need to recite all in my own words or its same like as behind a Shia imam, any other difference?

Answer 237: Congregational Prayers is one of the most important recommended acts, and it is one of the greatest Islamic rites. Great emphasis has been laid on it in the narrations. It is recommended that obligatory prayers, especially the daily prayers, are performed in congregation, and more emphasis has been laid on congregational prayers for Fajr, Maghrib and Isha, and also for those who live in the neighborhood of a mosque, and are able to hear its Adhan.[1]

There is no problem in attending Sunni congregational prayers; it is permissible and there are some reports according to which one who stands in the first row of their congregational prayers is like one who has offered his prayers standing behind the Holy Prophet (S) in the first row.[2]

In any case, if possible, one should offer his prayers according to Shia way and if there is no need for Taqiyah (dissimulation) and one offers his prayers in Sunni way, he must repeat his prayers. Of course, there are some scholars who are of the view that if the conditions for practicing Taqiyah are not met, one must repeat his prayers under all circumstances.

Index: Some grand religious authorities have also replied to the same question. Their answers are as follows:[3]

Grand Ayatollah Khamenei (may Allah grant him long life): In the said case, if using turbah is not in opposition with practicing Taqiyah, it is necessary to do Sajda on something which is allowed for prostration.

Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (may Allah grant him long life): If you are associating with them, there is no problem in offering prayers with them to protect yourself provided that they do not express enmity against Shia. However, doing Sajda on carpet is not allowed except where one practices Taqiyah in Sunni mosques.

Grand Ayatollah Noori Hamedani (may Allah grant him long life): If possible, one should do Sajda on things which are allowable for Sajdah but there is no problem in offering prayers behind a Sunni prayer leader and one is not, in the said case, required to repeat his prayers.

Grand Ayatollah Safi Golpaygani (may Allah grant him long life): If you are not in the state of Taqiyah, it is not sufficient and it would be necessary to repeat the prayers.

According to Khoei (ra) and Tabrizi (ra): “It is permissible to go to Sunni mosques and offer congregational prayers with Sunnis provided that one himself should engage in reciting Hamd and Surah.”[4]

Tabrizi (ra): “If a person stands at a place in a Sunni mosque where part of the floor is covered with stone (slates), it is mandatory to do Sajda on the same stone.”[5]

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: It is permissible but you must recite Hamd and Surah yourself even though the recitation may be in low voice.[6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

Index:  Saying Āmīn during prayer in validate the prayer, answer 017.

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index: Miss a Sunni Imam in Ruku in congregational Prayer, answer 270.

Index: Qualification of an Imam of congregational prayers, answer 021.

[1] . Imam Khomeini, Tauzihul Masail (with annotation), vol.1, pg.767-768, Issue No.1399.

[2] . Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Al-Kafi, vol.3, p. 380, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth, 1407 A.H. The Arabic version of the tradition is as this: (عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ: مَنْ صَلَّى مَعَهُمْ فِي الصَّفِ الْأَوَّلِ كَانَ كَمَنْ صَلَّى خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلی الله علیه وآله و سلم)

[3] . This question has been sent to the offices of grand Ayatollah Khamenei, grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, Grand Ayatollah Saafi Gulpaigani and Grand Ayatollah Noori Hamedani, may Allah grant them long life.

[4] . Khoei, Sayed Abul Qasim, Serat al-Najat (with connotation by Tabrizi), vol.3, pg.74, Al-Muntakhab Publication Office, qom, 1st edition, 1416 A.H.

[5] . Ibid.

[6] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Question & Answer » Prayer behind a Sunni Prayer Leader.

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Direction of Qibla: Offering prayers on a plane

Question 327: Question : If someone is traveling on a plane & time of prayer falls within his/her travel time, what will be the direction of Qibla he/she should turn his/her face for salat? According to me, usually Qibla will be downwards (but not east, west, north or south) when you are on a flight….so do you know what is the ruling of major marja-e-keram about this? How offering prayers on a plane should be toward Qibla?

Answer 327: Under no circumstances or conditions is it permissible to discard Salah, as it is wajib. Salah must be offered in any possible situation. If possible, a person who is in flight, space, or any other means of travel should try to settle in a fixed location using the available means in order to complete salah. If a person cannot do that, then they should offer their salah in any way possible, even if they can only use motions.

If the one stands facing towards earth, then they are facing the Qibla and they should pray in that direction, but if they could not distinguish the earth’s position, then they must pray in all four directions (if possible). If all directions are not possible, then they must pray in as many directions as possible.[1]

As far as wudhu goes, if they can or if it is possible then they should make wudhu. If it is not possible to make wudhu then they should make tayamum. If making tayamum is also not possible, then they should take precaution and make salah without wudhu or tayamum, but later they should make up the Qaza prayers for the salah which was performed without wudhu or tayamum.[2]

In addition, regarding complete salah vs. traveler’s salah: if an astronaut were to know that they were going to stay in one area of space for at least ten days then they should make his salah complete. In any other instance, they should shorten their salah. If being an astronaut is a persons occupation, then as long as after the first trip, they don’t stay in his hometown or outside of his hometown for more than ten days, then on their second trip their his salah will be complete. If however, they were to stay in his hometown or other than his hometown for ten days or more, then if they traveled to space again, they would have to shorten their salah.[3]

In reply to this question that how can we say our obligatory prayers in an aircraft, especially if we do not know the direction of the qiblah taking into consideration the instability of the floor [because the plane is in motion]? Sayyid Sistani (ha) answers: As for the qiblah, it is possible to identify its direction by asking the captain or the airhostesses because their answers usually carry validity and are a source of assurance. One should therefore act accordingly.

As for the stability of the floor where salat is to be performed, that condition will be waived when it is not possible to achieve it. However, other conditions of prayers should, wherever possible, be observed. Under no circumstance should the prayer be delayed beyond its appropriate time span.[4]

[1] . Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul), Istiftaat, Questions: 28&29; Tawzihul Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 434, Question 784.

[2] . Tawzihul Masael of maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 381, Question 686; Ibid, Question 339.

[3] . Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 705, Question 1312.

[4] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Qibla.

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Miss Sunni Imam in Ruku in congregational Prayer

Question 270: assalam alaykum. when a shia is in a sunni jamaat prayer And lifts his hands for Qonoot in the second rakaat as they go for rokoo is it still considered as a jamaat prayer?

Answer 270: If you know that if you complete qunut, you will not be able to join the Imam in his Ruku, yet you purposely recite qunut, and miss the Imam in Ruku, your congregational prayer will be void, and should act accordingly to the rules of Furada prayers.

Otherwise, if you are sure that if you recite qunut you will not miss the Imam in Ruku, but when you recite qunut and miss the Imam in Ruku, your congregational prayer is in order.

As you know it is Mustahab that qunut be recited in all obligatory and Mustahab prayers before the Ruku of the second Rak’at. So, if you don’t recite it there would be no problem in it and your prayers would be in order.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index: Qualification of an Imam of congregational prayers, answer 021.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Offering prayer behind a Sunni Imam, answer 237.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/612343082250336/

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), obligatory acts relating to Namaz, issues 1452&1453;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, issues 1117-1121.

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Add anything in Adhan as blessing

Question 285: obviously who thinks about it before reciting that,”I’m about to recite this but not as a part but as a blessing”.Its either you do it or don’t. Its absolute. But what about those sources which say Bilal actually included Ali un waliullah in the adhan during the adhan in Ghadeer Khumn?

And also as per the blessing logic, why can’t I simply add anything in adhan as a blessing? I can say Gabriel is the supreme angel ,Ibrahim was a great imam and prophet etc.I mean,all of these would also bless me.I still don’t get the logic.

Answer 285: There are some particular traditions in which we are allowed to recite the third testimony in Adhan as a blessing and with the intention of Qurbat, however there has not been mentioned any reliable hadith saying that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has ever recited it to His Adhan or even allowed others to do so.

Although, in book “al-Salafa fee Amrel Khilafa” mentioned that when Salman Farsi added the third testimony in Adhan one complained to the Holy Prophet (PBUH), He Said: “You heard a kind word”. In this book it is also mentioned, after Ghadir Khum when the Holy Prophet heard that Abadar Ghifari added it to the Adhan, He said: “What was the meaning of the Sermon on that hot weather I addressed You? Didn’t it mean that Ali Amirul Momenin is Waliullah?”[1]

But, first of all this book is not accessible to search about the reliability of the ahadith mentioned there and second these traditions haven’t found before seventh century, so we ought not to discuss about their Sanad whether they are reliable or not.

There are some traditions in which reciting the third testimony is permissible in Adhan as follows: Imam Sadiq (as) has said: When Allah has created the heavens and the earth said, O harbinger Witness to the three testimony.[2]

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.
In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also.

Note: Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, reciting other things no hadith prove it is treated as Bid’ah.

Adding the third testimony in Tashahud:  As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do.

Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index:  Saying Āmīn during prayer in validate the prayer, answer 017.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/615016361983008/?__mref=message_bubble

[1] . Maraghi Mesri, Sheikh Abdullah, al-Salafa fee Amrel Khilafa, Pgs. 32 & 33.

[2] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, researcher and editior, Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Muhammad, Vol. 1, Pg. 441, Darel Kotob al-Islamiya, fourth edition, 1407 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, al-Amali, Pg. 604, A’lami, Beirut, fifth edition, 1400 A.H.

[3] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

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Reciting Small Surah in Night Prayer

Question 573: In the other salats of Nafilah of Layl, any small surahs can be recited after Sura al-Hamd.

Answer 573: You are allowed to recite other small Surahs of the holy Quran in each Raka’at of the Night Prayer, however it is said that if you recite Surah al-Ikhlas (Tawhid) after Surah al-Hamd in Shaf’a and Witr prayers you would be given the reward of reciting the whole Quran.[1] Because, the both prayers have 3 Rak’ats and if you recite surah al-Ikhlas three times it would be regarded as reciting the whole Quran.

When it comes to the rak’ats of Shaf’a prayer, it is better to recite Surah al-Falaq after Surah Hamd in the first rak’at and to recite Surah Naas after Surah al-Hamd in the second rak’at. There remains one rak’at of witr prayer in which it is better to recite Surah al-Tawhid thrice after Surah al-Hamd along with Surah al-Falaq and Surah Naas. One can suffice to reciting only Surah al-Tawhid and then perform Qunut.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl (Tahajjud), answer 234.

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index: The Secret of Prayer / Sirr us-Salat, answer 589.

Index:  Do we have to pray in Arabic language, answer 010.

Index:  Saying Āmīn during prayer in validate the prayer, answer 017.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

[1] . Bahrani, al-Burhan, Tehran, Bonyad Beathat, 1416 A.H, Vol. 5, Pg. 797; al-Da’awat, Pg. 218.

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Makeup after wudu doesn’t void prayer

Question 157: Salaam to everyone. I have a question and I hope someone can shed some light or answer my question. Recently my teenage daughter asked me “mum if someone did their ablution before They go college and read the salah there and then put on muscara after their ablution would that salah be void or would it be accepted”? Now I was kind of confused as to what answer do I give. Because as the ablution was done with no mascara on but then the salah would be read WITH muscara on. Please, guys would appreciate the answer. Jzk to all.

Answer 157: According to maraja’, her wudu and prayer are treated as valid as it is not among those unclean things which invalidate wudu (ablution)[1]. However, for a matter of precaution, she should not perform her prayer in a place, where non-mahrams can see her makeup, but it doesn’t void her prayers.

The wudu is accepted because the mascara was applied after. There is not really a problem with the salah being offered with the mascara as its the ablation that is important and the wudu was accepted. What I would focus on next is what your marje says about makeup. Sayyid Sistani (ha) says it is fine to wear khol/mascara as long as it’s not done with the intention to attract attention and if it does then to remove it.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate Wudu (ablution), answer 556.

Index: Doubts during prayer whether wudu was performed or not, answer 036.

Index: Wiping performed on socks invalidates Wudu, answer 037.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

Index: Philosophy of Hijab during prayer, answer 020.

Index: Men and Women: Covering body in prayers, answer 594.

Index: The validity of Ghusl even a barrier finds out after a week, answer 031.

The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A, Wudhu.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 188.

[2] . Refer to: http://www.sistani.org/english/qa/01265/

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Qadha prayers of a father is obligatory on the eldest son

Question 410: Salaam. My Question is that Can son performed prayers of his late father? If possible tell me about all point of views.

Answer 410: According to most of maraja’ (ha), it is obligatory upon an eldest son to compensate all prayers have been missed by his father.

Ayatollah Sistani (ha) says: If a person did not offer some of his obligatory prayers, and did not care to give qadha, in spite of being able to do so, after his death, it is upon his eldest son, as an obligatory precaution to perform those qadha, provided that the father did not leave them as a deliberate act of transgression. If the son cannot do so, he may hire someone to perform them. The qadha prayers of his mother is not obligatory upon him, though it is better if he performs them. But, if the eldest son doubts whether or not his father had any qadha on him, he is under no obligation.

If a dying person makes a will that someone should be hired to offer his qadha prayers, and if the hired person performs them correctly, the eldest son will be free from his obligation.

As is the case with other types of worships, it is permissible to hire someone to offer prayers owed by the deceased with the intention of offering them on behalf of the deceased in the same way as it is permissible to offer the prayers owed by others voluntarily.

The person offering the prayer on behalf of another, whether against payment or voluntarily, shall do so with the intention of doing it on behalf of the other person and in place of the act of the other in order to absolve him of its liability, seeking closeness to Allah and a reward to be bestowed on the other person.

It is also a condition that the person offering the prayer on behalf of another should have the intention (Niyyat) of seeking closeness of the other person to Allah and not his own closeness to Allãh. He shall not obtain closeness to Allah (by offering prayer on behalf of an other), except when he intends by seeking closeness of the deceased to Allah to have done a noble deed and thereby obtain closeness to Allah, the Exalted (as a reward for his noble deed). So also a person may obtain closeness to Allah, as one offering prayer on behalf of another voluntarily, if his intention were such. As regards the receipt of reward by a person hired to offer prayer on behalf of another, as mentioned in some Traditions, it is merely with the beneficence of Allah. It is also obligatory to specify in his intention (Niyyat) the deceased on behalf of whom a person is offering the prayer, even if specified briefly, as saying: “on behalf of the owner of the remuneration paid”, or the like.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: How to make up for Qada (missed) prayers, answer 009.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 764, Issue 1397; Ibid, Pg. 766, Q 544;  The Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning “Qadha prayers of a father is obligatory on the eldest son”;  Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), chapter of prayer, Rules Concerning Hiring for Offering Prayers, Pg. 258 (English version);  Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 5, Pg. 368, chapter 12;  Mostamsik Urwa-Tul-Wusqa, Vol. 7, Pg. 137; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 88, Pgs. 133-134.

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Adding the third testimony in Tashahud

Question 268: Why do Usooli Shia Muslim consider Tashood cannot be changed with 3rd Sahada of Imam Ali AS. If azaan is added with Ali Un Wali Ullah.

Answer 268: As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do. Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[1]

There are different narrations regarding zikr (recital) of Tashahhud. However, all jurisprudents consider what they have mentioned in their Manuals of Islamic Laws (Resalah) as sufficient. When it comes to reciting more azkar (plural of zikr) in Tashahhud, if one recites them without the intention of wurud (i.e. doing an act which has no religious origin or validation), there is no problem in it but if he recites with the intention of wurud, some scholars have allowed reciting an additional zikr keeping in view that some of the narrations have been accepted and others have not.[2] However, most of the jurisprudents have sufficed to the zikr that has been mentioned in the Manuals of Islamic Laws.

Fatawa:

Makarem Shirazi (ha): The precaution is that Tashahhud has to be recited as usual.

Saafi Gulpaigani (ha): Tashahhud has to be recited in the same way that has been prescribed in the book of Islamic Laws.

Noori Hamedani (ha): There is no objection in reciting the azkar without intention of wurud.

Sayyid Sistani (ha): The third testimony must not be recited in Tashahhud, as an obligatory precaution. It is recommended to recite the following zikr the second testimony in Tashahhud: “Arsalahu bil haqqi bashiran wa naziran bayna yada yis sa’ah, wa ashhadu anna rabbi ne’mar Rab wa anna Muhammadan ne’mar Rasul and then recite the salawat.”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

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[1] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

[2]  Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha).

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“Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah

Question 276: Can someone provide the Sahih riwayahs from the Shi’i books which mention of Ash’hadu anna Ali’ un wali Ullah and the other phrase not included in conventional Aa’dhan?

Answer 276: In order to give a precise answer to the question, we shall follow up the discussion in three parts:

1) Is it basically okay to recite “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” in Adhan or is it totally wrong and false?

2) If it is supposedly correct, is it a part of Adhan or not?

3) If it is not a part of Adhan, is there any problem in reciting it in Adhan without considering it as a part?

In order to reply to the first part of the question, it would first be necessary to deal with the meaning and import of the word “wali”.

Meaning of “wali”:

  1. A) Wali in the sense of being a guardian or custodian: There are many Quranic verses in which the word “wali” has been used in the same meaning e.g. “You have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor”.[1]
  2. B) Wali in the sense of being a close friend[2]: There are also verses in the Quran with the word “wali” meaning friend. One of those verses is the following: “The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! he, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.”[3]
  3. C) Wali in the sense of helper and aide[4]: The Holy Quran says, “And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.”

Without doubt, there is no objection or problem in using “Waliullah” for believers in the second and third meaning (friend and helper). In fact, there are traditions transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni narrators with the word “wali” used in these meanings.[5]
As for the first meaning, it should be said that there are many narratives in which Ali (a.s.) has been introduced as the guardian, master and more entitled to be in authority in the same way as Holy Prophet (pbuh) was. Of course, Ali is a divinely-appointed leader; he was appointed as guardian and master of the Ummah by God in the same way as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was appointed as the Messenger of God.

As for whether “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is a part of Adhan or not, there are narrations from the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) which expressly state that Adhan consists of eighteen sentences. Those sentences are the following:

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah, Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah, Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah, Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal, Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal ; Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah; La ilaha illal lah.[6]

Thus, “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is not a part of Adhan. Shia jurists have issued verdicts on the basis of these narrations saying that the third testimony is not a part of Adhan.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu’minina ‘Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.[7]

Imam Khomeini (may Allah bless him) says in this regard: “Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences: Allahu Akbar four times; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal; Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah each two times.” Then he says, “Ash hadu anna Aliyyan Waliullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah.”[8]

The next question that has to be dealt with is: Does reciting “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” affect the prayers or not?
Obviously, there is a problem in reciting the third testimony as a part of Adhan. Some have said that if it is recited in such a way that it does not sound to be like one of the sentences of Adhan, there would be no problem.[9] At the most, the spurious argument that is likely to be raised is that reciting the third testimony is a mere bid’ah (innovation).

Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, if someone considers this sentence to be a part of Adhan and recites it with such an intention, it is bid’ah and forbidden. However, since none of the Shiite jurists and grand scholars considers it as a part of Adhan and if someone recites it in a way such that it does not turn out to be like one of the sentences of Adhan and Iqamah, it would not be bid’ah and there would be no problem in it.

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.

In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also. Therefore, whenever someone testifies to the oneness of God and prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he will also testify to the wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and this does not at all imply that the third testimony is a part of Adhan.

Also, there are special narrations which confirm the validity of reciting the third testimony in Adhan.[10] Hence, considering the lofty rank and position of the Commander of the Faithful, there would be no problem in reciting “Ali waliullah” in Adhan and in the Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body with the intention of Qurbat (seeking nearness to God) or Tabarruk (as a blessing), not as a part.

It is to be noted that many Sunni scholars admit that the sentence “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” (prayer is better than sleep) is not a part of Adhan and it is one of the innovations of the second caliph. It has been reported from Malik bin Anas that the Muezzin (one who calls for prayers) went to Umar to wake him up for Fajr prayers. He saw Umar sleeping. Then he said, “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm”. Umar then ordered him to recite this same sentence in Adhan also.[11]

The question is that what justifies the recitation and inclusion of this sentence (i.e. al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the Adhan for Fajr prayers by Sunnis? Is it comparable with what the Shiites are reciting and which has many narrations authenticating and confirming it?

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

-1 Facebook.

-2 Facebook.

[1] . Al-Sajdah: 4.

[2] . Tabari Kiyaharasi, Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad, Ahkaamul Quran (Al-Kiyaharasi), vol.3, pg.83, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1405. A.H.

[3] . Fussilat: 34.

[4] . Ibn Mazur, Muhammad bin Mukram, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, pg.407, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 3rd edition, 1414 A.H.

[5] . Ibn Abi Hatam, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad, Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim (Ibn Abi Hatam) vol.2, pg.675, published by Maktabat Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 3rd edition, 1419 A.H.

[6] . Saduq, Man La-yahzuruhul Faqih, vol.1, pg.289-291, Jame’ah Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[7] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah.

[8] . Tauzihul Masail (with connotation), vol.1, pg.519, issue No.918.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Vide: The Third Testimony in Adhan, Iqamah and Prayers.

[11] . Malik, Muwatta, vol.1, pg.210, al-Islam website: www.al-islam.com.

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Wearing Gold and Silk is forbidden for a Male Muslim

Question 485: Assalamu alaikum! Could you please advise if wearing gold-plated (only surface of the watch is covered by gold dust) watch is halal or haram.

May Allah bless you!

Answer 485: According to maraja’, it is not permissible for men to adorn themselves with whatever is called gold irrespective of whether the gold is yellow or red or white.[1]

There is no objection in making the frame of gold for a watch, and keep it with oneself (while offering prayers).[2]

But, if it is a gilt watch, maraja have different opinion about it as follows:

Khamenei (ha), if it is considered as gold it would be impermissible for men to wear it.

Sistani (ha), there is no objection in it.

Safi Golpayegani (ha), if it really contains gold it is impermissible.

Note: If there is a little gold used in it that it is not considered to be gold in the common view (Urf), there would be no problem in wearing it.[3]

If it is not hanging, though it may be in pocket, there is no objection in it! [4]

Regarding other metal, if it is known through checking a metal with an expert that it is white gold, it is haram (forbidden) for men to wear it. As for wearing silver, there is no problem in wearing it.

If a metal is called white gold, it is in fact the yellow gold which becomes white when a white metal is blended with it; therefore it is haram. In case, however, there is so little gold in it that it is not considered to be gold in the common view, there is no problem in wearing it. As for wearing platinum, there is also no objection in wearing it.[5]

Silk: The garment of men, while offering prayers, should not be made of pure silk, rather it is not lawful for men even when they are not offering prayers, although, according to the more cautious opinion, it is something which alone is not sufficient for offering prayer, as a waistband or a cap or the like. Pure silk also includes what is made of raw silk, such as a waistband or a cap or the like. Pure silk also includes what is made of raw silk, though it is permitted for women, even when offering prayers, and for men in the event of necessity or war.

What is for bidden for men is wearing garments made of silk, but there is no objection in making silken carpets or bed sheets and lie on them or blankets etc. and cover themselves with them when sleeping. So also there is no objection in stitching buttons of garments with silk, or decorate the garments with braids and laces made of silk, in the same way as it there is no objection in making the covers for wounds, abscesses and preventives for those suffering from incontinence of urine.

Rather, there is no objection even in patching garments with silk or making the borders of the garments with silk, provided that they are not to the extent that they may be called silken, and in case of borders for garments, it is more cautious that they should not exceed four fingers when joined together in width. Rather it is more cautious to observe this measurement even in case of the patches of silk on the garments.[6]

If a person doubts whether a garment or ring is made of gold or anything else, it shall be permissible to wear them, and offer prayers wearing them.[7]

Related Link: Facebook

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini) Vol. 2, Pg. 927, Issue 443.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasila of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 168 (English version), issue 14;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini) Vol. 1, Pg. 462.

[3] . Ajwabat al-Istiftaat (in Farsi language), Pg. 90;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 140, Q 255.

[4] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 169; Tawzih al-Masael of maraja, Issue 833, Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra), Q 846.

[5] . Ajwebat al-Istiftaat (Farsi Answers to Religious Queries), pg.90, Tawzih al-Masail (with annotations by Imam Khomeini), vol.2, pg. 927, issue No.443.

[6] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 169.

[7] . Ibid, Pg. 170.

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Praying for non-Muslims in Qunoot of Witr prayer

Question 197: Asslamoalakum! Could we add the names of non-muslim people while mentioning the names of 40 people dead/alive in Qunoot of Witr in Namaz-e-shab (nawafilatu-layl)? Also, could we recite Sura Fatiha while passing through the graves of non-Muslims? This include mentioning name of non-Muslims among 40 names in qanoot of witr too, only if they were harmless towards Muslims right? What if that non-Muslim is alive, could we mention him/her in qunoot of Witr?

Answer 197:  Given the supposition made in the answer, there is no difference between mentioning them in Qunut. According to the verses of the Holy Quran, if those non-Muslim who have not fought Muslims on the account of Religion and have not driven us out of our Homeland, Allah (SWT), the Almighty does not forbid us from doing good and regarding justice to them. Therefore, we can visit their graves and ask Allah, the Almighty for His forgiveness and pray for them. However, Allah (SWT) forbids us only from having Friendship with those who fought us on the account of Religion and Drove us out of our homeland; and helped one another in driving us out; We are forbidden to have friendly Relation with them; and whoever among us does so, then he is regarded as One of the disbelievers. Because, in the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “The Prophet and the faithful may not plead for the forgiveness of the polytheists, even if they should be [their] relatives, after it has become clear to them that they will be the inmates of hell”.[1]

Our maraja have different opinions in this regards:

Sayyid Sistani: You are not allowed to pray for non-Muslim in order that Allah (swt) don’t punish them.

Makarem Shirazi: There would be no problem to recite surah al-Fatihah and pray for them if they have not fought Muslims on the account of religion.

Khameneni: There would be no problem in it per se.

Safi Golpayegani: Reciting salawat and seeking Allah (swt) for his forgiveness is not permissible.

The qunut of witr prayer is one of the highly rewarded mustahab acts and stress has been laid on prolonging it. It has been narrated from the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, that he said: “Whoever prolongs the qunut of his witr prayer in the world, will be at ease at the station of judgment.”[2] In Qunut, first pray for forgiveness of forty or more Mu’mineen who are either dead or living in the following manner. For example, you should say:

“اللهم اغفر لفلان

“Allahumma ighfir li-fulan”.

Instead of ‘fulan’, you should mention the name of the individual whom you want to pray for. Or recite:

اللهم اغفر للمؤمنین و المؤمنات

Allahumma ighfir lil-mo’meneen wal-momeenat.

“استغفر الله ربی و اتوب الیه‌”

Then recite seventy times “astaghfirullah rabbi wa atubu elayh.” Then recite:

“هذا مقام العائذ بک من النار”

Haza maqamul a’eze bika minan nar.

Then say three hundred times:

“العفو”

Al-Afw. Then the following dhikr is recited:

“رب‌ّ اغفرلی و ارحمنی و تب علی‌ّ انک انت التواب الغفور الرحیم‌”

Rabbi ighfirli wa irhamni wa tub ‘alayya innka antat tawwab al-ghafoor al-rahim.[3]

 

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Praying for non-Muslim Parents, answer 516.

Index: Ways to Greet in Islam with Muslims and Non-Mahram, answer 369.

Index: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl (Tahajjud, Night Prayer), answer 234.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

[1] . Surah Mumtahina, verses 8 & 9; Surah Tawbah, verse 113.

[2] . Tabatai Yazdi, Muhammad Kazem, Urwat al-Wuthqa, vol.1, p. 544 – 545, Dar al-Tafsir.

[3] . Adopted from answer: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl (Tahajjud, Night Prayer), answer 234.

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Men and Women: Covering body in prayers

Question 594: Salam. I wonder what obligatory parts men and women need to cover when performing Salat?

Brief answer 594: While offering prayers, a man should cover his private parts even if no one is looking at him, and preference is that he should also cover his body from the navel up to the knee.

A woman should cover her entire body while offering prayers, including her head and hair. As a recommended precaution, she should also cover the soles of her feet. It is not necessary for her to cover that part of her face which is washed while performing Wudhu, or the hands up to the wrists, or the upper feet up to the ankles. Nevertheless, in order to ensure that she has covered the obligatory parts of her body adequately, she should also cover a part of the sides of her face as well as lower part of her wrists and the ankles.[1]

Detailed answer 594: In case of ability, it is obligatory to cover the private parts in prayer and its appurtenances like the Rak’at offered by way of caution, and according to the stronger opinion, the compensatory prayer for the forgotten portions, and according to the more cautious opinion, the two prostrations due to inattention, as also in the supererogatory prayers excluding the prayer of the dead, though, according to the more cautious opinion, also including it, while caution must not be given up during the performance of the circumambulation.

If the private part of a person becomes visible due to wind or negligence, or it was visible from the beginning of the prayer without the knowledge of the person offering praying, the prayer shall be valid. However, the person should cover it immediately, if he comes to realize about it during the prayer. It is more cautious to finish it, and start it anew.

The same rule applies in case he forgets in both cases.

The private parts of a man which are required to be covered and are forbidden to look at during prayer are the anus, the penis and both the testicles. It is more cautious to cover the indistinct figure of the private parts visible from behind the clothes without distinction of the color.

As regards the parts of a woman which are required to be covered during prayer, they include her entire body including even her head and hair excluding the part of her face which is required to be washed for ablution and both her hands upto the forearms and both feet upto the ankles. It is obligatory to cover a little of the parts mentioned as excluded from being covered.

It is obligatory on a woman to cover her neck and the lower part of her chin including even that much of it as can be seen after wrapping the scarf (khimãr).

A slave girl and small girl are treated at par with a free and adult woman, except that it is not obligatory on them to cover their head, hair or neck.

It is not obligatory to cover the private parts from below. Of course, if one is standing at the corner of the roof or net where a person may possibly pass and have a look at the private parts in case he looks up, then, according to the more cautious, rather stronger opinion, one should cover the private parts from below too, even if presently there is no person looking there.

In case, however, there is a net under which no person is expected to look from under as a.net on a well, then, according to the stronger opinion, it is not obligatory (cover the private parts from below), except when there is a person looking in the net.

The hiding from sight may be obtained through any means which may hide a thing from sight, including even a hand, coating with mud or dipping in water. Even both the hips are sufficient to cover the anus.

The hiding of the (private parts) in prayer is not sufficient by means of the things mentioned above, even in case of an emergency.

As regards covering (the private parts) by means of leaves, grass, cotton, and unwoven wool, according to the stronger opinion, it is permissible generally, though caution must not be given up in case of the first two.

According to the stronger opinion, if a person finds nothing to (cover his private parts), even grass or leaves, it is permissible for him to offer prayer, though it is more cautious for a person who finds something to coat with to add to his own condition the condition of one who could find something (to cover his private parts). [2]

When a person offers the forgotten Sajdah or tashahhud, he should cover himself in the same manner as in prayers, and the recommended precaution is that he should also cover himself at the time of offering Sajda-e-Sahv.

If while offering prayers, a person does not cover his private parts intentionally, or on account of not having cared to know the rule, his prayers is void.

If a person realizes while offering prayers, that his private parts are visible, he must immediately cover them, and it is not necessary for him to repeat the prayers. As a measure of precaution, he should not continue performing any part of the prayers, as long as the private parts are visible. If he learns after the completion of prayers that his private parts were visible, his prayers would be deemed valid.

If the dress of a person covers his private parts while he stands, but it may not cover them in another posture like in Ruku or Sajdah, his namaz will be valid if he manages to conceal them by some other means. However, the recommended precaution is that he should not pray in such dress.[3]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Philosophy of Hijab during prayer, answer 020.

Index: The best place for a woman to pray is at home or mosque, answer 015.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules of Namaz » Covering the body in prayers, Q: 796-797.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Third Preliminary of Prayer: Permissible Garment of the Person Offering Prayer; Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pgs. 441-445.

[3] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules of Namaz » Covering the body in prayers, Q: 798-801.

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The Secret of Prayer / Sirr us-Salat

Question 589: Salaam. I want to ask what the reason behind the every act of Namaz? What is the Secret of Prayer (Sirr us-Salat)?

Answer 589: Without doubt every divine ruling has its philosophy and reason, but we do not have to investigate every ruling and find its philosophy. A true Muslim must surrender before the message of revelation. This character of submission and acceptance creates perfection in the human being and essentially some rulings are obliged upon mankind to test and gage his level of obedience and faith. God’s command to Ibrahim (A.S.), to sacrifice his child Ismail, is a fine paradigm.

What you will realize in this brief response is that every Islamic ruling and worshipping code in Islam has its philosophy.

Firstly: because of hundreds of Quranic verses and hadith which encourage people to think and ponder.[1]

Secondly: one of the strongest criticisms of the Quran against mushriks and idol worshipers is that they blindly and unreasonably follow their ancestors.[2]

Thirdly: the Quran itself has mentioned rulings along with their philosophy.[3]

The infallible imams have attended to disclosing these secrets in the traditions received from them and Muslim scholars have written books on these secrets and philosophies.

In light of these points one must add:

  1. It isn’t indispensible that all people in all times know of all of these philosophies.
  2. We must be aware not to solely perceive the philosophy of Islamic rulings as material and worldly benefits and simply focus on the financial, sanitarian, etc., facets and neglect the spiritual and moral effects.
  3. One who believes that God is wise and obliges his rulings upon mankind accordingly, should not look for reasons and explanations and rely on the wisdom of his lord. However, reasons and philosophies have been mentioned regarding prayer, some of its essentials (arkan), details and recitations such as intention (niyyat), tashahud, ruku’, sujud, salam, etc. Here, we will point out a few examples.

Prayer Prohibits Evil

The Quran says: Prayer prohibits from evil and vice.[4]

Prayer and Effacing Negligence

In another section we read: Keep up prayer for My remembrance.[5]

Prayer and Tranquility

It also reads: By Allah’s remembrance are the hearts set at rest.[6]

Battle Against Pride and Arrogance

Prayer, which is the remembrance of the source of every greatness and appeal to the center of power and greatness, eliminates self pride and arrogance. In other words, prayer shatters pride and arrogance; because one who prays seventeen raka’ts of prayer in a 24 hour time span and places his forehead on the ground in humbleness in every raka’t, perceives himself as a tiny creature before his lord and tears open apart the veil of being self-conceit. This is why, after faith, Imam Ali (A.S.) describes the first and most important worship with this same goal, to be prayer: Allah has obliged faith to cleanse man from uncertainty and prayer for cleansing him from arrogance.[7]

Developing the Habit of Punctuality and Organization

Prayer develops the habit of punctuality; because this ritual must be done in certain times and performing it earlier or postponing it will invalidate it. The same goes for other parts of the prayer such as, intention, qiyam, ruku’, sujud, qu’ud. etc., which facilitate the tendency to be punctual and organized in other aspects of life.

Remembrance of Resurrection

One who prays remembers the hereafter and its greatness when reciting “Master of the Day of Judgment”. It reminds him that there is a world other than this one which is the result and manifestation of our actions and deeds in this world.

Expressing Love to the Good and Disassociation and Aloofness from Evil

Expressing love to the good and disassociation and aloofness from evil is one of the philosophies of reciting the verses of the holy surah of Al-Hamd. One who prays and recites “ایاک نعبد و ایاک نستعین، اهدنا الصراط المستقیم صراط الذین انعمت علیهم”, is seeking the friendship and closeness of God Almighty, the Prophets, the right doers, martyrs and the righteous and moves to their side and by saying “غیر المغضوب علیهم و لاالضالین”, distances himself from the mislead and deviated.

In the end we must point out that: the reason for the obligation of prayer is the remembrance of and admitting to Allah being our lord, battling with shirk and idol worshipping, standing before Allah in humbleness, admitting to our sins and asking for forgiveness and placing the forehead before Allah and His glory. Some of the other main reasons for praying are to be constantly aware, not allow negligence to takeover, become proud of oneself and self-conceit, humbleness and for our blessings to blossom.[8]

These were some of the Quranic verses and ahadith which unveil some of the secrets and philosophies of prayer.

Before concluding it is necessary point out that numerous books and articles have been written about the secrets and philosophies of prayer by different authors and Shiite scholars.[9]

Sources for further research:

Ilal al-Sharaye’, Sheikh Saduq

Sirr al-Salah and Ādāb al-Salah, Imam Khomeini

A Glimpse at the Philosophy of Prayer, Mohsen Qara’ati

For further information on this issue, please refer to the following sources:

The Secret of Prayer, Sirr us-Salat, by Imam Khomeini (ra). (PDF version)

Ilal al-Sharaye’, Sheikh Saduq

A Glimpse at the Philosophy of Prayer, Mohsen Qara’ati

[1] Nahl:44; Aal Imran:191.

[2] A’raf:173.

[3] Ankabut:45; Baqarah:183.

[4] Ankabut:45.

[5] Taha:14.

[6] Ra’d:24.

[7] Nahjul-Balaghah, saying 252. “وَ قَالَ (ع) فَرَضَ اللَّهُ الْإِيمَانَ تَطْهِيراً مِنَ الشِّرْكِ وَ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْزِيهاً عَنِ الْكِبْر”.

[8] Sheikh Saduq, Man la Yahduruhu al-Faqih, vol. 1, pg. 214, Jame’eye Mudarresin, Qum, second edition, 1404 AH; Sheikh Saduq, Ilal al-Sharaye’, vol. 2, pg. 317, Davari, Qum, first edition, “إنّ علة الصلاة أنها إقرار بالرّبوبية للّه عزّ و جلّ، و خلع الأنداد و قيام بين يدي الجبّار جلّ جلاله بالذّلة و المسكنة و الخضوع و الاعتراف، و الطّلب للإقالة من سالف الذّنوب، و وضع الوجه على الأرض كلّ يوم إعظاما للّه جلّ جلاله و أن يكون ذاكرا غير ناس و لا بطر.و يكون خاشعا متذلّلا راغبا طالبا للزيادة في الدّين و الدنيا مع ما فيه من الإيجاب، و المداومة على ذكر اللّه عزّ و جل باللّيل و النهار و لئلّا ينسى العبد سيّده و مدبّره و خالقه، فيبطر و يطغى و يكون ذلك في ذكره لربّه عزّ و جلّ، و قيامه بين يدي”.

[9] . Adopted from answer 13873 IQ.

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Rules Concerning Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã Prayers

Question 143: Why is the Eid prayer led by one person and the Eid qunut dua led by another person?

Answer 143: The Prayers for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are obligatory during the presence of the Imam, Peace be upon him, and when he has complete freedom of action as well as the fulfillment of other required conditions, but they are approved during the Occultation (Ghaibat) of the Imam, and it is more cautious to offer them individually during the Period of Occultation of the Imam. There is, however, no objection in offering them with Jamã’at with the hope (that it shall be desirable to Allah), and not with intention that it has come down in the Shari’at The time for offering these two prayers is from the rising of the sun to noon. It does not become due if not offered.

They consist of two Rak’ats, in each of the Rak’ats one must recite the Sürat al-Hamd (Chapter 1 of the Quran) and some other Surah of the Quran. It is, however, preferable to recite Surat al-Shams (Chapter 91 of the Quran) in the first Rak’at and Surat aI-Ghãshiyah (Chapter 88 of the Quran) in the second Rak’at, or Surat al-A’la (Chapter 87 of the Quran) in the first Rak’at and Surat al-Shams in the second Rakat. After the recitation of the Surah from the Quran in the first Rak’at, one must recite five Takbirs and five Qunuts, one Qunut being after each Takbir, and in the second Rak’at four Takbirs and four Qunuts, one Qunut being after each Takbir.

In the Qunüt, it is permissible to recite any Dhikr or Du’ã’ like other prayers, and if one recites what is usual, there is no harm; rather, it would be approved, and that is as follows (in Arabic): “Allãhummã ahlal kibriyã’i val ‘azamati va ahlal judi val jabarut va ahlal ‘afwi var rahmah va ahlat taqwâ val maghfirah As’aluka bihaqqi hadhal yowmi ladhi ja ‘altahu lil Musilmeena Eidä va lil Muhammadin sallallãhu alaihi va àlihee dhukhran vasharafan va karãmatan va mazeeda an tusalli ‘alã Muhammadin va Al-i Muhammad va an tudkhilani fi kulli khairin adkhalta feehi Muhammadan va Al-a Muhammad va an tukhrijani min kulli su’in akhrajta minhu Muhammadan va Al-a Muhammad Salawàtuka ‘alaihi va ‘alaihim Allãhummã as’aluka khaira ma sa’laka bihi ‘ibãdukas Salihun va ‘audhu bika mimmasta’ãdha minhu ‘ibãdukal mukhlisun”.

Its English translation is as follows: “O Allah, Possessor of Majesty and Greatness, Possessor of Generosity and Almightiness, Possessor of Forgiveness and Mercy, Possessor of Protection and Pardon, I ask Thee, for the sake of this Day which Thou hast set for Muslims a Day of Rejoicing, and for Muhammad, Blessing be on him and his Progeny, (a source of) treasure, honour, dignity and even more, to send Blessing to Muhammad and his Progeny, and to enter me (or my name) in every good deed, Thou hast entered in it (the names of) Muhammad and Muhammad’s Progeny, and remove me (or my name) from every evil, Thou hast removed from it (the names of) Muhammad and Muhammad’s Progeny, Thy Blessing be on him and them. O Allah, I ask Thee for every good thing asked for by Thy pious Devotees, and seek of Thee for the refuge sought for by Thy pure Devotees.”

If a group of people offers these two prayers with Jamã’at with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), the Imam shall deliver two Sermons after offering them with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah). It is permissible to give up both these prayers during the

Period of Occultation (of the Twelfth Imam). (When these prayers are offered), it is permissible to recite the words loudly by the Imam (when offered with Jamãat), or by the individual (when offered individually). It is also approved to raise the hands at the time of reciting the Takbirs, and offer it in large open spaces excepting Mecca. It is disapproved to offer these prayers under a roof.

Like all other Jama’ats, the Imam is not responsible in these prayers for anything except recitation.

If a person doubts about the number of the Takbirs or Qunuts (in these prayers), and the doubt occurs in its proper place (of compensation), he shall decide in favour of the minimum.

If a person does something entailing the performance of the prostration for error, it is more cautious to perform the prostration for error with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), though its non-obligation, when the prayer be considered to be approved, (and not obligatory), is not devoid of force. The same is the case with the compensation for a forgotten Tashahhud or prostration

In the prayers for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhà, there is neither a call for prayer (Adhãn), nor a call for standing for prayer (Iqamah). Of course, it is approved for the Muadhdhin (one who calls for prayer) to call (loudly) three times: ‘Assalat’ (i.e., The prayer is ready).[1]

According to an obligatory precaution, it is said that two sermons (khutbas) be delivered after Eid prayer (in regards to the Jummah prayer, another difference is that the khutbah is delivered before prayer and with Eid prayer the khutbah is delivered after the prayer), and it is better the sermons should explain rules regarding Zakatul Fitr.

– If you are going to offer it individually, you must recite the whole Dhikrs by yourself.

– If you want to offer it in congregation, some of its Dhikrs are recited by the Imam and others by you and the Imam simultaneously.

– When the Imam of prayer is reciting Surah al-Hamd and al-Ikhlas (or al-A’la) others just listen and don’t recite these Surahs by themselves.

– Other Dhikrs such as Takbirs, dua in Qunut, Ruku, Sujood and Tashahhod are being recited by the Imam of Prayer and all Mamomeen altogether.

– Since this prayer comes only once a year, there is often difficulties about how to offer this prayer and recite the dua in Qunut. So, a mukabbir (one who pronounces takbir) is usually recite this dua in order to help others recite this dua correctly. However, the Imam of prayer and all Mamoneen are reciting it by themselves.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Zakat of Fitrah, Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies), answer 045.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

[1] . Tahrir al-Wasiah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Rules Concerning Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã Prayers.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masail (without annotation), Roohollah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pgs. 824 & 825 question 1516, 1519 & 1520.

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Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer

Question 579: Hi. I have heard that Muslim can make Dua during Sajdah in his own language while praying. Is this true?

In which position that Dua would be recited. Will it be while saying Subhana rabbi al awla in Sajdah?

Answer 579: The followings are the answers of our maraja’ regarding this issue:

Imam Khomeini (ra), Ayatollah Araki (ra) Ayatollah Noori Hamedani:

There would be no problem to recite dua in any language other than Arabic while praying.[1]

Ayatollah Bahjat (ra):

Reciting dua or dikr in any language which is specialized for the person offering prayer is permissible, though it is against the precaution.[2]

Ayatollah Tabrizi (ra), Khoei, Shobairi Zanjani, Safi, Golpayegani and Vahid Khorasani:

There would be no problem to recite dua while praying, however you are supposed not to recite it in other than Arabic langage, according to a recommended precaution.[3]

Ayatollah Khamenei:

There is no problem to recite dua in any language during the prayer.[4]

Ayatollah Sistani:

Reciting Dua during the prayers is permissible. However, the recommended precaution is that one should not read Duas in any language other than Arabic.[5]

Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani (ra):

Reciting dua during the prayer is permissible, however it should be recited in Atabic language, according to an obligatory precaution.[6]

Ayatollah Makarem:

It is impermissible to recite dua in any language other than Arabic.[7]

Note: It is obligatory to recite Dhikr in prostration as mentioned under Rukü’, the major Tasbih here being: Subhana rabbiyal a’lã va bi hamdihi.[8]

It is mustahab to recite dua in the last sajdah of the prayer. In this regards, Imam Ali (as) says: It is not necessary to recite Surah al-Hamd and Ikhlas in Ruku and Sajdah. You are recommended to at first praise Allah, the Almighty and then make dua.[9]

The followings are duas we are recommended to recite. Although, they haven’t exactly mentioned in traditions, but there are some traditions that are related to these duas.

. Ya Latif irham ‘abdika al dhaeef al-Zaleel.[10]

. Ya Wali ul Aafeeya, As’aluka al-Afyiah, Aafyit al-Dunya wal Akhirah.[11]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer.

Index:  Perform our prayers in Arabic language, answer 010.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 154, q. 1135; ibid, Pg. 207, q. 1137; Ibid, Pg. 231, issue. 1136.

[2] . Istiftaat, Vol. 2, Pg. 151, q. 2029.

[3] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 176, q. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 197, issue. 1144; Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 270, issue. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 229, issue. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 199, issue. 1144; Ibid, Pg. 408, issue. 1144.

[4] . New Istiftaat, N. 1, Pg. 16, code: 32304.

[5] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja, Pg. 232, issue. 1122; The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, rules concerning Things which invalidate prayers » Introduction.

[6] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 192, issue. 1154.

[7] . Tawzih al-Masael, Pg. 193, issue. 1016.

[8] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Rules Concerning Sajdah (Prostration).

[9] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 6, Pg. 310.

[10] . Sheikh Sadouq, Man la Yahduruhul Faqih, researcher and editor: Ghafari, Ali Akbar, Vol. 2, Pg. 165; Sayyid bin Tawus, Radi al-Din Ali, al-Iqbal bil Aamal al-Hasanah, researcher and editor: Qayoumi Esfahani, Javad, Vol. 1, Pg. 395.

[11] . Sheikh Sadouq, Oyoun Akhbar al-Rida (as), researcher and editor: Lajvardi, Mahdi, Vol. 2, Pg. 16; al-Iqbal bil Aamal al-Hasanah, Vol. 3, Pg. 39.

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Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr

Question 384: Salam Alaikum! There is someone who lives in Stockholm and they work there too. But they decided during The Month Of Ramadhan to live outside the city, which that city is 50 km aways from Stockholm .But I know they can fast if they travel after Salat Aldhur ; here is the question, will the traveler’s Salat be Qasar or tamam?

My Marja: Ayatollah Al-Udhma Sayed Ali Al-Sistani

Answer 384: If they travel after Dhuhr (noon) their fast is treated as valid. If they have decided to stay in that city for 10 days they would have to offer their prayers tamam and fast till they are there for 10 days. Otherwise, they should offer their prayers Qasr and not to fast other days in this state.

According to Sayyid Sistani (ha), if a fasting person travels after Zuhr, he should, as a precaution, complete his fast. If he travels before Zuhr and had an intention from the previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that day. As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day even if he had no intention to travel from the previous night. In both the cases, he cannot break the fast till he has reached the limit of Tarakkhus. If he does, he will be liable to give Kaffarah.

If a traveller in the month of Ramadhan, regardless of whether he was travelling before Fajr, or was fasting and then undertook the journey, reaches his hometown before Zuhr or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, and if has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, he should fast on that day. But if he has committed such an act, it is not obligatory on him to fast on that day.

If after covering a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, the traveller abandons the journey, and if he decides to remain at that place, or to return after 10 days, or is undecided about returning or staying there, he should offer full prayers.

If a person abandons the journey after reaching a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, and decides to return, he should offer shortened prayers even if he wants to stay there for less than 10 days.

For the shar’i distance needed to travel in order for one’s prayer to become shortened, the fuqaha (Jurisprudents) have various rulings. Some say the distance necessary is approximately 22.5 kilometers.[1] Others say that the distance is approximately 21.5 kilometers.[2] Another group says that it is approximately 22 kilometers.[3]

A Farsakh is equal to three miles, while a mile is equal to four thousand cubits, whose length is equal to the breadth of twenty four fingers, and each finger is equal to the width of seven grains of barley, and each barley is equal to the breadth of seven average hair of a Turkish horse (or a pony). If the distance is less than that, even if to a minimal extent, the person on journey shall offer unreduced prayer.[4]

Note: A traveler for whom it is obligatory to shorten a four Rak’ats prayers to two Rak’ats, should not fast. However, a traveler who offers full prayers, like, a person who is a traveler by profession or who goes on a journey for a haram purpose, should fast while travelling.[5]

[1] Imam Khomeini, Ayatullahs Bahjat, Khamenei, Fadhil Lankarani, Safi and Nouri. Tawdhihul-Masa’el (of Marja’s), vol. 1, issue 1272.

[2] Makarem Shirazi, Tawzihul-Masa’el (of Maraji’), vol. 1, pg. 684.

[3] Tabrizi, Sistani and Vahid Khorasani, Minhajul-Salehin, issue 884.

[4] . The Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Prayers of a traveller » Prayers of a traveller (Musafir) & Fasting by a traveler; Tahrir al-Wasila of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on a Traveler’s Prayers and its Relevant Rules.

[5] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Fasting » Fasting by a traveller.