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Masturbation and forget performing Ghusl in Ramadan

Question 141: If you masturbate during the night and forget to do ghusl, can you still perform ghusl when you wake up and fast that day?

Answer 141: The grand maraja’ answer in this regards is as follows: If one who becomes jonob during a night of the holy month of Ramadan and is sure or probably knows that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before morning Adhan (call to prayer) and do ghusl. So, if he falls asleep with the decision till Adhan, his fast would be considered as valid.

If one goes to sleep and wakes up later and knows or guesses that if he wants to go to sleep again he’ll wake up before morning adhan with the decision to do jinabat ghusl but he won’t wake up till adhan, then one must make his fast up.

There is no need to give Kaffarah even if he wakes up of the second sleep and goes to sleep for the third time and won’t wake up till adhan.[1]

Note: Masturbation is defined as self-stimulation of the sexual organ till one achieves emission of semen or orgasm. This applies to both men and women. This Self-satisfaction which is referred to as Istimna’ (masturbation) is a major sin and haram. It has a heavy punishment. If one has committed such forbidden act repentance and seeking God’s forgiveness would be sufficient for forgiveness.[2]

It should be noted that masturbation is one of the forbidden act which a person keeping fast must abstain. Ejaculation of the Semen, whether by masturbation, touching, kissing, rubbing (the male organ) on the thighs (of another person), or such other acts which are intended to cause discharge of semen. Rather even in case when the discharge of semen is not intended, but it was the usual consequence of the said act, in that case too it shall render the fast void. Of course, if ejaculation takes place without doing something which causes ejaculation in a person as a matter of his habit even without any intention on his part, it shall not render the fast void.[3]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Rules concerning Janabat during night or day time in the month of Ramadan, answer 394.

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

[1] . Tawzih al-masa’il (al-mohasha), vol 1, p 912, question 1627 . Ibid, p 914, question 1630.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding masturbation.

[3] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on Things Which Must Be Refrained in a Fast.

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Permissibility of getting a permanent or temporary Tattoo

Question 626: Asallamu ailikum. I would like to know is permanent tattoo on the body Haram and impure and does it invalidate prayers?

Answer 626: Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: Tattoos are permissible and they do not affect wudhu irrespective of whether they are permanent or temporary.[1]

Most of the grand jurists have said in regards to having tattoos: If tattoos are mere color or they are done under the skin and there is no substance on the skin to prevent water from reaching the skin, wudhu, ghusl and prayer are in order.[2] If there are substances on the skin that form obstruction and prevent water from reaching the skin, wudhu, ghusl and prayer would be invalid. [3] In the latter case, the obstruction should first be removed and then one should take action for ghusl.

In case, the tattoos contain any substances or ingredients which prevent water from reaching the skin, it is necessary to remove them before wudhu or ghusl.[4] In case, the tattoos do not contain any substances that would form obstruction, there is no problem. Therefore, hajj acts like Tawaf (circumambulation), and prayer of Tawaf which need ritual purity (wudhu or ghusl) are in order in such a case.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) was asked if it is permissible for a woman to get her eyebrows tattooed. His Excellency replied: “Since the tattoos are done under the skin, there is no problem. However, if they are considered zinah (adornment) in common view, she must cover them from non-mahram men.”[5]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate Wudu (ablution), answer 556.

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 626.

Index: The validity of Ghusl even a barrier finds out after a week, answer 031.

Index: Rules on drawing according to Islam, answer 226.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Tattoos.

[2] – Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini) vol.1, pg.205.

[3] – Ibid. 201

[4] – Majma’ al-Masail (by Ayatollah Gulpaigani), vol.1, pg. 65.

[5] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Tattoos.

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Makeup after wudu doesn’t void prayer

Question 157: Salaam to everyone. I have a question and I hope someone can shed some light or answer my question. Recently my teenage daughter asked me “mum if someone did their ablution before They go college and read the salah there and then put on muscara after their ablution would that salah be void or would it be accepted”? Now I was kind of confused as to what answer do I give. Because as the ablution was done with no mascara on but then the salah would be read WITH muscara on. Please, guys would appreciate the answer. Jzk to all.

Answer 157: According to maraja’, her wudu and prayer are treated as valid as it is not among those unclean things which invalidate wudu (ablution)[1]. However, for a matter of precaution, she should not perform her prayer in a place, where non-mahrams can see her makeup, but it doesn’t void her prayers.

The wudu is accepted because the mascara was applied after. There is not really a problem with the salah being offered with the mascara as its the ablation that is important and the wudu was accepted. What I would focus on next is what your marje says about makeup. Sayyid Sistani (ha) says it is fine to wear khol/mascara as long as it’s not done with the intention to attract attention and if it does then to remove it.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate Wudu (ablution), answer 556.

Index: Doubts during prayer whether wudu was performed or not, answer 036.

Index: Wiping performed on socks invalidates Wudu, answer 037.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

Index: Philosophy of Hijab during prayer, answer 020.

Index: Men and Women: Covering body in prayers, answer 594.

Index: The validity of Ghusl even a barrier finds out after a week, answer 031.

The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A, Wudhu.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 188.

[2] . Refer to: http://www.sistani.org/english/qa/01265/

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Istibra: liquid which comes out of body after Istibra is treated as pure

Question142: Sometimes while traveling a liquid comes out of my body, in which I am not able to recognize. What should I treat the liquid as?

Answer 142: If you performed Istibra after each urination, the liquid which comes out of your body afterward, is treated as pure.
Istibra is a recommended act for men after urinating. Its objective is to ensure that no urine is left in the urethra. There are certain ways of performing Istibra. The best way is after the passing of urine, if the anus also becomes najis, it is made clean first. Thereafter, the part between the anus and the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, and the forefinger below it, pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be jerked three times

It is also considered as pure if you are doubtful whether or not it is urine, semen or other najas things.

Otherwise, if you didn’t perform Istibra or you are sure it is a kind of najas thing (such as semen or urine and etc.) it is regarded as impure.[1]

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha).

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Permissibility of using products with animal ingredients we don’t know if they are ritually impure

Question 104: I have a question regarding lotions and other beauty products with animal ingredients. I know that if these products have haram ingredients, they are impermissible to use, however, what if we do not know? I emailed some of the companies from which I bought products and several of them said that they use plant ingredients whenever possible. This suggests that they may use animal ingredients at times. Because we are uncertain, are these products permissible to use? JazakAllah Khair

Answer 104: A well-known religious law says: “Everything is ritually pure for you unless you come to know that it is ritually impure.” This law declares everything to be pure unless one becomes sure a particular item has become impure. And as long as you are not sure that it has become ritually impure (najis), it is to be considered pure and you can apply all the rules of purity to it without any hesitation or doubt.[1]

Therefore, as you are not sure that such products have been extracted from those animals that are ceremonially unclean or those halal animals that have not been slaughtered canonically (Islamically) nor a lot of changes made on them to be considered as Istihala (chemical transformation)[2], they would be treated as halal. There is no need to be examined from which types of animal they have been extracted.[3]

Note: If a chemical change occurs in the original ingredients during the process of manufacturing such products, it is clean and there is no problem at all in using it, even if the original ingredient may have been pork or meat of an animal which has not been slaughtered according to Islamic laws.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A about Najasat.

[2] . If a najis thing undergoes such a change, that it assumes the category of a Pak thing it becomes Pak; for example, if a najis wood burns and is reduced to ashes, or a dog falls in a salt-marsh and transforms into salt, it becomes Pak. But a thing do es not become Pak if its essence or category does not change; like, if wheat is ground into flour, or is used for baking bread, it does not become Pak; The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding Mutahhirat, Transformation (Istihala).

[3] . A similar question was sent to the office of grand Ayatollahs: Khamenei, Sistani, Makarem Shirazi, Noori Hamadani, Safi Golpayegani (may Allah grant them long life).

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Wiping performed on socks invalidates Wudu

Question 037: What is the ruling in Jafari fiqh about making wudu over socks or are we supposed to take the socks off every time we make wudu?

Answer 037: According to all maraja, wiping performed on socks or shoes is void. If one is unable to remove his socks or shoes because of severe cold, or fear of life, or a robber and the like, there would be no problem to wipe on socks or shoes, and then his wudhu is considered as valid. If there was so cold but one would have enough time to perform his wudhu later under normal condition (on time of prayer) it is impermissible to wipe on the socks and shoes.

According to most of Ahlul Sunnah, wiping on the socks and shoes is permissible, even you are under normal condition. As a result, what the reason which is behind the permissibly of wiping on the socks and shoes is on the time when you are under Taqiyyah, according to Shia scholars.

Note: Ayatollah Sistani (ha) says: according to an obligatory precaution, one can wipe on the socks or shoes, and then perform tayammum. If a person is under Taqiyyah (hiding one’s faith), it would be enough for him to wipe on his socks and shoes.[1]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation), Sayyid Roohullah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 159, question 259, eighth edition, 1424 A.H. – For further information in this regards, please refer to: Moghniyah, Muhammad Javad, Al-Fiqh ‘ala al-Madhahib el Khamsah, Vol. 1, Pg. 37; Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Shia Pasokh Midahad (Shia Answers), Pg. 207.

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Doubts (shakk) during prayer whether wudu was performed or not

Question 036: If one gets Doubts (shakk) during the salah that wudu was not taken, should one break the salah to perform wudu?
Answer 036: If a person doubts during prayer (namaz) whether he has performed wuhu or not, his prayers is void, and he must perform wudhu and then pray. If a person is sure that he has performed wudu but doubts whether he has committed an act which invalidates it or not his wudu would be considered as valid.

If a person doubts whether his Wudhu has become void, he should treat it as valid. But, if he did not perform Istibra after urinating, and performed Wudhu, and thereafter some fluid was discharged about which he was not sure whether it was urine or something else, his Wudhu will be void.

If a person doubts whether he has performed Wudhu or not, he should perform Wudhu.

If a person is sure that he has performed Wudhu, and has also committed an act which invalidates Wudhu (e.g. urinating), but does not remember which happened first, he should act as follows: If this situation arises before his Namaz, he should perform Wudhu. If it arises during Namaz, he should break it and perform Wudhu. If it arises after Namaz, that Namaz will be valid, but for the next prayers, however, he should perform Wudhu.[1]

[1]. Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (with annotation), Sayyid Roohullah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 179, question 301, eighth edition, 1424 A.H. http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2157/;  The Official Website of the Office of Sayyid Sistani, Rules regarding Wudhu.

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Permissibility of using Henna even if it was mixed by a Hindu

Question 563: Salam. Can henna be applied if it was mixed by a Hindu?

Answer 563: Generally, if a thing like henna comes into contact with moisture from or on body of a Kafir (like Hindus and Buddhists who are polytheists[1] and considered to be idolaters in a way) it would make the thing najas as well. Meaning that we are supposed to wash it according to what mentioned in Tawzih al-Masael.

Although, there would be no problem to use such henna even if it was mixed by a Hindu, because, it is not something related to drinking and eating that we are forbidden to use, but if we want to offer our prayers we have to wash it first (i.e. the henna itself not its ink and color as it doesn’t  prevent water from reaching the skin) then offer our prayers as taharat is one of the conditions must be fulfilled for offering prayers.[2]

Note: the important issue we are recommended to take it into consideration is that we are not allowed to eat the food prepared by a non-Muslim who is not from Ahle Kitãb [for example, a Hindu or a Buddhist], provided that we certainly know that the non-Muslim touched the food with wetness; and provided that the food consists of what is forbidden to us like intoxicating drinks. As for meat, fat and their extracts, the food cooked by non-Muslims should not contain any of these. If the food contains meat and animal fat, we should be sure that they are halal.[3]

[1] – Serat al-Nejat by Ayatollah al-Shaikh al-Tabrizi, vol.6, pg. 373.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 95-873.

[3] . Adopted from answer 537 (Index: Eating food has been cooked by a Hindu or Buddhist).

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Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl

Question 035: Is it obligatory to make wudu after ghusl in order to offer prayers?

Answer 035: Grand Ayatollahs Imam Khomeini, Bahjat, Khamenei and Saafi: One who has performed jinabat ghusl mustn’t perform wudu in order to offer his prayers, but one must perform wudu after he has performed another obligatory or mustahab ghusl.
Ayatollah Fazel: One who has performed jinabat ghusl mustn’t perform wudu if he wants to offer his prayers. If one has performed other obligatory ghusl, except medium Istihadah ghusl, then one would be able to offer his\her prayers without wudu, although it is better to perform wudu as well.

Grand Ayatollahs Khoei, Tabrizi, Sistani, Noori, Zanjani and Vahid: One who has performed jinabat ghusl mustn’t perform wudu in order to offer prayers. If one has performed other mustahab and obligatory ghusl except medium Istihadah ghusl, one would be able to offer his\her prayers without wudu, although one is supposed to perform wudu as well, according to a recommended (mustahab) precaution.

Ayatollah Makarem: One is allowed to offer his prayer by any obligatory and mustahab ghusl such as jinabat or other one, but, according to a recommended precaution, one should perform wudu if he has performed other ghusl but jinabat.

In Conclusion: One has to perform wudu if he\she wants to offer his\her prayers, however he has performed a mustahab ghusl, according to the fatwa of grand Ayatollahs Imam Khomeini, Bahjat, Khamenei, Safi Golpayegani and Fazel Lankarani.

However, according to the fatwa of grand Ayatollahs Khoei, Tabrizi, Sistani, Makarem, Noori, Zanjani and Vahid, one is allowed to offer his prayer by mustahab ghusl, however, according to a recommended precaution, one is supposed to perform wudu if he has performed mustahab ghusl.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: A person who does Ghusl of Janabat should not do Wudhu for the prayers. In fact one can offer prayers without performing Wudhu after all Wajib Ghusls (except the bath for medium istihaza) as well as after Mustahab Ghusls. In the case of Mustahab Ghusls, however, it is better to do Wudhu as a recommended precaution.[1]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’, issues 391 & 646; Tawzih al-Masael, Ayatollah Wahid, rule 397; Ayatollah Noori, rules 392 & 647.

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Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl

Question 034: I used to masturbate, for the past few years, without knowing it was haram and that it voids the prayers and the fasts. I didn’t take the ghusl (ritual bath) and was fasting and praying in this impure state. Today I understand my mistake, but I don’t remember how many times I did it, nor how many fast/prayers it concerns. I’m 14 years old, and I don’t know which rules apply to me in order to pay the Qadha, as I didn’t know it was haram. I think I’ve missed at least three months of fasts. What’s the rule for someone who ignored that masturbation was illicit? I follow Ayatullah Khamenei.

Answer 034: Undoubtedly, one must make qada, as all the fasting and prayers have been done in the state of Janabat, according to Ayatollah Khomeini, Bahjat, Tabrizi, Khamenei, Makarem, Vahid and Sobhani.[1] If he\she knew that, his\her prayer and fasting in this state is regarded as invalid. What should one do if the one didn’t know the rule concerning this issue nor knew that performing ghusl is required for doing such acts?

Remember, to act based on your own marja’ ruling. Here are some of the answers of our contemporary scholars concerning this issue, as follows:

According to Imam Khomeini (May his soul rest in peace), who had replied to the question: What is the ruling on a woman who ignorantly didn’t know the rules concerning womens ihtilam and then she has done her worships without ghusl? He replied as follows: If they weren’t sure that they have become polluted, (jonob) there would be no need to compensate those prayers that have been offered in that state, however in any case, her fasting were considered as valid.

According to Ayatollah Khamenei, one must make qada for those of her prayers that have been offered in the state of janabat, but her fasting is considered as valid and doesn’t need to compensate it if she didn’t know the rules concerning the janabat itself.
According to Ayatollah Bahjat, one who doesn’t know that janabat ghusl is obligatory, his\her prayers that have been offered in that state are void and must compensate them.
Ayatollah Makarem has said, as long as the woman has performed hayd ghusl (as it is sufficient by which she doesn’t need to perform janabat ghusl), those of her prayers and fasting that have been done after the ghusl, are treated as valid. Those prayers that have been offered before performing ghusl and in the state of janabat are void and must be compensated. One who has become polluted by doing haram act is able to perform his\her ghusl by hot water.

According to Ayatollah Sistani, Safi Golpayegani and Fazel (ha): if you didn’t neglect learning Islamic laws your fasts have been done in this state would be in order, but you must perform Ghusl and fulfill the qaza of your prayers.[2]

Ayatollah Noori, Your fast is in order, but you have to qadha all your prayers offered in the state of Janabat.[3]

Note: Self-satisfaction which is referred to as masturbation or Istimna’ is a major sin and haram and has a heavy punishment.

In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “Say [that Allah declares,] ” O My servants who have committed excesses against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah. Indeed Allah will forgive all sins. Indeed He is the All-forgiving, the All-merciful.”[4]

[1] . Ayatollah Tabrizi, Serat al-Najat, Vol. 1, Q 107; Minhaj al-Salehin, Vol. 1, after rule 1004;  Ayatollah Wahid, Minhaj al-Salehin, Vol. 2, after rule 1004;  Sitiftaat, Vol. 1, Fasting, Q 31, Ayatollah Khamenei, Q 194.

[2] . Ayatollah Sistani, Minhaj al-Salehin, Vol, after rule 1004;  Ayatollah Fazel, Jame al-Masael, Vol. 1, Q 558.

[3] . Ayatollah Noori, Istiftaat, Vol. 2, Q 96.

[4] . Surah al-Zumar, verse 53.

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Offering Qada Prayer if you forget to clean the dress carelessly

Question 033: I had wudu before suhoor yesterday and then I ate. After eating, my stomach was hurting so I went to the toilet and I saw light brownish marks from feces on my underwear. There wasn’t any actual feces on it, but just a faint mark. I wanted to clean it but I forgot and ended up doing wudu and praying Fajr. I only remembered when I was going to bed. I wasn’t sure whether I have to make up this prayer or not. In the morning, when I woke up, my menses started. What is the rule of Offering Qada Prayer?

Answer 033: If you were sure that the light brownish mark was from the feces and forgot to clean it, you have to make your Fajr prayer up (Qada). However, there wasn’t any actual feces on your underwear!

Otherwise, if you were not sure whether it was from feces and Najas or not your prayer is treated as valid.[1]

In Minhaj Ul Saliheen, Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha) said, “According to an obligatory precaution, if it was due to carelessness, his prayer is treated as invalid whether he remembered after prayer or during prayer. Otherwise, if it wasn’t due to carelessness his prayer is valid.[2]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masaiel of Maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 85, Question 121;Ibid, Pg. 87, Question 123.

[2] . Minhaj al-Saliheen, Vol. 1, Pg.144, Question 422 & 426.

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The validity of Ghusl even a barrier finds out after a week

Question 031:  If someone does ghusl and after a week finds out that there was a barrier, such as nail polish on their left foot, do they need to repeat the entire ghusl or is it sufficient just to wash that area.
Answer 031: If the Tartibi (sequential) Ghusl was performed, one must only wash that part where the barrier was and that would be sufficient, even though time has passed and all parts of the body had become dry. Therefore, there would be no need to repeat the entire Ghusl nor to repeat washing the whole left side of body. However, if the barrier was on the right side of body and the Tartibi Ghusl was performed, one must wash that part and then wash the whole left side of body.

According to Khomeini (r.a), if one finds out that there was a barrier on his or her body, one must repeat the entire Ghusl if he or she was performed Irtimasi (submerging the whole body) Ghusl, whether or not the barrier was on the left side of the body or right.

It should be noted that all prayers offered after the Ghusl was performed are invalid. The obligatory prayers must be repeated, however fasts are treated as valid.[1]

[1] . Imam Khomeini, Tahrir al-Wasilah, Vol. 1, Pg. 41, issue number 7; for further information please refer to: Tabrizi, Jawad bin Ali, newest Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 143, Q. 672, first edition; Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi, Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 206, Q. 719, the office of Ayatollah Bahjat, Qom, first edition, 1428 A.H.

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Number of things which invalidate Wudhu (ablution)

Question 556: Can you please let us know those things that invalidate Wudhu (ablution) and their Causes?

Brief answer 556: Things that invalidate wudu are: Passing of urine. Excretion. Passing wind from the rear. A sleep, deep enough to restrict sight and hearing. However, if the eyes do not see anything, but the ears can hear, Wudhu does not become void. Things on account of which a person loses his sensibility, like insanity, intoxication or unconsciousness. Istihaza which will be dealt with later. Janabat, and, as a recommended precaution, every state which requires Ghusl.[1]

 

Detailed answer 556: There are several Unclean Things which invalidate wudu (ablution) and cause the necessity for its repetition.

 

1 & 2: Effusion of urine or what falls under its category, such as the suspected wetness coming out before istibrã’ or excretion of feces from the natural or unnatural passage, regardless whether the natural passage is blocked or not, and whether its amount is large or small, and whether it is accompanied, for example, by worms or lumps.

3: Passing out of wind from anus, if it comes out of the stomach or bowels, whether it is accompanied with sound and bad odor or not. But the wind that comes out of the front organ (vulva) of a woman, and not from the stomach or bowels is like the wind that enters from outside and then comes out. (It will not nullify ablution).

4: A sleep which overwhelms the senses of sight and hearing (as a result of which the eyes do not see, and the ears do not hear).

5: Everything which stuns human reason such as insanity, swooning, drunkenness or the like.

6: The minor or medium Istihädah (undue menstruation), rather to be more cautious, the abundant one too, though we have declared ritual bath to be obligatory in such cases.

Note: If the water of enema comes out without being accompanied by something like it would not invalidate ablution.

Likewise, if there is suspicion of the water of enema being accompanied by something, Or when some worm or lump comes out without being sullied by feces, (the ablution shall not be void)[2]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 188.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Things that invalidate Ablution & Their Causes.