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Verse of Quran say Allah has created everything in pairs

Question 130: Allah (swt) created everything in pears, what does this mean? Not everyone meets their soul mate. Does soul mate have another meaning, maybe deeper or different than what we think it should be?

Answer 130: What the verse of the Holy Qur’an in which it is mentioned that Allah (swt) created everything in pairs is as follows:

In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt), the Almighty says, “And for every creature We created its Mate [a pair: male and female] this is something that you may think about The wisdom behind it.”[1]

وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ

“Wamenkolle shay­en khalaq­nâ zaw jay­ne la’allakom tadhakkarôn”

In the other verse of the holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion Most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.[2]

This doesn’t mean that Allah, the Almighty has only created a special mate for us the human being or a man can only have one mate in his life, because we are able to choose different mates that have in common with us.

According to some scholars, mate means ‘male and female’. According to others, the word mate means, such opposite creatures like earth and sky, day and night, land and sea and human and Jin.

The wisdom behind this is that we may take admonition and know not to consider any Partner with Allah (swt), because, He is Allah (swt), the One! The eternally Besought of all! He begets not nor was begotten.

The word ‘kolle shay­en‘ (every creature) means every animal. This means that Allah (swt) has created male and female from every animal (such as human being who is a rational being and other beings).[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam, answer 515.

[1] . Surah al-Zariyat, verses 49-51.

[2] . Surah Room, verse 21.

[3] . Tafsir Al-Mizan, Vol. 18, Pg. 573. Al-Ikhlas (112), verses 1-4. Gonabadi, Sultan Muhammad, Tafsir-e Bayan-es Sa’adat fi Maqamat-el Ebadat, Vol. 4, Pg. 115, second edition, 1408 A.H.’ Zamakhshari, Mahmood, al-Kashaf an Haqayeq e Ghavamedh al-Tanzil, Vol. 4, Pg. 404, Darul Ketab al-Arabi, Beirut, third edition, 1407 A.H.

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Receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Quran

Question 126: Is it allowed to make money off of teaching Qur’an?

Answer 126: There would be no problem to receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Qur’an, except those Surahs that we recite in our prayers like Surah al-Fatiha and Ikhlas, according to Ayatollah Bahjat and Fazel Lankarani[1].

Some scholars have issued a fatwa that it is abnormal (makrooh)[2].

The following is ahadith that blames us if we want to receive wages for training the Holy Qur’an: Imam Ali (a.s) has said, “Those who want to receive wages for training of the Holy Qur’an they will be given on the Day of Judgment as whatever they have received in this world[3].”

According to the above mentioned hadith, receiving wage for training the Holy Qur’an is abnormal[4].

Imam Ali (a.s) didn’t say you are not allowed to receive a wage in this regards, he said, “You will reward on the Day of Judgment as whatever you are given in this world. This means, you will never be rewarded on that Day! As a result, it is suited with abnormal! We can figure out from other traditions in which there would be no problem to receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Qur’an as the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, “The lawful wage you can ever be given is the wage for training the Holy Qur’an[5].”

In conclusion, it is appropriate to provide training of the Holy Qur’an with the intention of gaining proximity to Allah (SWT). We should consider the spiritual and heavenly remuneration if we want to provide training of the Holy Qur’an, instead of receiving a worldly wage, however, there would be no problem to receive it. The wages we are given in this regards should be considered as gift.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Taking wage for reciting holy Quran or eulogy, answer 451.

[1] . Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi, Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Question 1447; Fazel Lankarani, Muhammad, book of Jemeul Masail, Vol. 1, Pg. 591, Question 2211.

[2] . Makarem Shirazi, Nase, new Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 521, second edition.

[3] . Sheikh Sadouq, Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh, Vol. 3, Pg. 178, second edition, 1413 AH.

[4] . Hilli, Hasan bin Yousef, Tadkiratul Foqaha, vol. 12, Pg. 136, first edition; Ardabili, Ahmad bin Muhammad, Majmaul Faidah walburhan fi, Sharhe Ershadel Adhan, Vol. 8, Pg. 18, first edition, 1403 AH; Majlesi, Muhammad Taqi, Rawzatul Muttaqin Fi Sharh e Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh, reasercher Moosavi Kermani, Sayyid Hussain & Estehardi, Ali Panah and Tabatabaee, Sayyid Fadhlulllah, Vol. 6, Pgs. 511 and 512.

[5] . Ibn Abi Jomhoor Ihsaee, Muhammad bin Ali, Awalial Layali al-Azizah Fi al-Ahadith al-Diniyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 176, Dar e Sayyid al-Shohada LialNashr, Qom, first edition, 1405 AH. «إِنَّ أَحَقَ مَا أَخَذْتُمْ عَلَیهِ أَجْراً كِتَابُ اللَّه»

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Wisdom of placing the Holy Quran on our head

Question 112: What is the wisdom and narrations of placing the Holy Qur’an on top of your head? When are the appropriate times during the year to do this?

Answer 112: As we Shia follow the traditions of the Infallibles (as), we all follow whatever they have been told us in this regards.
Ali bin Yaqteen narrated from Imam Kadhim (as) that the Imam (as) said: “Take the holy Quran in your hand and place it on top of your head and then say:

اللَّهُمَّ بِحَقِّ مَنْ أَرْسَلْتَهُ إِلَى خَلْقِكَ وَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ هِيَ فِيهِ وَ بِحَقِّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مَدَحْتَهُ فِيهِ وَ بِحَقِّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَ لَا أَحَدَ أَعْرَفُ بِحَقِّهِ مِنْكَ يَا سَيِّدِي يَا سَيِّدِي يَا سَيِّدِي

Then say “یا الله” (O Allah) for ten times, “بحق محمد” (by the right of Muhammad (pbuh)) ten times, and then continue saying each name of the Infallible Imams (pbuth) ten times. After all has been mentioned ten times, beg Allah whatever you want. So, Allah, the Almighty will grant all your wishes.

It is said (in traditional resources) that whenever you face any problems try to offer two Rakats, place the holy Quran on top of your head and mention the name of Allah (SWT), Holy Prophet (pbuh) and ahlul bayt (pbuth) ten times, so Allah. The Almighty will grant your wishes. [1]

While placing the qur’an on the head. Remind yourself that true salvation can only be achieved by always keeping the rules of qur’an ahead of us to follow. The fact that we put the Qur’an on our head is a sign of respect and reverence. We beseech Allah by the thaqalayn – the speaking and the silent Qur’an.[2] Pray for Aql/Intelligence to be Kamil (complete), it is Kashe (submits) to quran & acquires Noor (light) from it.

O Allah! I appeal to Thee in the name of this Qur’an and the Rooh that was sent along with it, and in the name of the Momin (believer) whose praise is contained in this Book and The obligation that is on them. No one else recognizes the right and truth more than Thee

Transliteration:

“Allaahumma be haqqe haazal Qur’an we be haqqe man arsaltahoo beh, Wa be haqqe kulle momenin madahtahoo feeh, we be haqqeka alaihim fa-laa ahada a’arafo be haqqeka mink”[3]

Note: There are no restrictions limiting the times of placing the holy Quran on top of our head. However, it is more recommended to do so during these holy Nights of Power (19th, 21st or 23rd or 27th night of Ramadan / or 15th night of Shaban).

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The sign of Laylatul Qadr, the Night of Power, answer 065.

Index: Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession, answer 148.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

[1] . Sheikh Hurr Ameli, Wasail al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 125-126; Sayid bin Tawoos, Radhi al-Din Ali, al- Al-Iqbāl bi l-aʿmāl al-hasanah, Vol. 1, Pg. 186-187.

[2] . Holy Qur’an (39:56).

[3] .Refer to: http://duas.org/.

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Visiting non-Muslim graves and Praying for them

Question 103: Assalaamualaikum. What is the Shia view on visiting non-muslim graves and praying for dead non-muslims?
Answer 103: According to the verses of the Holy Quran, if those non-Muslim who have not fought Muslims on the account of Religion and have not driven us out of our Homeland, Allah (SWT), the Almighty does not forbid us from doing good and regarding justice to them.

Therefore, we can visit their graves and ask Allah, the Almighty for His forgiveness and pray for them. On the other hand, Allah (SWT) forbids us only from having Friendship with those who fought us on the account of Religion and Drove us out of our homeland; and helped one another in driving us out. As a result, we are forbidden to have friendly Relation with them; and whoever among us does so, then he is regarded as one of the disbelievers. Because, in the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “The Prophet and the faithful may not plead for the forgiveness of the polytheists, even if they should be [their] relatives, after it has become clear to them that they will be the inmates of hell”.[1]

Conclusion: If you come to know that they won’t be the inhabitants of the Fire there would be no problem to visit their graves and pray for them.

Index: Praying for non-Muslim Parents, answer 516.

Index: Barzakh / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth) in His Grave, answer 564.

Index: Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell, answer 326.

[1] . Surah Mumtahina, verses 8 & 9; Surah Tawbah, verse 113.

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Shia answers: Tafsir of Imam Al-Askari A.S

Question 243:  Asslaoalakum! I need to know about the book called “Tafsir Imam Alaskari A.S”, is it an authentic book? I came to know about this book by a “whabi” Shia type person, so i want to make sure if it’s safe for me to go through this book because I’m but a learner.

Answer 243: Despite Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) being martyred in the year 260 A.H, there hasn’t been any mention that this Tafsir was attributed to the Imam (as) among prominent scholars such as Sheikh Kulaini, Ali bin Abraham Qomi, Ahmad Barqi, Ahmad bin Edris, Ibn Qulawayh, Muhammad bin Hamam Baghdadi or Muhammad bin Abraham Nomani.

In the middle of the fourth century, Muhammd bin Qasim Jorjani Astar Abadi, who was known by some nicknames such as Mufasser (interpreter) and Khatib (orator), has quoted some content of this Tafsir to Sheikh Tawhid Sadouq. Sheikh Sadouq in some of his books like Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, Amali and Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh mentioned some parts of this Tafsir, but some of the Shia prominent scholars don’t mention any of this tafsir.

At the beginning of the fifth century, Ahmad bin Hussain Ghadayeri mentioned this tafsir and its author, but considered the author (Jorjani) as a liar and introduced his book as a fake book.[1]

During the age of Safawi, Fakhr al-Din Ali bin Hasan Zawarei, the student of Ghiyath al-Din, translated this Tafsir from the Arabic language into Farsi, as Shah Tahmasib Safawi had ordered him to do so.

He has chosen “Athar al-Akhyar” as the name of this tafsir when it was translated into the Farsi language. This Tafsir is now available at the library of Shahid Mutahari Schools.

Those who accepted this Tafsir and quoted many parts of it, are as follows: Sheikh Tousi and Sheikh Mufid have narrated this tafsir from Sheikh Sadouq and Muhammad bin Qasim Jorjani AstarAbadi.[2]

Abu Mansour Tabarsi, in the book al-Ihtijaj, mentioned some topics from Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) with Sanad. He also added some traditions from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) concerning this tafsir.[3] In the book Monyatul Morid Shahid Thani, it has been narrated many traditions from this tafsir.

According to Ibn Shahrashoub, “This tafsir is certainly attributed to Imam Hasan al-Askari (as).”[4]

According to Allamah Hasan Zadeh Amoli, “This tafeer was attributed to Imam Hasan Askari (as) and became available in Tehran in 1268 A.H. It contains 309 pages and I have it in my library.”[5]

According to Mohaqiq Karaki, Ali bin Hasan Zawari’s professor, “This is one of the most authentic tafsir.”[6]

Sheikh Al-Hurr al-Aamili said, “Although this tafsir contains some traditions that are against the Shia belief, Ibn Babawayh trusted it; in his books was narrated many traditions from this tafsir.”. [7]

Mirza Hussain Noori, Mirdamad, and Ibn Ghadayeri are some of those scholars who criticized this book and didn’t accept that this tafsir is attributed to Imam Hasan al-Askari (as). [8]

It should be noted that until now the Farsi translation of this book hasn’t been published yet. Athar al-Akhyar is the only version of this tafsir available in some famous Iranian libraries and other countries libraries.

[1] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 107, Pg. 123.

[2] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 59.

[3] . Al-Ihtijaj, Tabarsi, Pgs. 14 & 55.

[4] . Manaqib A’ale Abi Talib (as), Ibn Shahrashoub Mazandarani, Vol. 2, Pgs. 300, 313 and 339.

[5] . Sahifeh Mobin Magazine, 1994, Pg. 7.

[6] . Mostadrak al-Wasel, Vol. 3, Pg. 661.

[7] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 59.

[8] . Mostadrak al-Wasael, Vol. 3, Pg. 661; Majma al-Rijal, Qahpaee, Vol. 6, Pg. 25.

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The difference between Mumin and Muslim

Question 506: Salaamun Alaikum. What is the difference between MOMIN and MUSLIM? Jazak’Allah Khayr.

Brief Answer 506: Muslim: According to the Quran a Muslim is one who has absolutely surrendered to Allah and his commands and believes in pure Tawhid (the oneness of God) that isn’t tainted with any Shirk and this is why the Almighty has introduced Prophet Abraham as a true Muslim in the Quran.

According to the Quran the true religion is Islam (surrender) (ان الدین عندالله الاسلام) and therefore all who have accepted religions of their time and have obeyed it’s commands are considered Muslims.

Momin: The Believers are that group of people who acknowledge the existence of God and surrender to Him, and who believe in His Prophets and follow their footsteps.

It is important to acknowledge that believing in the Wilayat of the Prophet’s family, according to the verses of the Quran and the narrations of the Holy Prophet is counted as one of the pillars of Imaan (Faith), and this quality is found in no other sect than the Shias. Also, with the emphasis regarding the deliverance of the Shias as being the rightful ones, and by comparing the thoughts and beliefs of the Shias, with the Holy Quran it becomes obvious that the verses of the Quran which talk about the “Believers” refer to none other than the Shias.

Detailed Answer 506:  In order to understand the meaning of “Muslim” in the Quran it is necessary to understand the meaning of “Islam”.

The word “Islam” is an infinitive with the root letters of “س ل م”, the root letters mean healthy and devoid of an defects and corruption, but the infinitive means surrendering and obeying one’s commands with no opposition. [1]

The Quran has used the term in its broad sense as well: “All of those who are in the heavens and the earth or all of the creatures in the heavens and the earth are Muslims and have (willingly or unwillingly) submitted to Allah’s  generative (takwini) or legislative (tashri’i) will.”[2]

In the Quran, not only those who were among the companions of prophet Mohammad are considered Muslims, but rather all people throughout history who have surrendered and submitted to Allah and rejected paganism are Muslims and this is why the Quran introduces Prophet Abraham as a Muslim even though he lived before prophet Mohammad.[3]

It can be understood from verse 85 of Surah Ale Imran (Whosoever chooses a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him) and verse 3 from Surah Al Ma’edah (Today I have perfected your religion and am happy with Islam as your religion) that Muslims are only those who follow the religion of the prophet (pbuh), because by choosing Islam as their religion and believing in all previous prophets and divine religions, they have proven their submission to Allah (swt).  According to this definition, today people of other religions are not Muslims because they have not surrendered to Allah by accepting the new religion that was revealed to the seal of prophets.

The verse commands the prophet to tell them to say that they have become Muslims and not Mu’mins. Of course, although practicing does not change the fact that one is Muslim or not, but to be a true Muslim not only should one believe in Islam but he must also act according to his belief and the teachings and laws of his religion, let those laws be social ones such as haqqul-nas or personal ones such as prayer and fasting.

Mu’min, or Believer, is derived from the word “Amn”, which means to testify, to believe, and have humility and tranquility of the soul.(4)[4] Therefore, the word Mu’min is used to describe the acknowledgers.

The term “Believers” refers to those who acknowledge the existence of the Almighty, surrender to Him and are humble and obedient towards Him. They acknowledge and accept the prophethood of all of the divine prophets and their message. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) has said: “Belief is understanding in your heart, saying with your tongue, and acting with your body.[5]

Some of the signs of a Believer that are mentioned in the Holy Quran are:

  1. Prayers and recognizing its importance.
  2. Giving Zakat, and donating to charity in the way of Allah.
  3. Relying and placing complete trust in Allah.
  4. Enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil.
  5. Staying away from frivolous and idle acts.
  6. Maintaining chastity and virtue.
  7. Obeying Allah and the Prophet.
  8. Obedience towards them.[6]

The signs of a believer as described in the Quran are not limited to the signs that were mentioned. In fact, the true Believers are those who surrender totally to the orders and command of Allah and the Prophet.[7]

One of the pillars of Imaan(Faith) is the belief in the Authority of the Ahlul-Bait. What it is understood from the Quran, the Holy Prophet and his family is that being obedient towards the Prophet’s family plays an essential role in the concept of faith, and if a person does not lead his life according to their teachings, his Beliefs are incomplete.

As an example, here are a few traditions and verses of the Quran which we will mention:

  1. The verse of “Tableegh” says: “O Apostle! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.”[8]
  2. The verse of “Wilayat”: “Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and give Zakat to the poor while they bow.”[9]

Sunni books of Tafsir and Narrations state that this verse was revealed with regards to the status and position of Imam Ali (a.s).[10]

Therefore, if a person does not believe in the Wilayat of Imam Ali (a.s), he has not accepted one of the most important and essential part of Allah’s Commands; so how can he be classified as a Believer? In this verse, the Wilayat of Imam Ali has been mentioned, alongside the Wilayat of Allah and the Wilayat of His Prophet, and we know that the accepting the Wilayat of God and His Messenger are the bases of Imaan (Faith), which means the Wilayat of Imam Ali, is an essential pillar of faith as well. There are several other verses as well, but for the sake of brevity these two will suffice.

According to Imam Baqir (as), Faith is something which is existed in our heart that connect us to Allah, the Almighty. By submission to Allah (SWT) we would be able to prove our faith in action. Islam is related to our words and deeds.[11]

We can conclude that every Mumin is a Muslim, but it is not true to say that every Muslim who doesn’t believe in the Wilayat of the holy Prophet’s family can be a real Mumin. This means that everyone can be a Muslim by testifying that there is no God but Allah, the Almighty and the holy Prophet (pbuh) is the messenger of Allah (SWT), however if one, in addition to the previous conditions of being a Muslim, doesn’t believe in the holy Quran and Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and Wilayat of Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) he is not considered as real believer.

From all of the aforesaid, it is obvious and clear that the only group of Muslims which is completely in coordination with the teachings of the Holy Quran, and the beliefs, actions and morals synchronized with it, are the Shias, who, by obeying and following the Prophet’s progeny have been able to understand the proper meanings of the verses of the Holy Quran and the teachings of the Holy Prophet, and have protected themselves from the darkness of the wrong path.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ask Islam: How to become a Muslim, answer 527.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran, answer 129.

Index: Shia Ithna Ashari is Jafari school of thought, answer 111.

Index: Principles of Religion: Usul al-Din in Quran, answer 230.

Index: Islam and Democracy / Khilafat is Appointed by Allah’s order, answer 592.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

Related Link: Glossary 506.

[1]Al-Nokat wal-Uyun, (Tafsir Maverdi), vol1, p 379-380

[2] Tafsir Nemooneh, vol2, p 643

[3] Ale Imran:67.

[4] Ma’jam Muqais al Lughah, Aqrab Almawaarid, Farhange Jami’, term: “Amn”.

[5] Kanzul Amaal, pg 95.

[6] Anfaal, ayah 2-4; Taubah ayah 71; Muminoon ayah 1-11.

[7] Nisaa, ayah 65 and 150.

[8] Maidah ayah 67.

[9] Maidah ayah 55

[10] Waahidi dar Asbaabe Nuzool, pg 133; Zamkhishri dar Kishaaf, Vol 1, pg 649; Abu Bakr Jisaas in Quranic Laws, Vol 2, pg 446

[11] . Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 26.

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Meaning of Jihad in Islam and the holy Quran

Question 296: I want to ask what’s the actually meaning of Jihad? Give me references too.

Answer 296: Jihad means to strive or struggle. It is divided into two divisions: Jihad Akbar (major) and Jihad Asghar (miner). Jihad Asghar means to confront and strive hard against unbelievers and hypocrites whom they are Islam’s enemies.[1]

Jihad Akbar means to strive hard only for our own soul and purify our soul from sin (i.e. the soul that forces us to commit sin. This kind of soul is called Nafs Ammarah). We don’t have to despair of the mercy of Allah and withhold our soul and bear patiently that which befalls us.[2]

According to the Holy Quran, Jihad means to strive and endure difficulties and hardships, however the higher level of Jihad is for those who strive hard with their property and their persons in the way of Allah, the Almighty.[3]

Some say it is divided into some divisions as follows:

  1. Jihad in general: “Allah shall grant to the strivers above the holders back a mighty reward”[4]
  2. Jihad in the way of Allah: “Surely those who believed and those who fled (their home) and strove hard in the Way of Allah, these hope for the mercy of Allah And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”[5] Also, “And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways And Allah is most surely with the doers of good”
  3. Higher Jihad: “And strive hard in (the way of) Allah”.[6]
  4. According to practical mysticism, Jihad means to persuade ourselves to endure hardships and difficulties which are the cause of effectiveness on health and create bodily exhaustion.[7]
  5. Jihad for soul in the way Allah’s orders: the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said: Striver is one who strives hard for his own soul in the way of Allah.[8]
  6. Striving for providing livelihood. Striving for providing livelihood is one of the most important tasks and struggles as it is narrated: Whomever strive for providing livelihood for his own family is like one who strive in the way of Allah.[9]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu, answer 274.

[1] . Surah Tahrim, verse 9; Surah Tawbah, verse 73.

[2] . Surah, Ankabout, verse 6.

[3] . Surah Baqarah, verse 218

[4] . Surah Nisa, verse 95.

[5] . Surah Baqarah, verse 218.

[6] . Surah Hajj, verse 78.

[7] . Ibn Arabi, Al-Fotouhat al-Makiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 132, Dar e Sader, Beirut.

[8] . Nahj al-Fasahah, Pg. 778, Donyae Danish Publication.

[9] . Sadr al-Din Shirazi, Shrhe Usul al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 433.

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Prophet Noah cursed Blacks / The Story of Noah’s Sons

Question 198: Question: What does Islam say about blacks? What is their position among people seeing as they bear the azab of their progenitor Ham?

Answer 198: In book Elalul Sharaye’a, the story of Noah’s sons are mentioned as follows:

One day the Prophet Noah (as) fell asleep in his ship. A wind was blowing and pushed aside his clothes. His private parts became exposed. Ham and Japheth were laughing at him, but Shem forbid them from laughing at their father. Shem covered his fathers private parts, but they pushed the cloth aside again. Suddenly, Noah (as) woke up and saw what happened. He asked, “Why are you are laughing?” Shem replied to his father, the story!

Noah raised his hands and said, “O Allah, change the loins of Ham, and Japheth” and Allah (swt) changed it. This is why why all black people come from Ham’s generation; all Turkish people and Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj (Gog and Magog) come from Japheth’s generation; and all white skinned people come from Shem’s generation. “O Allah, set the children of Ham and Japheth as slave’s for the children of Shem, until the Day of Judgment”.[1]

The Arabic version of this narration is as follows:

عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْكُوفِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَهْلُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ الْآدَمِيُّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَظِيمِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَسَنِيُّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ الْعَسْكَرِيَّ ع يَقُولُ عَاشَ نُوحٌ ع أَلْفَيْنِ وَ خَمْسَمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ وَ كَانَ يَوْماً فِي السَّفِينَةِ نَائِماً فَهَبَّتْ رِيحٌ فَكَشَفَتْ عَنْ عَوْرَتِهِ فَضَحِكَ حَامٌ وَ يَافِثُ فَزَجَرَهُمَا سَامٌ ع وَ نَهَاهُمَا عَنِ الضَّحِكِ وَ كَانَ كُلَّمَا غَطَّى سَامٌ شَيْئاً تَكْشِفُهُ الرِّيحُ كَشَفَهُ حَامٌ وَ يَافِثُ فَانْتَبَهَ نُوحٌ ع فَرَآهُمْ وَ هُمْ يَضْحَكُونَ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا فَأَخْبَرَهُ سَامٌ بِمَا كَانَ فَرَفَعَ نُوحٌ ع يَدَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ يَدْعُو وَ يَقُولُ اللَّهُمَّ غَيِّرْ مَاءَ صُلْبِ حَامٍ حَتَّى لَا يُولَدَ لَهُ إِلَّا سُودَانٌ اللَّهُمَّ غَيِّرْ مَاءَ صُلْبِ يَافِثَ فَغَيَّرَ اللَّهُ مَاءَ صُلْبِهِمَا فَجَمِيعُ السُّودَانِ حَيْثُ كَانُوا مِنْ حَامٍ وَ جَمِيعُ التُّرْكِ وَ السَّقَالِبَةِ وَ يَأْجُوجَ وَ مَأْجُوجَ وَ الصِّينِ مِنْ يَافِثَ حَيْثُ كَانُوا وَ جَمِيعُ الْبِيضِ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ سَامٍ وَ قَالَ نُوحٌ ع لِحَامٍ وَ يَافِثَ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ ذُرِّيَّتَكُمَا خَوَلًا لِذُرِّيَةِ سَامٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لِأَنَّهُ بَرَّ بِي وَ عَقَقْتُمَانِي فَلَا زَالَتْ سِمَةُ عُقُوقِكُمَا لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِكُمَا ظَاهِرَةً وَ سِمَةُ الْبِرِّ بِي فِي ذُرِّيَّةِ سَامٍ ظَاهِرَةً مَا بَقِيَتِ الدُّنْيَا

It is also said that since the Noah’s Deluge happened in the month Dhil Hijjah and the Ark reached Bayt al-Haram (the temple of Mecca), Noah (as) recommended the people of the Ark not to have intercourse with their wives during this time. He then cursed those who disobeyed and said that Allah changed their loins. Therefore, when Ham did so his loin had been changed.[2]

According to Tabari, Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers.[3]

Accordingly, a question that may now arise is, “Is it mentioned in the holy Quran that white people are better than yellow, red, brown and black colored races?”

A: The verse mentioned above does not say that white people are better than other races, actually it has nothing to do with the abovementioned issue, the words used in the verse may seem to relate to races but they have a meaning other than being black and white. In Arabic people who reach salvation and prosperity are called “white faced people” and those who do not are called “dark/black faced people”, these sorts of expressions and other similar ones such as “a dark heart” or “the night was pitch black” that have nothing to do with races are not only found in Arabic, but in other languages as well.

In respect to the hadith cited above, aside from the fact that some parts of it aren’t in conformity with Islamic teachings, and its chain of narrators isn’t a decent one, making its authenticity disputable, we must pay attention to the fact that although youth, health and beauty aren’t of Islam does not deny that white skin is more beautiful and attractive, but it denies the notion that being white is a spiritual advantage and value; therefore it makes complete sense for black people to turn white when entering heaven. Add to above that this hadith is not considered authentic.

Actually, there are many verses in the Quran which clearly explain that despite the differences that are found among humans, they are all from the same root and nothing will make one more valuable or respectful other than his righteousness and piety, let it be physical features, family ties or gender, some of these verses are as follows:

1- “O mankind! Indeed we created you from a male and a female, and made you nations and tribes that you may identify yourselves with one another. Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most God wary among you.”[4]

2- “O mankind! Be wary of your Lord who created you from a single soul, and created its mate from it, and, from the two of them, scattered numerous men and women. Be wary of Allah, in whose Name you adjure one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is watchful over you”[5]

The Arabic version of this verse:

“يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَةٍ وَ خَلَقَ مِنْها زَوْجَها وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالاً كَثيراً وَ نِساء ”

3- “It is He who created you from a single soul”[6]

The Arabic version of this verse:

” وَ هُوَ الَّذی أَنْشَأَکُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَة”

Imam Ali would equally pay people their share which was three “dinars” from the “Beitulmal” (the treasury). A man from the Ansar came to him and received his three dinars and then a black person came and received the same amount of money.

The man from the Ansar was surprised and protestingly said: “Up until yesterday this black man was my servant, does it make sense for me to get as much money as he does?!” The Imam replied that the argument had no reasoning and that none of the two was higher than the other.”[7]

In a similar story the Imam faced his brother “Aqil” that said: “Do you think my share equals the share of a black man?!” The Imam strongly denied such a notion and replied: “It is only if you are more righteous and have done more for Islam that will make you more respectful and valuable, otherwise you are completely equal to him.”[8]

According to Tabari, Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers.[9]

Also, all mankind are the same as each other. There is no superiority. They are equal to each other in worshiping Allah (swt) the Almighty, as Allah, the Almighty says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. [10]

The Arabic version of this holy verse:

“يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْناكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثى وَ جَعَلْناكُمْ شُعُوباً وَ قَبائِلَ لِتَعارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقاكُم”

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah (swt) has never used the words, O White people! Instead, Allah (swt) has always said, “O mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those who were before you, so that you may be God wary.” [11]

Although, the hadith mentioned in Alalul Saraye’a is considered as Sahih in its chain of narration, but it is also said that Ham had a happy ending, because, the Prophet Noah (as) had mercy on him and prayed for him, that his generations will get affection from their brothers. [12]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned verses of the holy Quran and Ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) and according to Tabari that Ham had a happy ending we can come to this conclusion that all mankind are the same as each other. And there is no superiority. They are equal to each other in worshiping Allah (swt) the Almighty, as He (SWT) says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. [13]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following link:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/598502863634358/

Related Link: Facebook.

[1] . Elalul Sharaye’a, Vol. 1, Pg. 32.

[2] . Abu Hisham, Book al-Tijan fee Muluk Hamir, Vol. 1, Pg. 34, San’a, 1979;  Tabari, Tarikh (History), Bierut, Vol. 1, Pg. 188;  Abul Fat’h Razi, Rawz al-Jinan wa Rooh al-Jinan fee tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 10, Pg. 270, Muhammad Jaafar Yahaqi, and Muhammad Mahdi Naseh, Mashhad;  Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayat wa al-Nihayat, Vol. 1, Pg. 116, Beirut, 1190 / 1411 A.H.

[3] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204. Tabari’s name is Muhammad bin Jarir ibn Yazid ibn Kathir bin Ghalib, although he appeared to be Sunni due to Taqiyah and the condition that was obtained there, however he was a follower of the School of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and loved them. For more information, please refer to: Rawzatul Jannat; Shahabi, Ali Akbar, Tehran, Tehran University, Publisher Institution, Third edition.

[4] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

[5] . Surah Nisa, verse 1.

[6] . Surah An’am, verse 98.

[7] . Muhammad ibn Yaqub Kuleini¸ Kafi, vol. 8, pg. 69, hadith 26.

[8] . Ibid, vol. 8, pg. 182, hadith 204.

[9] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204. For more information, please refer to: Rawzatul Jannat; Shahabi, Ali Akbar, Tehran, Tehran University, Publisher Institution, Third edition.

[10] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

[11] . Surah Baqarah, verse 21.

[12] . Tabari, Masoodi, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pg. 204.

[13] . Surah al-Hojorat, verse 13.

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Quran says: Every Soul Shall Taste Death

Question 461: Salamualekum. Please, what is the Ahlul bayt view on the fact that every soul shall taste death?

Answer 461: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “Every soul shall taste death. Then you shall be brought back to Us”.[1] According to the Holy Quran and traditions, before the judgment day, all of creatures will die. The holy Quran says: “And the trumpet shall be blown, so all those who are in the heavens and those who are in the earth shall swoon, except those who Allah pleases.”[2]

At first, this verse says that all those who are in skies and earth will die including all of the angels, and then there are some exceptions. So, we realize by this verse that some creatures will not die at sound of the trumpet. Who are they? There is a talk among commentators; some groups believe that there is a group of great angles such as: Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Israel.

In another narration when the Holy Prophet Mohammad (s) recites this verse, people asked him who the exceptions are. He answered: Gabriel, Israfil and the angel of death and when all spirits was taken, they will die by order of Allah.[3] Another narration adds the carriers of Allah’s throne besides these angels[4].

In any case, by these narrations[5] and others that said: When the time of first horn comes, Israfil will blow on the trumpet and all creatures that have a soul will die except Israfil who will die later by Allah`s order.[6] And also by some verses like: “All things will die except His face,”[7] It is generally said that all things will die except Allah’s face. We can use this verse to show that this rest group will eventually die as there is not any creatures that will remain alive in any part of the world, except Almighty Allah.

How do angels die? It must be said that what we call death (the spirit leaving the body and the material world) does not have any meaning for angels because they do not have bodies for their soul to leave. For this, there are some possibilities about what the essence of their death is:

The first possibility means death by breaking the relationship between their soul and their mithali existence .[8] The second possibility means, ending their continuous activities and losing their perceptual ability.

Therefore, every soul shall taste death, and you will indeed be paid your full rewards on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever is delivered from the Fire and admitted to paradise has certainly succeeded. The life of this world is nothing but the wares of delusion.[9] Everyone on it must pass away, and yet lasting is the Face of your Lord, majestic and munificent.[10]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Satan Taste Death / Every Soul Must Taste of Death, answer 217.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/596059397212038/)

Index: Delaying Death and Called before its Time, answer 505.

(https://www.facebook.com/Ask-Shia-1593139984261577/?ref=bookmarks)

[1] . Surah al—Ankaboot, verse 57.

[2] . Zumar (the companies) verse 68

[3] . Bihar al Anvar, volume 79, page 184

[4] . Ibid, volume 6, page 329

[5]. Ibid, volume 6, page329

[6]. Ibid, volume 6, page 324

[7]. Qasas, verse 88

[8]. Refer to Tafsir Namoneh volume 19 page 541

[9] . Surah Aal Emran, verse 185.

[10] . Surah al-Rahman, verses 26-27.

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Satan Taste Death / Every Soul Must Taste of Death

Question 217: Assalamu aleykum as it written or said innalillahi Wainnailyhi Rajiun. Shall Satan taste death as the rest of the creation will?

Answer 217: In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) says, “And certainly we created you, then we fashioned you, then we said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam.” So they did prostrate, except Iblis; he was not of those who prostrated. He said, “What hindered you so that you did not prostrate when I commanded you?” He said, “I am better than he: Thou hast created me of fire, while him thou didst create of dust.” He said, “Then get forth from this (state), for it does not befit you to behave proudly therein. Go forth, therefore, surely you are of the abject ones.” Satan said, “Respite me until the day when they are raised up.”[1]

Allah (swt), the Almighty says: “So surely you are of the respited ones.” “Till the period of the time made known.”[2]

In some traditions there have been mentioned different interpretations regarding “The Time Made Known” as follows:

Some say, it means when this universe has ended and there will be no taklif (duty) for the human being. All creatures will be died on that day and Allah (swt) will be the only one who is the Ever living who dies not. In this regards, the Holy Qur’an says, “Everything is perishable but He.”[3]

Allama Tabatabaei said: the meaning of “The Time Made Known” is not the Day of Judgment nor the end of the universe when there is no duty. It is during the time when the universe still exist and everyone has Taklif.[4]

According to Tafseer al-Qummi, when Imam Sadiq (as) was asked by Muhammad bin Younes that “What is the interpretation of this following verse of the Holy Qur’an, “So surely you are of the respited ones; Till the period of the time made known?” The Imam (as) replied: “The Satan will be killed by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) on the stone of Baitul-muqaddas at the time made known.”[5]

In Tafseer Ayyashi it is mentioned that the Imam of the time (ajtf) will kill the Satan.[6]

Therefore, the Satan will be killed by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) or the Imam of the Time (ajtf) during the Rajah time, according to the previous mentioned traditions.[7] It is also said in the Holy Qur’an that “Every soul must taste of death then to us you shall be brought back.”[8]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index:  Satans are chained during the Holy Month of Ramadan, answer 061.

Index: Quran says: Every Soul Shall Taste Death, answer 461.

[1] . Surah Aa’raf, verses 11-14.

[2] . Surah Hijr, verses 37-38; Tafseer Nemooneh, Vol. 6, Pg. 109.

[3] . Surah Qasas, verse 88.

[4] . Tafseer al-Mizan, Vol. 12, Pg. 258.

[5] . Tafseer al-Qummi, Vol. 1, Pg. 349.

[6] . Al-Borhan, Vol. 2, Pg. 343, Hadith 7; Ayyashi, Vol. 2, Pg. 242, H 14.

[7] . Rajah literally means ‘to return’, and in Islamic terms it refers to the return of certain people from the dead. These people may consist of dedicated believers and mushrik (polytheists) alike. It has been narrated that after the reappearance of the Twelfth Imam (ajtf) and the establishment his global Islamic government, prior to the Day of Judgment, certain individuals will be raised from their graves and brought back to this world.

[8] . Surah Al-‘Ankabut, verse 57; Surah Namibian verse 35; Surah Ale-Iran, verse 185. Therefore, the Satan will die.

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Physiological Motivation in Quran / Kinds of Motivations

Question 606: Can you please mention some verses of the holy Quran in which mentioned about physiological motivations?

Answer 606: Motivation is the reason for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation is also one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior.

Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior. The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency.

Motivations are divided into two different divisions, according to new psychologists.

  1. Physiological Motivation. 2. Psychological Motivation.

Those motivations that are natural and related to the physiologic needs for our body can guide a person’s behavior toward the way that provide physiologic needs for body.

Psychological motivations can be attained through learning for a person during his social growth.

The followings are some verses of the holy Quran in which Allah (swt) provide these physiological motivations for the human beings in order to be guided on the right path. Some of them are related to those motivations that keep their nature safe and some are related to breathing motivations.

A: Motivations for Keeping Nature safe: Those verses in which mentioned some motivations that keep our nature safe are as follows:

  1. “He said: Our Lord is He Who gave to everything its creation, then guided it to its goal”[1]
  2. “Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High; Who creates, then makes complete; And Who makes (things) according to a measure, then guides them to their goal.[2]
  3. “And the earth We have spread it forth and made in it firm mountains and caused to grow in it of every suitable thing”.[3]
  4. “…and Who created everything, then ordained for it a measure”.[4]
  5. “…And there is a measure with Him of everything”.[5]
  6. “Surely We have created everything according to a measure”.[6]
  7. ” So We said: O Adam! This is an enemy to you and to your wife; therefore let him not drive you both forth from the garden so that you should be unhappy”.[7]
  8. Allah points to some motivations like cold, heat, fatigue: And Allah has given you a place to abide in your houses, and He has given you tents of the skins of cattle which you find light to carry on the day of your march and on the day of your halting and of their wool and their fur and their hair (He has given you) household stuff and a provision for a time.[8]
  9. If we tolerate thirst, fatigue or hunger in Allah’s Way: “It did not beseem the people of Medina and those round about them of the Dwellers of the Desert to remain behind the Messenger of Allah, nor should they desire (anything) for themselves in preference to him This is because there afflicts them not thirst or fatigue or hunger in Allah’s Way, nor do they tread a path which enrages the unbelievers, nor do they attain from the enemy what they attain, but a good work is written down to them on account of it Surely Allah does not waste the reward of the doers of good”[9]
  10. And his hosts of the Jinn and the men and the birds were gathered to him, and they were formed into groups; Until when they came to the Valley of the Ants, one of the ants said: O Ants! enter your houses, (that) Sulaiman and his hosts may not crush you while they do not know.[10]
  11. And We will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits And give good news to the patient.[11]
  12. ” And Allah sets forth a parable: (Consider) a town safe and secure to which its means of subsistence come in abundance from every quarter; but it became ungrateful for Allah’s favors, therefore Allah made it to taste the utmost degree of hunger and fear because of what they wrought”.[12]
  13. So let them serve the Lord of this House; Who feeds them against hunger and gives them security against fear.[13]
  14. And reward them, because they were patient, with garden and silk; Reclining therein on raised couches They shall find therein neither (the severe heat of) the sun nor intense cold.[14]
  15. And they shall say: (All) praise is due to Allah, Who has made grief to depart from us Most surely our Lord is Forgiving, Multiplier of rewards.[15]
  16. Toil shall not afflict them (those who are in the Heaven) in it, nor shall they be ever ejected from it.[16]
  17. And one of His signs is your sleeping and your seeking of His grace by night and) by (day Most surely there are signs in this for a people who would hear.[17]
  18. He it is Who made for you the night that you might rest in it, and the day giving light Most surely there are signs in it for a people who would hear.[18]
  19. Allah is He Who made for you the night that you may rest therein and the day to see Most surely Allah is Gracious to men, but most men do not give thanks.[19]
  20. And We made your sleep to be rest (to you).[20]
  21. And He it is Who made the night a covering for you, and the sleep a rest, and He made the day to rise up again.[21]
  22. And He it is Who takes your souls at night (in sleep), and He knows what you acquire in the day, then He raises you up therein that an appointed term may be fulfilled Then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you were doing.[22]
  23. When He caused calm to fall on you as a security from Him and sent down upon you water from the cloud that He might thereby purify you, and take away from you the uncleanness of the Shaitan, and that He might fortify your hearts and steady (your) footsteps thereby. [23]

B: Breathing Motivation:

  1. And a sign to them is that We bear their offspring in the laden ship; And We have created for them the like of it what they will ride on; And if We please, We can drown them, then there shall be no succorer for them, nor shall they be rescued.[24]
  2. He it is Who makes you travel by land and sea Until when you are in the ships, and they sail on with them in a pleasant breeze, and they rejoice, a violent wind overtakes them and the billows surge in on them from all sides, and they become certain that they are encompassed about, they pray to Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience: If Thou dost deliver us from this, we will most certainly be of the grateful ones.[25]
  3. So each We punished for his sin Of them was he on whom We sent down a violent storm, and of them was he whom the rumbling overtook, and of them was he whom We made to be swallowed up by the earth, and of them was he whom We drowned And it did not beseem Allah that He should be unjust to them, but they were unjust to their own souls.[26]
  4. Therefore (for) whomsoever Allah intends that He would guide him right, He expands his breast for Islam And (for) whomsoever He intends that He should cause him err, He makes his breast strait and narrow as though he were ascending upwards.[27]
  5. And the morning when it brightens.[28]

In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty mention two different motivations that are necessary for surviving the human beings.

A: Sexual Motivation:

  1. “O you men! surely We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”.[29]
  2. “O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women And be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship Surely Allah ever watches over you”.[30]
  3. “And Allah has made wives for you from among yourselves (to rest in them), and has given you sons and grandchildren from your wives, and has given you of the good things Is it then in the falsehood that they believe while it is in the favor of Allah that they disbelieve?”.[31]
  4. “The Originator of the heavens and the earth He made mates for you from among yourselves, and mates of the cattle too, Multiplying you thereby Nothing like a likeness of Him And He is the Hearing, the Seeing”.[32]
  5. “And of everything We have created pairs that you may be mindful”.[33]
  6. “Glory be to Him Who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows, and of their kind and of what they do not know”.[34]

B: Motherly motivation: Allah, the Almighty created an important nature motivation for women by which they can do their duties and keep their children safe. E.g. they tolerate the pregnancy periods with love and feeding, taking care of and upbringing their kids.

  1. “And We have enjoined on man doing of good to his parents With trouble did his mother bear him and with trouble did she bring him forth And the bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months”.[35]
  2. “” And We have enjoined man in respect of his parents his mother bears him with faintings upon faintings and his weaning takes two years saying: Be grateful to Me and to both your parents; to Me is the eventual coming””.[36]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Good behavior? Refraining from a bad suspicion, answer 580.

Index: Psychology in Qurah / Psychological Defense Mechanisms, answer 584.

[1] . Surah Taha, verse 50.

[2] . Surah Aala, verses 1-2-3.

[3] . Surah al-Hijr, verse 19.

[4] . Surah al-Furqan, verse 2.

[5] . Surah al-Ra’d, verse 8.

[6] . Surah al-Qamar, verse 49.

[7] . Surah Taha, verse 117.

[8] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 80.

[9] . Surah al-Tawbah, verse 120.

[10] . Surah al-Naml, verse 18.

[11] . Surah al-Baqarah, verse 155.

[12] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 112.

[13] . Surah Quraysh, verses 3-4.

[14] . Surah al-Insan, verses 12-13.

[15] . Surah Fatir, verse 34.

[16] . Surah al-Hijr, verse 48.

[17] . Surah al-Room, verse 23.

[18] . Surah Younus, verse 67.

[19] . Surah Ghafir, verse 61.

[20] . Surah al-Naba’, verse 9.

[21] . Surah al-Furqan, verse 47.

[22] . Surah al-An’am, verse 60.

[23] . Surah al-Anfal, verse 11.

[24] . Surah Yasin, verse 43.

[25] . Surah Younus, verse 22.

[26] . Surah al-Ankabout, verse 40.

[27] . Surah al-An’am, verse 125.

[28] . Surah al-Takvir, verse 18.

[29] . Surah al-Hujurat, verse 13.

[30] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 1.

[31] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 72.

[32] . Surah al-Shura, verse 11.

[33] . Surah al-Zariyat, verse 49.

[34] . Surah Yasin, verse 36.

[35] . Surah al-Ahqaf, verse 15.

[36] . Surah Luqman, verse 14.

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Principles of Religion: Usul al-Din in Quran

Question 230: Should pillars of Islam be evidently apparent in the scripture or hidden? If apparent, then why is the Imamah pillar explained in form of ‘batin’ zone? Can you prove this from Prophetic sayings and create a base that is sensible? I have not yet received a proper answer for this.

Answer 230: Although, there hasn’t been clearly mentioned the names of Usul al-Din and Furu al-Din in the Holy Quran and Traditions, but there are many verses of the Holy Quran and traditions in which we can find out the pillars of Islam as follows:

Surah al-Hamd: This Surah includes the three pillars of Islam:

1) Tawhid (Testifying that there is no god but Allah):  Verse 1: “All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds”. This verse of Surah al-Hamd indicates the Dhati (Essence), Sifati (Attributes) and Af’ali (Action) Tawhid.  Verse 5: “Thee do we serve and Thee do we beseech for help”. This verse indicates the Tawhid in Ebadat (monotheism in worship) and Af’ali.

2) Nubuwwat: Verses 6 and 7: “Keep us on the right path. The path of those upon whom Thou hast bestowed favors”. According to the holy Quran itself, the real meaning of the word (an­’am­ta  ‘alay­him) is the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the good.[1]

3) Resurrection:  Verse 4: “Master of the Day of Judgment”. This verse indicates the third pillar of Islam called Ma’ad (Resurrection).

Note: There are other verses in which the three pillars of Islam are mentioned as the criterion of faith as follows:

Baqarah, verse 4:  “And who believe in that which has been revealed to you and that which was revealed before you and they are sure of the hereafter”.

Yousef, verse 37: “He said: there shall not come to you the food with which you are fed, but I will inform you both of its interpretation before it comes to you This is of what my Lord has taught me Surely I have forsaken the religion of a people who do not believe in Allah, and they are deniers of the hereafter”

Nahl, verse 22:  “Your God is One God So) as for (those who do not believe in the hereafter, their hearts are ignorant and they are proud”.

Nisa, verses 150 and 151: “Surely those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and (those who) desire to make a distinction between Allah and His messengers and say: We believe in some and disbelieve in others; and desire to take a course between (this and) that. These it is that are truly unbelievers And We have prepared for the unbelievers a disgraceful chastisement. And those who believe in Allah and His messengers and do not make a distinction between any of them Allah will grant them their rewards And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”

The Quran mainly addresses issues, especially ahkam, from a general perspective, leaving the specifics to the Prophet (sa) and his successors, the true interpreters (as); such as prayer, fasting, zakat, hajj etc…Imamate is also one of these issues which have been generally reflected.

The sha’n nuzul (the circumstances of revelation) of numerous verses in the Quran, such as Ayah of Tabligh[2], Ayah of Wilayah[3], Ayah of Ulul Amr[4], Ayah of Sadeqeen[5] revolve around the issue of Imamate.

It is necessary to mention that Allameh Hilli (ra) has written a book titled Alfain[6], that consists of a thousand reasons in favor of the Imamate of Imam Ali (as) and a thousand answers to the objections made against his Imamate, among which a great number of these reasons are from the Quran and can be referred to if needed.

Also, the eighth section of the seventh volume of Bihar al- Anwar of Imamate has listed the ayahs revealed regarding Imamate under the title “Ayahs regarding revealed about the Imams (as)”.[7]

How to understand the meaning of the verses of the holy Quran:  The majority of the verses of the Quran were revealed for the understanding of the general masses.  From this perspective, the understanding that the masses have from the literal and apparent meaning of the Quranic verses are a proof and it is for this same reason that the ‘Usulis’ believe in the external meaning of the verses.

Of course there are also select verses in the Quran whose understanding and the helping of others to understand was the responsibility of the Prophet (s) and the ‘Rasikhoon Fil Ilm’ (those deeply endowed with knowledge). Without this group’s assistance and help, the understanding of these verses would have been impossible to attain.

In the Quran there are verses with meanings of general and specific, absolute and particular, abrogated and abrogating; in order to understand the Quran it is necessary to have a comprehensive knowledge of all Quranic verses to prevent mistakenly ruling according to the absolute without considering the other verses that might narrow its scope.

There are some sciences, which although they don’t have a direct connection with interpretation of the Holy Quran, have a prerequisitational relationship. Without understanding these sciences it is not possible to interpret and analyze the verses of the Quran. Examples of these sciences are ‘Sarf and Nahw’, Ma’aani and Bayan’, and ‘Luqat’. The commentator must have mastery over all of the sciences which relate to the understanding of the Holy Quran.

Considering the above mentioned reasons, we can figure it out why the five pillars of Islam have not clearly mentioned in the holy Quran, but many verses of it prove them, completely.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Usul al-Din and Furu al-Din, answer 223.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/608324169318894/)

Index: Shia View of the Mutazilah and Wasil ibn Ata, answer 095.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/550397965111515/)

[1] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 69.

[2] . Surah Maeda, verse 67.

[3] . Surah Maeda, verse 55.

[4] . Surah Nisa, verse 59.

[5] . Surah Tobeh, 119.

[6] . Hilli, Hasan bin Yusuf, Al-Alfain, Dar al-Hijrah, Qom, 1409 (AH).

[7] . Allamah Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, (the section on imamate, Farsi translation of the seventh volume), Khosravi, Musa, publisher: Islamiyyah.

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Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran

Question 129: Could anyone please give me the surahs and ayahs where the term Shia is mentioned by the Almighty Allah (swt), in the Holy Qur’an?

Answer 129: Those verses of the Holy Qur’an in which the word “Shia” has been mentioned are as follows:

Say, “He is able to send upon you a punishment from above you or from under your feet, or confound you as [hostile factions], and make you taste one anothers violence. “Look, how we paraphrase the signs variously so that they may understand!”[1]

قُلْ هُوَ الْقادِرُ عَلى أَنْ يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذاباً مِنْ فَوْقِكُمْ أَوْ مِنْ تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعاً وَ يُذيقَ بَعْضَكُمْ بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآياتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ.

“Indeed those who split up their religion and became sects, you will not have anything to do with them. Their matter rests only with Allah; then He will inform them concerning what they used to do”.[2]

إِنَّ الَّذينَ فَرَّقُوا دينَهُمْ وَ كانُوا شِيَعاً لَسْتَ مِنْهُمْ في شَيْءٍ إِنَّما أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِما كانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

“[One day] he entered the city at a time when its people dwelt in distraction. He found there two men fighting, this one from among his followers, and that one from his enemies. The one who was from his followers sought his help against him who was from his enemies. So Moses hit him with his fist, whereupon he expired. He said,” This is of Satan’s doing. Indeed he is an enemy, manifestly misguiding”.[3]

إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ عَلا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَ جَعَلَ أَهْلَها شِيَعاً يَسْتَضْعِفُ طائِفَةً مِنْهُمْ يُذَبِّحُ أَبْناءَهُمْ وَ يَسْتَحْيي نِساءَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كانَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدين

“Indeed Pharaoh tyrannized over the land, reducing its people to factions, abasing one group of them, slaughtering their sons and sparing their women. Indeed he was one of the agents of corruption”[4]

وَ دَخَلَ الْمَدينَةَ عَلى حينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِنْ أَهْلِها فَوَجَدَ فيها رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلانِ هذا مِنْ شيعَتِهِ وَ هذا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَاسْتَغاثَهُ الَّذي مِنْ شيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسى فَقَضى عَلَيْهِ قالَ هذا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطانِ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُضِلٌّ مُبين

“Of those who split up their religion and became sects: each faction exulting in what it possessed”[5]

مِنَ الَّذينَ فَرَّقُوا دينَهُمْ وَ كانُوا شِيَعاً كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِما لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ

“Indeed Abraham was among his followers”[6]

وَ إِنَّ مِنْ شيعَتِهِ لَإِبْراهيمَ

In technical term, every group of Muslims is called “Shia” (followers) and the term Shia is not exclusively applied to Imamiyah Shia.
For example: The followers of Mu’awiyah (la) and Yazid (la) are called the Shia of Aal-e Abi Sufyan. We are the Shia of the Ahlul-Bayt (pbuth), which includes the Holy Prophet (saws) and His household and we thank Allah (swt) the Almighty, for not being the followers of Aal-e Abu Sufyan.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index:  The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha, answer 180.

[1]. Surah An’am, Ayah 65.

[2] . Surah An’am, Ayah 159.

[3] . Surah Qasas, Ayah 15.

[4] . Surah Qasas, Ayah 4.

[5] . Surah Room, Ayah 32.

[6] . Surah Safat, Ayah 83.

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Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha

Question 180:  Salam everyone, I’m not Shia Muslim but my husband is Shia Muslim. I have several question, since I saw lots of story about Sunni and Shia in internet. How are Shia beliefs about Aisha (i.e. about Ifk, the Slander)? Does is true that in Shia Muslim Aisyah position is not too good as others wife’s prophet?

Answer 180: In order to give a clear answer to the question, we must deal with various subjects so that after analyzing them, we may reach an appropriate conclusion in this regard. Those subjects are the following:

  1. Which is the verse in the Quran that you intend to refer to and what story does it relate to?
  2. What does the term “momeen” (faithful) mean in the verse of the Quran? Do you mean to say that if a person is described as momeen in the Quran, he turns into a legendary and unobjectionable personality?!
  3. To what extent can men influence the lives of their wives? If a woman is a prophet’s wife, does it mean that she is immune to all kinds of errors and mistakes?
  4. What is Shi’ah belief about Aisha? What are our criticisms of Aisha?

We will discuss the above questions in the same order:

  1. Most probably, the intended verse in your question is verse 23 of Sura al-Al-Noor which was revealed in connection with the “slander” story. It says:

“ان الذین یرمون المحصنات الغافلات المؤمنات لعنوا فی الدنیا و الآخرة و لهم عذاب عظیم”

 

“Surely those who accuse chaste believing women, unaware (of the evil), are cursed in this world and the hereafter, and they shall have a grievous chastisement.[1]

Some commentators of the Holy Quran is of the view that this verse is general and that it applies to every person who accuses a chaste woman of an indecent action. Such an interpretation seems to be more coherent and suitable as it can be inferred from the context of the verse. Some other scholars are of the view that the verse is particular to wives of the Prophet (s). There is also a third group of scholars who say that the said verse relates to the “slander” story and the person of Aisha[2]. If so, all these interpretations lead to a fixed conclusion which is the meanness and abominableness of accusing others without a valid reason because it is not wise to say that it is mean to accuse only the wives of the Prophet not those of others. Therefore, assuming that your interpretation of the verse is correct and that it relates to the “slander” story and Aisha, then we have to see what the “Ifk, the slander” story is.

It is better to hear the story from Aisha herself since she has narrated this event at length but the summary of the story narrated by her as under:

“Whenever the Prophet (S) would intend to go on a journey, he would cast lots amongst his wives. So whoever’s lot would be picked, would accompany the Prophet (S). So he cast these lots on one of these expeditions and my name came up, so I traveled with the Prophet (S). This was after the verses pertaining to hijab were revealed and therefore I would travel in my hawdaj and be carried in it. After the expedition had finished and we were returning to Madinah, the Prophet (s) gave orders to camp the night outside of Madinah. When the orders were given to encamp, I stood up and walked away from the army to relieve myself. When I returned, I felt my chest and noticed that my onyx necklace had broken [and fallen] so I returned to where I had been [to search for it]. I was delayed in searching for it and in the meantime the people that were assigned to carry my hawdaj had already placed it on top of the camel, presuming that I was [back] in it. So they sent the camel forward and I found my necklace after they had gone. By the time I returned to the caravan camping ground, there was not a soul in sight. One of the companions was also lagging behind the army.  For some reason he was late so he was not up with the army and he walked up to my place. We both moved out together and reached the army of the Messenger of Allah.  This led some people to spread gossip about me and finally the verse of Ifk was revealed and which was a proof of my chastity. [3]

Now, we should see as to who were most involved in spreading this gossip. What is understood from the historical narrations in this regard is that Abdullah bin Ubai, Hassan bin Thabit and Musattah bin Athatha were at the top gossipers.[4] As for the social position of those who spread the gossip, this is an inquiry that also needs to be replied. The answer to this inquiry helps us reach a correct analysis of the story:

  1. A) Abdullah bin Ubai: He is one of the famous and renowned hypocrites who left no stone unturned to weaken the Holy Prophet (s)? It is very natural on his part to exploit this incident for his own benefit.
  2. B) Hassan bin Thabit: He is a poet who has composed a lot of poems on different occasions about different events during the period of the Holy Prophet (s) but Shiites criticize him for his performance in the ensuing years after the demise of the Prophet (s). His actions against the Commander of the Faithful are not approved of by Shiites. Hassan is one of the poets who composed different poems about the first caliphs and even in praise of Aisha but he also had a hand in this gossip. Years later, after the demise of the Holy Prophet (s) Hassan composed a poem in which he expressed his willingness to meet Aisha but she rebuked him expressly for his involvement in the accusation or what was known as “slander event”. [5]
  3. C) Musattah bin Athatha: This man was Abu Bakr’s maternal cousin who due to poverty was also finally supported by him. Sunni exegetes are of the view that Abu Bakr no longer supported him after the slander incident when he learned that he was involved in accusing his daughter. But then a verse was revealed saying that it was not good to do such an action and Abu Bakr started giving him his support afresh.[6]

Almost all Shi’ah jurisprudents have narrated the story in the same way as reported in Sunni books and they believe that the verse of Ifk (slander) is in regard with the same event.[7] There is a small minority of commentators of the Quran who do not consider this verse to be about Aisha saying that the verse has been about Maria al-Qibtiyya.[8] This was a brief explanation of the story of “Ifk” about which the verse in question has been revealed.

  1. The next point to mention is that even if we suppose that the verse in question makes an explicit reference to Aisha’s iman (faith) then our question is: Does the verse imply that whosoever is described in the Quran as faithful, it is guaranteed that he/she will remain faithful until the end of his/her life or that his/her actions will not be subject to any criticism?! We do not accept such an interpretation because, as the Quran says, there were some believers who returned to disbelief and infidelity and became even further stern than other disbelievers.[9] Also, the Holy Quran has many a time addressed some people as momeen (faithful) yet it has threatened and rebuked them in the severest manner.[10] Some Sunni brothers have made the same mistake about the companions of the Holy Prophet (s). Relying on some Quranic verses which implies God’s pleasure and satisfaction with the companions at a particular period of time, the Sunni scholars have considered their positions higher than they can be objected and they believe that despite the fact that many of the companions fought one another and engaged in bloodshed, it is not permissible for other Muslims to criticize them or make any remarks about them. Thus they believe that every companion of the Prophet (s) irrespective of whether he is a murderer or the murdered or impartial in an event must be respected. You can read more by referring to questions 3499 and 3517 on our website.

The conclusion we draw is that even if we assume that your interpretation of the verse is correct and that the term “faithful” in it concerns Aisha, we cannot, with reference to the said verse, consider Aisha to be a personality beyond any criticism.

  1. Perhaps, some may think that Aisha’s spousal relationship to the Holy Prophet (s) is a reason that makes us avoid raising any criticisms about her. We must say in this regard that if we go through the religious texts and Quran on top of them, we will find out that women have an independent personality and that it is they themselves who decide to be good or bad at the end of the day. Nevertheless, if we want to assess women in relation to their husbands, we can divide them into five separate groups:

1-3. The First group consists of women who both themselves and their husbands believe firmly in God and follow His commandments. Naturally, such an understanding is the best possible situation and believing men always pray to God to grant them such a success and bestow upon them such prosperity. They say: “Our Lord! Grant unto us wives and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes, and give us (the grace) to lead the righteous.”[11] Couples like the Prophet (s) and the Mother of the Faithful, Khadijah and also the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s) and the greatest lady of the worlds, Fatima (s.a) can be introduced as the most manifest examples of this group.

2-3. The second group consists of wicked and cruel women who, with the help and collaboration of their irreligious husbands, endeavor to oppose the prophets and divine saints.  Unlike the first group, such couples will be in the worst abode.

The Holy Quran has given an example of such women in Sura al-Masad. It reproaches Abu Lahab who despite having family relationship with the Prophet (s) hurt and tormented him. Also, his wife Umm Jamil, sister of the great enemy of Islam, Abu Sufyan has been reproached. [12]

3-3. There are also women who fail to get married in their lives due to the unavailability of means or opportunity but such women remain chaste and religiously adherent and Allah bestows special attention to them. Lady Maryam is in this group. There are many ayahs (verses) throughout the Qur’an which refer to Maryam[13] and there is a chapter in the Qur’an revealed in Maryam’s name.  She is a lady with such dignified position for whose protection and taking care, the pious ones quarreled with one another.[14]  And Zakariyah, the prophet of Allah, noticing the divine attention towards this great lady and despite being old and his wife being infertile, he prayed to God to grant him a child and his prayer was answered.[15]

4- 3. If we go through the historical reports, we come across ladies who, despite marrying oppressive and unjust rulers, maintained their faith and showed great resistance against their tyrant husbands. Asiya wife of Pharaoh can be introduced as a suitable model representing such ladies. She was harassed and tormented so much by Pharaoh that she prayed to God for death and martyrdom and she finally achieved her goal. The Quran praising the bravery and valor of this woman introduces her as a model for all faithful people irrespective of whether they are male or female.[16]

5-3. Contrary to the above group, we find women who enjoyed the privilege to become the prophets’ wives but unfortunately and to every one’s dismay, they not only did not help them and thank God for this great blessing but they continuously conspired against them, hurt and annoyed them and did whatever they could to create hurdles on the way of those prophets.  One of them was Noah’s wife; God, the Almighty, ordered Prophet Noah, after the typhoon had just started, to load from every species of animals a couple and He forbade him from picking his wife and one of his sons who did not believe in him.[17]

Prophet Lut’s wife also ended having an evil fate as she was subjected to divine punishment along with other unbelievers.[18]

In the last part of Sura al-Tahrim, God introduces these two women as ungrateful women who despite being married to noble and righteous people, acted treacherously towards them. Their relationship with the prophets was of no avail to them and therefore they were told to enter Hell along with other unbelievers.[19]

It is interesting to know that at the beginning of the same short chapter i.e. Sura Al-Tahrim in which reference has been made to the evil fate of Noah and Lut’s wives, two of the Holy Prophet’s wives have also been reproached and reprimanded for their unfavorable and annoying behaviors towards him.[20] They have been introduced to Islamic society as individuals whose hearts have been stained with darkness.[21]

Regardless of how they hurt and misbehaved with the Prophet (s), there is no doubt among the historians and exegetes – Sunni and Shia – that these two women were Aisha, the daughter of the First Caliph and  Hafsa, the daughter of the Second Caliph!

If you do not believe us and you think that Shiites have fabricated this story, we advise you to go through some of the most important Sunni sources to see to your amazement that they have also confirmed the same story seeing no one other than Aisha and Hafsa to be the manifestations of the aforementioned verses. We just cite only two examples of the traditions narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim and leave the rest to you to study:

  1. A) Narrated Ibn Abbas: “I intended to ask ‘Umar so I said, “Who were those two ladies who tried to back each other against the Prophet?” I hardly finished my speech when he said, They were ‘Aisha and Hafsa.”[22]
  2. B) Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: I had been eager to ask ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab about the two ladies from among the wives of the Prophet regarding whom Allah said ‘If you two (wives of the Prophet namely Aisha and Hafsa) turn in repentance to Allah, your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet likes) till ‘Umar performed the Hajj and I too, performed the Hajj along with him. (On the way) ‘Umar went aside to answer the call of nature, and I also went aside along with him carrying a tumbler full of water, and when ‘Umar had finished answering the call of nature, I poured water over his hands and he performed the ablution. Then I said to him, “O chief of the Believers! Who were the two ladies from among the wives of the Prophet regarding whom Allah said: ‘If you two (wives of the Prophet) turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet likes)?” He said, “I am astonished at your question, O Ibn Abbas. They were ‘Aisha and Hafsa.”[23]

Now, we want you to answer as to why God, the Exalted, speaks about the fate of another two ladies immediately after He reveals verses denouncing Aisha and Hafsa for their act of hurting the Prophet (s). Why does God speak about the fate of two women who, like Aisha and Hafsa, were the wives of prophets but their relationship to those prophets were of no avail to them?

Therefore, one cannot consider the wives of prophets as being utterly and absolutely beyond any criticism.

  1. Having said that, we can now meticulously illustrate Shi’ahs’ perspective about Aisha and say that she enjoys two positions according to us:

First position:  Although we criticize Aisha for the reasons mentioned above, we also respect her as one of the wives of the Holy Prophet (s) and because the Quran regards the Prophet’s wives as the mothers of the faithful.[24] We respect her to the same degree that our Master, Imam Ali (a.s.) respected her following his victory in the Battle of Jamal in which Aisha pleaded Imam Ali for forgiveness and the Imam returned her to Medina with full respect and with forty armed women accompanying and guarding her.[25]

Also, we do not accept the false accusation levied against her in the “slander” event. As stated in some Shia sources, we believe that such sins cannot be committed by a wife of the Prophet (s) and that what is mentioned in the Quran as treachery refers to other offences committed by her.[26] Basically, we do not assail anyone by levying false accusations against him/her simply because we have some objections towards him/her. We believe such an act, as per the Quranic verse, is unjust because the Quran says that our criticism of people should not incite us to act unjustly.[27]

Second position: We know that obeying a mother is incumbent to a limited degree determined by God. We are not allowed to obey her absolutely and under all circumstances.[28] Unfortunately, this wife of the Prophet (s) and the Mother of the Faithful, committed acts which have given rise to objections on the part of some Shiites as well as some fair-minded Sunnis. We shall now mention only two important instances and leave the rest to you to study:

First instance: “Aisha hurt the Prophet (s) many times during the period she lived with him. As was stated in the third part of this answer, a few verses were revealed denouncing her and one another wife of the Prophet (s).

Second instance: Aisha was one of the most important individuals involved actively in the internal and well-organized civil wars ignited among Muslims. She ignored the Prophet’s advice to her[29] as we shall explain below:

During the period of the third caliph when public indignation increased against some of his designees, Aisha was one of the people who propagated heavily against him and even likened him to a Jewish man named Na’thal. She even incited people to kill him telling them “Kill the Na’thal” but when the insurgency intensified, she left Medina for Mecca thinking that as soon as Uthman would relinquish from power, her relative, Talha, who was also one of the leaders of the insurgency, would take the reign and occupy the caliphate. On her way to Mecca, she learned that Uthman had been killed. She became happy hearing the news and immediately asked the reporter as to whom the caliphate had been transferred to. When she heard that the people had chosen the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) as the caliph, she suddenly changed her position and expressed regret over Uthman’s murder! The reporter was taken aback with this sudden change of position. Therefore, he asked: “You were one of those people, who were instigating people against Uthman, how come you have now changed your opinion? Aisha answering this criticism and without denying her role in the insurgency answered: “Yes, I was among the opponents of Uthman but I believe the people must have made Uthman to repent and then they might have killed him! Then she returned to Medina and completed all preparations for the Battle of Jamal.[30]

What was presented in this study has been extracted from Sunni sources and one cannot deny or reject them.  Also, there are many other topics in the same books and also in Shi’ah sources each of which can give rise to  more criticisms but we are not going to discuss them for the sake of brevity but we want you to reply to our question without any prejudgment:

What is the reason a person cannot criticize a lady who enjoyed the honor to be the wife of the greatest Prophet sent to mankind but who with her annoying the Prophet (s) caused some intimidating verses to be revealed. In addition, she played an important role in starting an internal war among Muslims because she was involved in Uthman’s murder and, by ignoring the Holy Prophet’s warning, she launched the “Battle of Camel” causing the blood of thousands of her children to be spilled without any specific results.

If she is beyond any criticisms simply because she is the wife of the Holy Prophet (s), then why God considers, in Sura al-Tahrim, the wives of some of the prophets as being entitled to the Fire of Hell?! Why does God, addressing the Prophet’s wives, say that whoever among you commits a blatant sin will be punished twice as much as other people?[31] Do you find a sin more blatant and open than a military surge against the Prophet’s brother, his successor and the murder of thousands of people under the pretext of avenging the blood of a person in whose death she herself was primarily and overtly involved?

[1] – Al-Noor, 23.

[2] – Qurtubi, Muhammad bin Ahmad, Al-Jame’ le-Ahkaam al-Qur’an, vol.13, pg. 209, Nasir Khosro Publications, Tehran, 1364 (1985).

[3] – Sahih Bukhari, vol.3, pg. 154 – 155, Dar al-Fikr Publication, Beirut, 1401 A.H.

[4] – Sahih Bukhari, vol.6, pg. 13.

[5] – Sahih Bukhari, vol.5, pg. 61.

[6] – Tabari, Abu Ja’far, Jami’ul Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol.18, pg. 82, under verse 22 of Sura al-Noor, Dar al-Ma’arefah Publication, Beirut, 1412 A.H.

[7] – Vide: Tabarsi, Fazl bin Hasan, Jawame’ul Jami’, vol.3, pg.98, Tehran University Press, 1377 (1998); Tusi, Muhammad bin Hasan, Al-Tebyan fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.7,pg. 415, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[8] – Ali bin Ibrahim, Tafsir Qommi, vol.2, pg. 99, Darul Kitab Institute, Qom, 1404 A.H.

[9] – Al-Nisa, 137; Al-Munafeqoon, 3; Al-Maedah, 54

[10] – Al-Tawbah, 38; Al-Maedah, 51, Al-Ahzab, 69; Al-Hojurat, 1-2; Momtahenah, 1; Al-Saf, 2; Al-Munafeqoon, 9; Al-Anfal,5.

[11] – Al-Furqan, 74.

[12] – Al-Masad, 1-5: Perish the hands of the Father of Flame! Perish he! No profit to him from all his wealth, and all his gains! Burnt soon will he be in a Fire of Blazing Flame! His wife shall carry the (crackling) wood – As fuel!- A twisted rope of palm-leaf fibre round her (own) neck!

[13] – Al-Tahrim, 12; Aal-e Imran, 42-43 etc.

[14] – Aal-e Imran, 44: “hou wast not with them when they cast lots with arrows, as to which of them should be charged with the care of Mary: Nor wast thou with them when they disputed (the point).”

[15] – Aal-e Imran, 37 -40: “There did Zakariya pray to his Lord; he said: My Lord! grant me from Thee good offspring; surely Thou art the Hearer of prayer.”

[16] – Al-Tahrim, 11: “And Allah sets forth, as an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: “O my Lord! Build for me, in nearness to Thee…”

[17] – Hud 40: We said: “We said: Load therein two of every kind, a pair (the male and female), and thy household, save him against whom the word hath gone forth already, and those who believe.”

[18] – Hud, 81, “And let not any of you look back: but thy wife (will remain behind): To her will happen what happens to the people.”

[19] – Al-Tahrim, 10: “Allah sets forth, for an example to the Unbelievers, the wife of Noah and the wife of Lut: they were (respectively) under two of our righteous servants, but they were false to their (husbands), and they profited nothing before Allah on their account, but were told: “Enter ye the Fire along with (others) that enter!”

[20] – Read the full story in reliable Sunni or Shi’ah Tafsir (commentary books) under Chap. Al-Tahrim.

[21] – Al-Tahrim, 4-6: “If ye two turn in repentance to Him, your hearts are indeed so inclined; But if ye back up each other against him, truly Allah is his Protector, and Gabriel, and (every) righteous one among those who believe,- and furthermore, the angels – will back (him) up.”

[22] – Sahih Bukhari, vol.6, pg. 70

[23] – Sahih Bukhari, vol.6, pg. 147 – 148; Sahih Muslim, vol.4, pg. 192, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut.

[24] – Al-Ahzab, 6: “And his wives are their mothers.”

[25] – Shakh Mufid, Al-Jamal, pg. 415, Congress on Shaykh Mufid, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[26] – Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwar, vol.11, pg. 308, Al-Wafa Institute, Beirut, 1404 A.H.

[27] – Al-Maedah, 8: “And let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice.”

[28] – Al-Ankabut, 8; Luqman, 15: “But if they strive to make thee join in worship with Me things of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them company in this life with justice (and consideration).”

[29] – Ibn Kathir al-Demashqi, Al-Bedayah wan-Nehayah, vol.6, pg. 212, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1407 A.H.

[30] – Tarikh al-Tabari, vol.4, pg. 458 – 459, Dar al-Turath, Beirut, 2nd edition, 1387 A.H.

[31] – Al-Ahzab, 30: “O wives of the prophet! whoever of you commits an open indecency, the punishment shall be increased to her doubly.”; Adopted from answer 4523 IQ.

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Good women are for good men / Types of Family in Quran

Question 512: ‘Good women are for good men and vice versa’. What about Asia and Pharaoh or other examples we daily see in our lives. How does one interpret this verse?

Answer 512: As an improvement for their opinions that is behind why ‘Good women are for good men’ some adduce an argument of the Holy Quran in which Allah (SWT) says: “Vicious women are for vicious men, and vicious men for vicious women. Good women are for good men, and good men for good women. These are absolved of what they say [about them]. For them is forgiveness and a noble provision”.[1]

Arabic version:

الْخَبيثاتُ لِلْخَبيثينَ وَ الْخَبيثُونَ لِلْخَبيثاتِ وَ الطَّيِّباتُ لِلطَّيِّبينَ وَ الطَّيِّبُونَ لِلطَّيِّباتِ أُولئِكَ مُبَرَّؤُنَ مِمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَ رِزْقٌ كَريم‏

But, considering that every general rule has exceptional cases we see many different examples some of which have mentioned in the Holy Quran that are against the rule as follows:

In one hand, Allah draws an example for the faithless: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of our righteous servants, yet they betrayed them. So they did not avail them in any way against Allah, and it was said [to them],” Enter the Fire, along with those who enter [it].

Arabic version:

ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ امْرَأَتَ نُوحٍ وَ امْرَأَتَ لُوطٍ  كَانَتَا تحَْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَلِحَينْ‏ِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنهُْمَا مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيًْا وَ قِيلَ ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدَّاخِلِين‏

As we see, the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot’ relationship with the prophets was of no avail to them and therefore they were told to enter Hell along with other unbelievers.[2] Because, the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most God wary among you.[3]

On the other hand, Allah draws an [other] example for those who have faith: the wife of Pharaoh, when she said,” My Lord! Build me a home near You in paradise, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his conduct, and deliver me from the wrongdoing lot.” [4]

Arabic version:

وَ ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ امْرَأَتَ فِرْعَوْنَ إِذْ قَالَتْ رَبّ‏ِ ابْنِ لىِ عِندَكَ بَيْتًا فىِ الْجَنَّةِ وَ نجَِّنىِ مِن فِرْعَوْنَ وَ عَمَلِهِ وَ نجَِّنىِ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِين‏

Also, Allah (SWT) draws another example: “And Mary, daughter of Imran, who guarded the chastity of her womb, so We breathed into it of Our spirit. She confirmed the words of her Lord and His Books, and she was one of the obedient”

Arabic version:

وَ مَرْيمَ‏َ ابْنَتَ عِمْرَانَ الَّتىِ أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِنَا وَ صَدَّقَتْ بِكلَِمَاتِ رَبهَِّا وَ كُتُبِهِ وَ كاَنَتْ مِنَ الْقَانِتِين‏

In addition to the above mentioned issues, we need to take the followings into our consideration.

  1. This verse of the Holy Quran (i.e. surah al-Tahrim, verse 10) is the continuation of the story of Ifk “slander” was revealed and which was a proof of chastity. Allah, the Almighty speaks about the fate of the two ladies immediately after He reveals verses denouncing Aisha and Hafsa for their act of hurting the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He (SWT) introduces these two women as ungrateful women who despite being married to noble and righteous people, acted treacherously towards them. They were the wives of the Prophets (as), but their relationship with them was of no avail to them and therefore they were told to enter Hell along with other unbelievers.
  2. The main aim of the word ‘Khabithat’ (Unclean things) mentioned in this verse is unchaste. Meaning that none of the Prophets (as) and the Imams’ (pbuth) wives deviated from the right path and committed such sins. When the holy Quran talks about the wives of the Prophet Noah and Lot that they betrayed the prophets, it means that they spied for the disbelievers. It doesn’t mean that they committed adultery. Because, the houses of the Prophets must be keep away from such sins that people hate. Otherwise, they couldn’t communicate what has been sent down to them from Allah, the Almighty.
  3. Some of the Prophets and Imams’ (pbuth) wives were not infidel or disbeliever at the time getting married to them. They sometimes went astray after nubuwwat (prophet hood), so after that the prophets didn’t continue their relations with them.

When Asiah got married to Pharaoh the Prophet Musa (as) wasn’t born. When Musa (as) raised up among people she acknowledged His faith, but she had no choice except to live with Pharaoh and then she finally had been killed by Pharaoh.[5]

Ju’dah bint Ash’ath, the wife of Imam Hasan (as) is another example we need to know about. This marriage took place in Kufa and she poisoned Him on instigation of Mu’aviya.

Imam Ali (as) asked Saeed bin Qays, the Ash’ath’s brother to marry his daughter to Imam Hasan (as). When As’ath realized he goes to his brother and dissuaded him from marrying his daughter to the Imam and married Saeed’s daughter to his son (i.e. Ash’ath’s son). He then goes to Imam Ali (as) and said: The girl you proposed for Imam Hasan is my son’s wife. After that he married his own daughter to Imam Hasan (as) with much importunity.[6] According to some sources, Imam Hasan (as) hasn’t had any children from Judah.

According to Shia sources, Judah instigated by Mu’aviyah (according to Ibn Abi al-Hadid, she instigated by Yazid bin Mu’aviyah[7]) as he promised her that if you poison your husband (Imam Hasan) you will get married to my son Yazid and be received a lot of money.[8]

According to Tabarsi, when Imam Hasan (as) has become martyr Mu’aviyah gave Ju’dah money but didn’t fulfil the other promise.[9]

What the reason behind why Judah and his father committed such capital sin was that they instigated by Mu’aviah, the caliphate of that time. It wasn’t because she loved yazid.

This may raise a question as to whether or not the Prophets and Imams (pbuth) didn’t use the knowledge of the unseen in such situation to get married to a pious woman but not like the one who poisoned the Imam.

In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “In the Apostle of Allah there is certainly for you a good exemplar, for those who look forward to Allah and the Last Day, and remember Allah greatly”.[10](10) So, the answer is obvious as they are our examples we ordinary people follow their sayings, behaviors, and demeanors.

If they use the knowledge of the unseen in this matter how is this thing possible for us that don’t have the knowledge of the unseen to choose a woman we made sure she will never go astray in the future!

According to the above mentioned issues and the following types of families mentioned in the holy Quran we can conclude that however it is a rule that good women are for good men, but there are some exceptional cases are against the rule. Also, this verse of the Holy Quran is about unchaste that comes after verses denouncing Aisha and Hafsa for their act of hurting the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Therefore, it is not an obligatory rule that we Muslims must act upon it. It is just examples for us to know that the noblest of us in the sight of Allah is the most God wary among us and being wife or husband of the pious persons like the prophets was of no avail to us.

Types of Families in the Holy Quran: there are four types of families mentioned in the holy Quran as follows:

  1. Husband and wife of the same mind in doing the righteous deeds like Imam Ali and Fatimah Zahra (pbuth). “They give food, for the love of Him, to the needy, the orphan and the prisoner”[11]
  2. Husband and wife that are in harmony with each other in malignancy. “Perish the hands of Abu Lahab, and perish he”[12]
  3. A family that man is good but the woman is bad. “the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of our righteous servants, yet they betrayed them. So they did not avail them in any way against Allah, and it was said [to them],” Enter the Fire, along with those who enter [it].””[13]
  4. A family that man is bad but the woman is good. “Allah draws an [other] example for those who have faith: the wife of Pharaoh, when she said,” My Lord! Build me a home near You in paradise, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his conduct, and deliver me from the wrongdoing lot.””[14]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Essential Requirements of a Successful Marriage in Islam, answer 515.

Index: The holy Prophet’s (pbuh) knowledge of the unseen (Gheyb), answer 393.

Index: Death of Asiya Bint Muzahim / Pharaoh ordered her be nailed to the floor, answer 528.

[1] . Surah Noor, verse 26.

[2] . Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 19, Pg. 575.

[3] . Surah Hujurat, verse 13.

[4] . Surah Tahrim, verses 10-11.

[5] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 14, Pgs. 425-426.

[6] . Abi al-Faraj Abdul Rahman bin Jozi, Pg. 27.

[7] . Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 16, Pg. 11.

[8] Mufid, Vol. 2, Pg. 16;  Ibn Shahrashoob, Vol. 3, Pg. 202;  Arbeli, Vol. 2, Pgs. 138-139.

[9] . Tabrasi, Vol. 2, Pg. 13.

[10] . Surah al-Ahzab, verse 21.

[11] . Surah al-Insan, verse 8.

[12]. Surah al-Masad, verse 1.

[13] . Surah al-Tahrim, verse 10.

[14] . Surah Al-Tahrim, verse 11.

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Completeness and Immunity of the Holy Quran to Distortion according to Shia

Question 294: As Salam O Alaikum, What are the views of classical Shia scholars like Shaykh Mufeed, Shaykh Tusi, Baqir Majlisi, Mulla Nouri Tabrisi & Al Ayyashi on the Completeness and Immunity of the Holy Quran to Distortion? Do we carry the same Qur’an as it was revealed or additions and depletions have been made to it, what are the views of the above mentioned scholars on it?? (Save the views of Shaykh Sudooq)

 

Answer 294: According to Sheikh Sadouq and Mufid (ra), the Quran that is in our hand is the holy Quran has been sent down to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) by Allah, the Almighty. Those who attribute the alternation, any addition to us (Shia) are a liar.[1]

Allamah Muhammad Hussein Tabatabai says under verse 9 of Surah Al-Hijr [«انا نحن نزلنا الذكر و انا له لحافظون»] the features which have been mentioned for the Quran such as eloquence, expressiveness, coherence and the miraculous nature of the Quranic verses entirely exist in the present Quran which we have possession of. He has concluded that this Quran is the very same Quran which was known during the Apostle of God (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him). “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)”.[2]

We would like to draw your attention to two Shia and Sunni hadiths regarding this issue:

1- Sufyan ibn Samt narrates that he asked Imam Sadeq (as) about the differences in recitation of the Quran. He said to recite the Quran as we have been taught [and like everyone else].[3]

2- Ibn Masoud, one of the prophet’s (pbuh) companions says: “I have heard the Quran being recited from different reciters and [despite their differences] they were all similar and of the same meaning. Therefore, refrain from disputing about this issue with each other. Truly, some of the differences that can be found are like when we use different words like “هلم” “تعال”and “اقبل” with the same meaning [they all convey the same meaning].[4]
Therefore, we must say that according to most Islamic scholars, no verses have been added to the Quran nor omitted, and if sometimes some individuals from either sect believe that some alteration has occurred, it in no way affects the authenticity of the Quran in its entirety and the belief can’t be related to the school of thought as a whole.

Allamah Tabarsi (ra), the great interpreter of the holy Quran said: No verses have been added to the Quran nor omitted. In Majma al-Bayan he also said under the verse 9 of Surah Al-Hijr: Although, a group of Imamiyyah and Jama’at of Hashviyyah[5] said that the holy Quran has been altered in a way that some verses have been added or omitted, but the correct opinion of Imamiyyah is against this idea. Furthermore, Sayyid Murtadha (ra) supported the idea that no verses have been added nor omitted.[6]

But, according to Sheikh Mirza Hussain bin Muhammad Taqi bin Ali Muhammad Noori Tabarsi known as Muhaddith Noori and haji Norri, one of the Shia Muhaddith (refers to a specialist who intensely knows and narrates hadith) in 14th century, no verses of the holy Quran have been added but a few verses have been omitted before the collection of the holy Quran due to some reasons. In this regards, he wrote a book called Faslul Khitab that many Shia and Sunni scholars protested against this book. As a result, Mirza Hussain Noori severely regretted writing the book.[7]

Q: How can we prove that the Holy Quran has not been distorted and altered throughout the centuries?

A: First of all we should know that t he distortion of Religious texts and scriptures has been common among most religions and one of the main reasons new prophets were sent to people was to provide a corrective for the previous altered religions.[8]  But Islam, as the Seal of Religions, has been protected from any potential distortion and falsification.

This question can be answered in different ways depending on the individual who has posed the question. It can be answered from a Muslim perspective (using Quranic verses and traditions) and a non-Muslim one (using intellectual and logical argumentation and reasoning). Here we will answer the question from a non-Muslim perspective and won’t touch on the many Quranic verses and traditions from the infallibles that clearly prove its immunity.

First: The Quran’s Eejaz (Miracle) 

Allameh Tabatabei argues that the Quran cannot have undergone distortion due to its I’jaz (its miraculousness).  In this respect he says: “It is a historical fact that 14 centuries ago a Prophet named Muhammad arose and brought a book named the Quran that was his miracle for all times.  The Quran was revealed with certain qualities that made it significant among other books and challenged all Arabs to bring anything like it.  It is also historically certain that none of the prophet’s adversaries were able to bring a chapter, even the size of the smallest chapters, that would resemble the Quran with its special qualities.

The current Quran that we have still has those qualities like its beautiful rhythm and eloquence, the harmony of the verses, prophecies of future events, etc.  In other words this Quran has the features of the Quran that was revealed 14 centuries ago and not one person has been able to bring a chapter similar to its chapters.  This proves that it has not been distorted or falsified for if it was, it would not have maintained the same qualities.[9]

There is no doubt that if it was possible to bring even one chapter similar to the Quranic chapters the disbelievers that were contemporary with the prophet and were and are known to be the most learned in Arabic literature would have done so, because not only did the disbelievers use every single method to defeat Islam and the Prophet but the Quran itself had challenged them to do so.  This way they could defeat the prophet and deny his prophethood so much easier without going through the trouble of going to war with him.  Obviously they tried their best but it was useless, for Allah says in the Quran: “Say,” Should all humans and jinn rally to bring the like of this Qur’an, they will not bring the like of it, even if they assisted one another.”[10]

Another challenge that the Quran has made is that no contradictions can be found in the various verses of the Quran.  In this regard Allah says: “Do they not ponder about the Qur’an? Had it been from other than Allah, Surely they would have found therein so many contradictions”.[11]  There are no contradictions among the Quranic verses we read today.[12]

Also, the current Quran also has all the other qualities that the Quran had 14 centuries ago like prophets’ stories, marvelous and valuable truths, prophecies, etc.[13]

Second Reason:

This reason is made up of several premises:

1- A revealed religion is a set of beliefs and rules that are revealed to a prophet by God for the guidance of the people.

2- All religions (except for the Seal of Religions), depending on the needs of their time, have partially brought some of the beliefs and rules of the Complete Religion for the people of their time .

3- The reason for having many religions, in addition to bringing new rules from the complete religion, is so that previous distorted ones can be corrected.

4- In order for the last prophet to rise and call the people to the Seal of Religions; firstly, the last religion must be utterly comprehensive leaving out no paths that would lead one to God, and secondly, the last religion must be protected from all forms of distortion. If any of these two elements are lacked in a religion, the mind will not accept it to be the seal of religions.

In this light one can conclude that “the Seal of Religions is immune to distortion”[14], and this means that the book of this religion cannot be altered as well, because the book of a religion consists of most of its rulings and teachings and protecting a religion from distortion without protecting its book makes no sense.[15]

So till here what was proven is that the book of the Seal of Religions will be protected from change, now we will combine this fact with the two other statements (first: The Quran is the Book of Islam, second: Islam is the Seal of Religions) to conclude that the Quran has never been altered or distorted.[16]

Once we accept that Prophet Muhammad was the Seal of Prophets and that his religion was the last religion sent down to humankind until the end of the world we must admit that Allah will always protect Islam and keep it from being changed.  How can the distortion of the Quran be consistent with the fact that Islam will stay alive till the end of the world?

Third Reason:

Knowing that the Quran meant everything to Muslims throughout time and that they used it as their constitutional law and the rules by which they lived and worshipped Allah, there was no period of history wherein the Quran could have been altered without other noticing.

The Quran was the book that early Muslims would recite in their prayers, mosques, houses and wars when confronting the unbelievers to prove that Islam was the true religion to live by.  Islamic history shows that in some cases men would set teaching their brides the Quran as their “Mehr” (dowry).

Generally speaking at that time the only book which was spoken about and so many events revolved around was the Quran.  Children would learn it in the early years of their lives and anyone who intended to learn about the new religion was taught the Quran.  Therefore there was no chance for the Quran to be changed.[17]

Fourth Reason:

The Quran we have today is the same one that was compiled during the prophet’s time,[18]  and even if anyone does not accept this he must know that even those who have different opinions regarding the current order of the chapters and other detailed issues agree that not even one word was added or taken away from the Quran; because Muslims strived to memorize and learn the Quran to the extent that the social status of individuals was somewhat determined by how much Quran they knew by heart.

There were so many Muslims which memorized the Quran that history says that 400 of them died as a result of only one war which took place at the time of Abu Bakr’s reign. [19]

In another war that took place at the time of the prophet and occurred in a village not far from Medina named “Bi’r Ma’unah” history recounts that 70 Muslims who knew the Quran by heart were martyred.[20]

The Quran was not a forgotten book that lied on Muslims’ bookshelves without anyone reading and reciting it, hence it was not possible for anyone to alter it and it that case it would have been ensued by extreme opposition by the Muslim nation.

Memorizing the Quran has always been seen as a great form of worship and tradition among Muslims.  Even after the Quran was compiled, transcribed by hand in the form of a book and later on by print which lead to it being the most sold book in all Muslim countries, memorizing it still meant a lot to Muslims, an inevitable result being that memorizers of the Quran can be found in almost every city and town.

Today there are special schools in Muslim countries with different names like “Madreseto Tahfizel  Quranal Karim” or “Jameatol Quran” that have been established for the memorization of the Quran.  In some cases the teachers are small children who have just finished memorizing the Quran themselves.[21]

Reports show that approximately one million and five hundred thousand citizens of Pakistan know the Quran  by heart![22] One of the requirements to enter the Islamic University of Al-Azhar in Egypt is to have memorized the entire Quran.  After going through a test applicants must score 20 out of 40 to attend classes at Al-Azhar![23]

In brief, memorizing the Quran is a tradition established by the prophet in his ahadith.  Keeping in mind what was said, there is no possibility that the Quran could have undergone any change through the course of 14 centuries.

Fifth Reason:

There were numerous writers which the prophet had assigned to write the divine revelations that were sent down to him by Allah.  Historians have mentioned up to 43 Muslims[24] as the writers of the Quran, although Imam Ali and Zeyd Ibn Thabet would accompany the prophet more than others in this task.[25]

The question is how can a book with so many writers be altered?

Sixth:

Since the advent of Islam all of the imams have encouraged Muslims to recite, ponder and act upon the Quran at hand[26], this comes to show that it was certain it hadn’t undergone any change, especially in the first few centuries of Islam.

In the Nahjul-Balaghah we find proof for such a claim.  In sermon 133 we read: “The Book of Allah is among you. It speaks and its tongue does not falter. It is a house whose pillars do not fall down, and a power whose supporters are never routed.”[27]

In serman 176 Imam Ali says: “And know that this Qur’an is an adviser who never deceives, a leader who never misleads and a narrator who never speaks a lie.[28] No one will sit beside this Qur’an but that when he rises he will achieve one addition or one diminution-addition in his guidance or elimination in his (spiritual) blindness.”![29]

If the Quran had been changed or altered it would not make sense for the imams to invite the people to the current Quran.  If it had been altered it would not have been introduced as a light that helps distinguish between true and false or as Allah’s steady and firm rope which we all must hold on to.[30]

Taking these six arguments into consideration, no room should be left for any doubt about the Quran being immune to any form of distortion and falsification[31].

[1] . Eʿteqādātal-Emāmīya by Shaykh Saduq • Tashih al-I’tiqad by Shaykh Mufid, Vol. 1, Pg. 84, chapter 33.

[2] . [15:9]; For further information, see: Allamah Tabatabai, Tafsir Al-Mizan, vol.12, pg.104 and pg.106 and pg.138.

[3] . Muhammad ibn Yaqub Kuleini, Al-Kafi, vol.2, pg. 631, hadith 15.

[4] . Beyhaqi, Sunan Kubra, vol.2, pg.385.

[5] . Hashviyyah is a group that believe that Bani Umayyah is their Imam. They don’t consider the children of the holy Prophet (pbuh) as Imam; For further information, refer to: Sheikh Mufid, al-Ershad, Qom, Publication of Worldwide Congress of Sheikh Mufid, 1413 A.H, Vol. 2, Pg. 22; Ayatollah Sobhani, Sheikh Jaafar, Buhuth fee al-Milal wa al-Nihal, Al-Nashr al-Islami Institution, Al-Imam Al-Sadiq (as) Institution, Vol. 1, Pg. 124.

[6] . Ibid.

[7] . Al-Dariat, Vol. 16, Pg. 231.

[8] See: Payame Quran,‌ Makarem Shirazi.

[9] See: Al-Mizan, vol. 12, pp 150-155 and 157.

[10] Isra:88.

[11] Nisa:86.

[12] For further information, see: Mabaniye Kalamiye Ejtehad, Hadavi Tehrani, Mahdi, pp. 54-55.

[13] See: Translation of Al-Mizan, vol. 12, pp. 150-154.

[14] Hadavi Tehrani, Mabaniye Kalamiye Ejtehad, pg. 67.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Tafisir Nemouneh, vol. 11, pg. 22.

[18] Of course, there are different viewpoints on the compilation of the Quran.

[19] Muntakhab Kanzul-Ummal as quoted by Al-Bayan fi Tafsiril-Quran, pg. 260.

[20] Safinatul-Bihar, vol. 1, pg. 57.

[21] In this regard, the memories and memoirs of Dr. Mohammad Hosein Tabatabai who is famous for being the child who memorized the entire Quran and earned a PhD are worth reading.

[22] Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 11, pg.24. Of course, these statistics belong to years back and naturally, the number of those who have memorized the Quran is higher than this number in that country.

[23] Ibid, as quoted by the Encyclopedia of Farid Wujdi.

[24] Historians have recorded between 14 to 43 individuals.

[25] Zanjani, Abu Abdillah, Tarikhul-Quran, pg.24.

[26] Meaning that when one observes the sayings of the imams, they are all encouraging the Muslims to recite and ponder the verses of the Quran at hand.

[27] وَ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِكُمْ نَاطِقٌ لَا يَعْيَى لِسَانُهُ وَ بَيْتٌ لَا تُهْدَمُ أَرْكَانُهُ وَ عِزٌّ لَا تُهْزَمُ أَعْوَانُه‏.

[28] اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ هُوَ النَّاصِحُ الَّذِي لَا يَغُشُّ وَ الْهَادِي الَّذِي لَا يُضِلُّ .

[29] وَ مَا جَالَسَ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا قَامَ عَنْهُ بِزِيَادَةٍ أَوْ نُقْصَانٍ زِيَادَةٍ فِي هُدًى وَ نُقْصَانٍ مِنْ عَمًى.

[30] See: Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 11, pp. 24-26.

[31] . Adopted from answer 453 IQ.