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Question 301: What is correct academic views from Ahlulbait AS about sending lanah upon their enemies? Is Cursing the enemies of Ahlul Bayt bring heavenly reward for us?

Answer 301: Literally, the word “Laanat” means ‘to curse’, ‘make far’, or ‘to separate’. It is an offensive word or phrase used to express anger or annoyance. Also, Lanat means to angrily make somebody far from himself or make him far from good.[1]

In Islamic terminologically, Lanat means to pray to Allah to keep a person far from His Mercy.[2] Lanat is the opposite of Salaam, which means to ask Allah, the Almighty to have Mercy on a person. Salawaat is a way of manifesting Tawallah (loving the Ahlul Bayt (pbuth)) and Lanat is Tabarrah (the obligation of disassociation with those who oppose God and those who caused harm to and were the enemies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or his family).

If Lanat is from Allah then it would be a punishment and a curse on the Day of Resurrection and separate from Allah’s mercy in this world. And if it is from a human being it means to make dua, curse or request a loss to somebody.[3]

Therefore, Lanat means to fed up with a person’s bad behavior and make dua for being far from Allah’s Mercy.

Lanat in the Holy Quran:

In the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty cursed on many groups as follows:

– And surely My curse is on you to the Day of Judgment.[4]

– Sure Allah has cursed the unbelievers and has prepared for them a Burning Fire.[5]

– These are they who lied against their Lord Now surely the curse of Allah is on the unjust.[6]

– Surely (as for) those who speak evil things of Allah and His Messenger.[7]

– and a fifth] oath [that Allah’s wrath shall be upon him if he were lying.[8]

– Surely those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers, these it is on whom is the curse of Allah and the angles and men all.[9]

– (As for) these, their reward is that upon them is the curse of Allah and the angels and of men, all together.[10]

– And We caused a curse to follow them in this world And on the Day of Resurrection they shall be of those made to appear hideous.[11]

– But on account of their breaking their covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard.[12]

– Those whom Allah has cursed and with whom He is wrathful, and turned some of whom into apes and swine, ….[13]

– But Allah has cursed them for their faithlessness, so they will not believe except a few.[14]

– The Jews say,” Allah’s hand is tied up.” Tied up be their hands, and cursed be they for what they say! Rather, His ….[15]

There are also many verses of the Holy Quran that support the idea of cursing on the enemies of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth).

Lanat according to traditions:

Sometimes, the holy Prophet (pbuh) generally cursed on some groups of people, like: a man who looks himself like a woman, and also a woman who looks herself like a man, one who slaughters an animal without mentioning the name of Allah, one who curses on his parents, one who acts like the people of Lut and one who takes bribery.[16]

The Prophet (pbuh) sometimes cursed on some known persons. In this regards, Sha’bi says: While Abdullah bin Zubair inclined on the wall of Kaabah, he said: I swear by Allah that the Prophet of Allah (s) cursed on that person and one who born from him.[17]

The Arabid version of this Hadith:

«حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي خَالِدٍ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، وَ هُوَ مُسْتَنِدٌ إِلَى الْكَعْبَةِ، وَ هُوَ يَقُولُ: وَ رَبِّ هَذِهِ الْكَعْبَةِ، لَقَدْ لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ(ص) فُلَانًا، وَ مَا وُلِدَ مِنْ صُلْبِهِ»

In Mustadrak Hakim Nayshaboori mentioned that the person Abdullah bin Zubair talked about him is Hakam bin Aas and his children. Meaning that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) cursed on Hakam bin Aas and his children.[18]

«حَدَّثَنَاهُ ابْنُ نُصَيْرٍ الْخَلَدِيُّ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ، ثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ بْنِ رِشْدِينَ الْمِصْرِيُّ بِمِصْرَ، ثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ الْخُرَاسَانِيُّ، ثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْمُحَارِبِيُّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَوْقَةَ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا: أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ(ص) لَعَنَ الْحَكَمَ وَ وَلَدَهُ» هَذَا الْحَدِيثٌ صَحِيحُ الْإِسْنَادِ»

Abdullah bin Umar says: The holy Prophet cursed on the day of Uhud war, saying: O Allah curse on Aba Sufyan….[19]

«اللّهُمَّ الْعَنْ أباسُفْیانَ…»

There are many traditions narrated from our Infallibles (pbuth) in Shia sources saying that cursing on the enemies of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) will bring heavenly rewards.[20]

One of the traditions is as follows: Imam Reza (pbuh) says: O son of Shabib, if you want to dwell houses of the heaven with the holy Prophet (pbuh) you would be recommended to curse on the murders of Imam Hussain (pbuh).

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

“حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ مَاجِيلَوَيْهِ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الرَّيَّانِ بْنِ شَبِيبٍ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى الرِّضَا ع فِي أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ الْمُحَرَّمِ- فَقَالَ لِي يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ أَ صَائِمٌ أَنْتَ فَقُلْتُ لَا فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا الْيَوْمَ هُوَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي دَعَا فِيهِ زَكَرِيَّا ع رَبَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ هَبْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ ذُرِّيَّةً طَيِّبَةً إِنَّكَ سَمِيعُ الدُّعاءِ فَاسْتَجَابَ اللَّهُ لَهُ وَ أَمَرَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ فَنَادَتْ زَكَرِيَّا وَ هُوَ قائِمٌ يُصَلِّي فِي الْمِحْرابِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكَ بِيَحْيى‏ فَمَنْ صَامَ هَذَا الْيَوْمَ ثُمَّ دَعَا اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ اسْتَجَابَ اللَّهُ لَهُ كَمَا اسْتَجَابَ لِزَكَرِيَّا ع ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنَّ الْمُحَرَّمَ هُوَ الشَّهْرُ الَّذِي كَانَ أَهْلُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فِيمَا مَضَى يُحَرِّمُونَ فِيهِ الظُّلْمَ وَ الْقِتَالَ لِحُرْمَتِهِ فَمَا عَرَفَتْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةُ حُرْمَةَ شَهْرِهَا وَ لَا حُرْمَةَ نَبِيِّهَا ص لَقَدْ قَتَلُوا فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ وَ سَبَوْا نِسَاءَهُ وَ انْتَهَبُوا ثَقَلَهُ فَلَا غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ذَلِكَ أَبَداً يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ كُنْتَ بَاكِياً لِشَيْ‏ءٍ فَابْكِ لِلْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع فَإِنَّهُ ذُبِحَ كَمَا يُذْبَحُ الْكَبْشُ وَ قُتِلَ مَعَهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ ثَمَانِيَةَ عَشَرَ رَجُلًا مَا لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ شَبِيهُونَ وَ لَقَدْ بَكَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَ الْأَرَضُونَ لِقَتْلِهِ وَ لَقَدْ نَزَلَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ أَرْبَعَةُ آلَافٍ لِنَصْرِهِ فَوَجَدُوهُ قَدْ قُتِلَ فَهُمْ عِنْدَ قَبْرِهِ شُعْثٌ غُبْرٌ إِلَى أَنْ يَقُومَ الْقَائِمُ فَيَكُونُونَ مِنْ أَنْصَارِهِ وَ شِعَارُهُمْ يَا لَثَارَاتِ الْحُسَيْنِ يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ لَقَدْ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ ع أَنَّهُ لَمَّا قُتِلَ الْحُسَيْنُ جَدِّي ص مَطَرَتِ السَّمَاءُ دَماً وَ تُرَاباً أَحْمَرَ يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ بَكَيْتَ عَلَى الْحُسَيْنِ ع حَتَّى تَصِيرَ دُمُوعُكَ عَلَى خَدَّيْكَ غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَكَ كُلَّ ذَنْبٍ أَذْنَبْتَهُ صَغِيراً كَانَ أَوْ كَبِيراً قَلِيلًا كَانَ أَوْ كَثِيراً يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ سَرَّكَ أَنْ تَلْقَى اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لَا ذَنْبَ عَلَيْكَ فَزُرِ الْحُسَيْنَ ع يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ سَرَّكَ أَنْ تَسْكُنَ الْغُرَفَ الْمَبْنِيَّةَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مَعَ النَّبِيِّ وَ آلِهِ ص فَالْعَنْ قَتَلَةَ الْحُسَيْنِ يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ سَرَّكَ أَنْ تَكُونَ لَكَ مِنَ الثَّوَابِ مِثْلَ مَا لِمَنِ اسْتُشْهِدَ مَعَ الْحُسَيْنِ ع فَقُلْ مَتَى مَا ذَكَرْتَهُ يا لَيْتَنِي كُنْتُ مَعَهُمْ فَأَفُوزَ فَوْزاً عَظِيماً يَا ابْنَ شَبِيبٍ إِنْ سَرَّكَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مَعَنَا فِي الدَّرَجَاتِ الْعُلَى مِنَ الْجِنَانِ فَاحْزَنْ لِحُزْنِنَا وَ افْرَحْ لِفَرَحِنَا وَ عَلَيْكَ بِوَلَايَتِنَا فَلَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلًا تَوَلَّى حَجَراً لَحَشَرَهُ اللَّهُ مَعَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة”.

Note: There is another word (sabb) that people may considered it as Laan but it is forbidden in Islam.

Sabb means abuse and using bad language. It is considered as a forbidden act in Islam, according to the holy Quran and traditions a few of which are as follows.

Allah (SWT) says: And do not abuse those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest exceeding the limits they should abuse Allah out of ignorance” Thus have We made fair seeming to every people their deeds; then to their Lord’s shall be their return, so He will inform them of what they did”[21]

The holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) says: Abusing Muslims is debauchery and sin.[22]

The Arabic version:

سِبَابُ الْمُسْلِمِ فُسُوقٌ

Conclusion: Although, Sabb has been forbidden in Islam, but cursing (Lanat) is permissible and also bring heavenly reward if we curse on the enemies of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth).

Note: For the time being, if cursing on the enemies of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) causes harm we have to do Taqiyya[23] and do it in our hearts.

For further information on this matter, please read the following answers:

Index: Visiting non-Muslim graves and Praying for them, answer 103.

Index: Praying for non-Muslim Parents, answer 516.

Index: Praying for non-Muslims in Qunoot of Witr prayer, answer 197.

Index: Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession, answer 148.

[1] . Mufradaat, pg. 422, Majmaul Bahrain, vol. 1-2, pg. 404.

[2] . Az’hari, Muhammad bin Ahmad, Tahzib al-Lughat, Vol. 2, Pg. 240, Beirt, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, first edition; Ibn Faris, Ahamd Mujam Maqaees al-Lughat, Vol. 5, Pg. 352, Qom, Maktab al-Aalam al-Islami, First edition, 1404 A.H;  Mustafavi, Hassan, al-Tahqiq fee kalimat al-Quran al-Karim, Vol. 10, Pg. 201, Beirut, Caro, London, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, Markaz Nashr Athar Allamah Mustafavi (central publication for Allamah Mustafavis works)

[3] . Raghib Esfahani, Hussain bin Muhammad, Mufradat Alfad e Quran, Pg. 741, Beirut, Dar al-Qalam, first edtion.

[4] . Surah Saad, verse 78.

[5] . Surah Ahzab, verse 64.

[6] . Surah Hood, verse 18.

[7] . Surah Ahzab, verse 57.

[8] . Surah Noor, verse 7.

[9] . Surah Baqarah, verse 161.

[10] . Surah Aale Emran. Verse 88.

[11] . Surah Qasas, verse 42.

[12] . Surah Maaedah, verse 13.

[13] . Ibid, verse 60.

[14] . Surah Nisa, verse 46.

[15] . Surah Maaedah, verse 64.

[16] . Musnad Ahmad Hanbal, Vol. 2, Pg. 212T Vol. 3, Pgs. 443 and 457, Vol. 4, Pg. 123 and Vol. 5, Pg. 83.

[17] . Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 26, Pg. 51.

[18] . Nayshaboori, Muhammad bin Abdullah, Al-Mustdrak alal Sahihayn, Vol. 4, Pg. 528, Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Elmiyyah, first edition 1411 A. H.

[19] . Tirmizi, Muhammad bin Eisa, Sunan al-Tirmizi, Vol. 5, Pg. 227, Egypt, Shirkat Maktabat wa Matba’at Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, second edition, 1395 A.H.

[20] . Sheikh Sadouq, al-Amali, Pgs. 129 and 130, A’lami, Beirut, fifth edition, 1400 A.H; Ibn Qulawayh Qummi, Kamil al-Ziyarat, Pg. 107, al-Bab al-Rabe’ wa al-Thalathoon Thawab min Shurb al-Maa’ e wa Zikr al-Hussain (pbuh), wa La’n Qatilohu, Murtadavi, first edition, Najaf, 1356 A.H.

[21] . Surah An’am, verse 108.

[22] . Sheikh Tusi, Muhammad bin Hassan, al-Amali, Pg. 537, Qom, Dar al-Thiqafat, first edition, 1414 A.H; Shaybani, Ahmad Bin Muhammad, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 6, Pg. 157, Beirut, Al-Risalah Intitute, first edition, 1421A.h.

[23] . Literally means to avoid a harm or an injury. Technically, it means expressing peace and reconciliation even if one may internally act against it.

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