Question 208:  A brother asked me that if he swallowed that acid stuff which comes from the stomach, and when he swallowed it, he had an idea that it might break his fast but he wasnt sure…he has to give qadha but is that considered jahl taqseeri due to him not knowing for sure but he couldve avoided it by precaution and check if he felt it was maybe a fast breaker or is dhann sufficient to be jahl qasoori and one must have yaqeen that it breaks his fast for him to give kafarat, example, I swallow the acid liquid from my stomach with yaqeen it doesnt break my fast, then i find out, im fine but if i swallow it ,knowing theres a good chance that it might break my fast, isnt that unpardonable ignorance due to me being able to refrain from that and check cause i had an idea that it might break my fast. Generally what is the Rules on swallowing acid stuff from stomach while fasting?

Answer 208: If one who is fasting belches out something and it comes into the mouth, if he swallows it again, it will invalidate his fast no matter how little it is and he has to make up for it and also make kaffarah (either fast 60 days or feed 60 poor people the way mentioned in related books). Also, if what he has swallowed is something that is haram to eat, such as blood, he will have to do kaffarah jam’ (meaning that he has to both fast 60 days and feed 60 poor people).[1] All if this is if he swallowed it intentionally. None of what was mentioned applies if it was unintentional though and the fast is valid.

The following are fatwa of Ayatollah Sistani concerning Vomiting while Fasting:

  1. If a fasting person vomits intentionally his fast becomes void, though he may have been obliged to do so on account of sickness. However, the fast does not become void, if one vomits forgetfully or involuntarily.
  2. If a person eats something at night knowing that it will cause vomiting during the day time, the recommended precaution is that he should give the qadha of that fast.
  3. If a fasting person can stop vomiting without causing any harm or inconvenience to himself, he should exercise restraint.
  4. If a person swallows something by mistake and remembers before it reaches the stomach that he is fasting, it is not necessary for him to throw it out, and his fast is in order.
  5. If a fasting person is certain that if he belches, something will come out from the throat, he should not, as a precaution, belch intentionally, but there is no harm in his belching if he is not certain about it.
  6. If a fasting person belches and something comes from his throat or into the mouth, he should throw it out, and if it is swallowed unintentionally, his fast is in order.[2]

In Sayeed Sistanis minhaaj, he clarifies that if one breaks his fast with something which he’s undecided whether it breaks his fast or not, he’s taraddud, then he’ll have to give kaffara and qadha.

The above issue, is about one who’s undecided or back and forth on whether something is a fast breaker or not.
Also, Sayeed Sistani says one who breaks his fast with something haram, its not wajib to give all three kaffara but it’s ihtiyaat mustahaab.

If one who is fasting belches out something and it comes into the mouth, one must not swallow it. One has to spit it out of his mouth. The following are some rules if he swallow it again:

  1. If he did it unintentionally, his fast would be in order.
  2. In case he did it intentionally: A) If he knew that the rule says that swallowing it invalidates his fast, he must make up for the fast and also make kaffarah. B) If he didn’t know the rule, he must make up the fast, only. There is no need to make Kaffarah in this regards.

If someone is undecided about whether something is a fast breaker, that means he isn’t jahl nor does he have yaqeen…he’s taraddud which is neither of the above two. If one breaks his fast by allowing thick dust to enter his throat, with yaqeen that it doesn’t break his fast, but afterwards he finds out it does break his fast, his fast is in order, however if he broke his fast by either eating, drinking or intercourse, then if he was for sure that they don’t break his fast, then once he finds out, he’ll make qadha only cause he didn’t break his fast intentionally. Sayyid Sistani (ha) makes a distinction between if one broke his fast with anything except 1)eating 2)drinking 3)intercourse which if done with yaqeen that they aren’t fast breakers, his fast is in order but if done with those above three, even if he was sure that they don’t break his fast, only qadha is upon him.

When someone is undecided, and isn’t sure about whether something breaks his fast and he, for example, eats or drinks, has intercourse or does any fast breaker, then he’s liable for qadha and kaffarat cause he’s undecided and he never checked before doing any of the said acts. So this issue isn’t about whether he was ignorant nor with intention, but he wasn’t sure but then he still broke his fast with something that he wasn’t for sure about.[3]

For further information on this issue, please read the following answers:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 572.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

[1] . Tawdihul-Masa’el (annotated by Imam Khomeini), vol. 1, pg. 933.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, book, rules on Fasting and Vomiting .

[3] . In this regards, please refer to Minhaaj Saaliheen, Vol. 1, chapter kaffarat.

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