post

When to Break a fast: After Maghrib prayer or before?

Question 389: Salamualekum members. Please, in the month of Ramadan, is it always required to break our fast before magrib prayer or we should pray before breaking the fast?

Answer 389: In the holy Quran Allah (swt) says: And eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn Then complete the fast till night And have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques These are the Limits of Allah, so do not go near them Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).[1]

Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, from the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers up to Maghrib, avoid those things from which a person keeping fast must abstain.[2]

To further explain, just before dawn a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the prime time for Fajr prayers.[4] It is exactly the time to refrain from the things which invalidate the fast. Maghrib is the time when the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon.[5] This is the beginning of Maghrib time and the end of the time for imsak.[6]

According to maraja’ (ha), in order to get more rewards, it is mustahab to break your fast after Maghrib and Isha prayers, unless somebody is waiting for you or due to fasting you are not able to offer your prayers properly.[7]

It should be noted that Hudhur al-qalb in worshiping Allah, the Almighty means to not allow thoughts that have to do with material matters, whether they are personal or pertaining to others, and in general, thoughts that are in contradiction with the hereafter to enter one’s mind. But thoughts that conform to the nature of Ibadat (worship) do not disturb hudhur al-qalb in anyway.[8] So, if offering your Maghrib and Isha prayers while fasting cause to allow thoughts of material matters in your mind it would be better to break your fast and offer your prayers later.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Ruling of breaking the fast after disappearing the redness in the sky, answer 382.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

[1] . Surah Baqarah, verse 187.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of Maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomieni), Vol. 1, Pg. 880.

[3] –  Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg.88.

[4] – Ibid, vol.1, pg.411

[5] – Khomeini, Sayyid Rohullah Musavi, Tawzih al-Masail (by Imam Khomeini), pg.164, issue No.730, First, 1436 A.H;  Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 16, Pg. 384.

[6] . Adopted from answer 382. (Index: Ruling of breaking the fast after disappearing the redness in the sky).

[7] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 969; Tabatabaee, Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad Kazem, al-Urwa al-Wuthqa, Vol. 2, Pg. 213.

[8] . Adopted from answer 014 (Index:  Hudhur al-Qalb in worshiping Allah).

post

Breaking our fast after disappearing redness in the sky

Question 382: What if someone has reverted to Shia Islam but due to his Parents, he has to break some of his fasts or all the fasts on Sunni time. He, somehow, manages to do Sehri on Shia time, but sometimes breaks his fast on Sunni time. Does Allah still accept it considering his problem of not letting his parents know about it or he has to give fidiya? If yes, how much fidiya? Or he has to fast again in future when he can easily, as a remedy of those broken on Sunni time? So, what is the ruling on Breaking our fast after disappearing redness in the sky?

Answer 382: Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, refrain, from the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers up to Maghrib, from the things which invalidate the fast.[1]

To further explain, just before dawn a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the prime time for Fajr prayers.[2] It is exactly the time to refrain from the things which invalidate the fast. Maghrib is the time when the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon.[3] This is the beginning of Maghrib time and the end of the time for imsak.

Therefore, as per the foregoing explanation, there is no imsak time other than the time between the Adhan for Fajr prayers and the Adhan for Maghrib prayers.

The grand jurists have said that in order to ensure that one has been fasting throughout this time, he should, as a matter of precaution, begin abstaining a little earlier than the Adhan for Fajr prayers, and continue to refrain for a little after Maghrib, from acts which invalidate a fast.

What follows below is an answer to a similar question from Grand Ayatollah Khamenei:

Question: Given that the cities are developing and becoming larger every day and it is not possible to ascertain the exact time of Fajr, kindly let us know about the exact time of imsak for Fast and Fajr prayer.

Answer: The believers are asked to exercise precaution about imsak and the time for Fajr prayer. So, they should refrain from invalidating things from Adhan time as declared by the media and should offer their Fajr prayers five to six minutes after the Adhan for Fajr prayers.[4]

Note: Ayatollah Bahjat (ra) said: according to a mustahab precaution, for breaking your fast you need to wait till the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon. This means, if you are unable, due to observing taqiyyah, to wait till the redness disappears and are compel to break your fast on that time, your fast would be considered as valid.[5]

According to most of maraja’, you have to break your fast when the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset disappears in the horizon. Therefore, if you break your fast under duress (as you are compelled by your parents) before disappearing the redness (i.e. according to sunni time) you have to compensate your fast later, however Allah (swt) would accept it and there is no need to give Kaffarah. But, according to Ayatollah Bahjat (ra), your fast performed in this state is treated as valid. As a result, if you are following another marja’ you are able to act only in this issue based on the Ayatollah Bahjat’s fatwa.

The following are some recommendations you are supposed to observe in order to break your fast after disappearing the redness in the sky (i.e. according to Shia time):

– As it is mutahab to break your fast after prayers you should try to offer mustahab or qadha prayers.[6]

– Try to recite some verses of the holy Quran specially Surah al-Qadr or duas, Salawat or any kinds of Dikr.[7]

– Making Wudu.

– Making any excuses in order to refrain eating or drinking on that time.

If there is no possibility to do the above mentioned or other recommendations you don’t have to cause any distress and discomfort to your parents as it is forbidden.[8]

For further information, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Studying in the month of Ramadhan is not a valid excuse to escape fasting, answer 572.

Index: Using Asthma Inhaler does not break the Fast, answer 575.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Fasting and prayers of a traveler who travel after Zuhr, answer 384.

Index: Qada Fast for a person reverted to Islam, answer 196.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index: Fast in countries with long days, answer 106.

Index: Niyyat for Fasting: How to make intention to Fast Ramadan, answer 627.

Index: Rules concerning tooth brush (Miswak) during fasting, answer 391.

[1] –  Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg. 880.

[2] – Ibid, vol.1, pg.411

[3] – Khomeini, Sayyid Rohullah Musavi, Tawzih al-Masail (by Imam Khomeini), pg.164, issue No.730, First, 1436 A.H;  Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 16, Pg. 384.

[4] – Tawzih al-Masail (with annotation by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg.440; Khamenei, Sayyid Ali, Answers to Jurisprudential Questions, pg. 73, Office of Grand Ayatollah Khamenei in Qom, Qom, Iran, First, 1424 A.H.

[5] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 1, Pg. 407, Q 735.

[6] . Wasael al-Shia, chapter 7, rules concerning fast;  Sayyid Sistani (ha), issue 1718; Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 969; Tabatabaee, Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad Kazem, al-Urwa al-Wuthqa, Vol. 2, Pg. 213.

[7] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 10, Pgs. 149-151;  Jawahir al-Kalam, Vol. 11, Pgs. 384-385.

[8] . Imam Sadiq, peace be upon him, said: “If there was anything less than “fie” to cause distress and discomfort to parents, he would prohibit it and “fie” is the lowest level of hurting parents. One of the instances of causing distress is to gaze at the parents. See: Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Usul-e Kafi (translated by Mustafavi), vol.4, pg. 50, Islamic Book Store, Tehran, 1st edition.

post

Masturbation and forget performing Ghusl in Ramadan

Question 141: If you masturbate during the night and forget to do ghusl, can you still perform ghusl when you wake up and fast that day?

Answer 141: The grand maraja’ answer in this regards is as follows: If one who becomes jonob during a night of the holy month of Ramadan and is sure or probably knows that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before morning Adhan (call to prayer) and do ghusl. So, if he falls asleep with the decision till Adhan, his fast would be considered as valid.

If one goes to sleep and wakes up later and knows or guesses that if he wants to go to sleep again he’ll wake up before morning adhan with the decision to do jinabat ghusl but he won’t wake up till adhan, then one must make his fast up.

There is no need to give Kaffarah even if he wakes up of the second sleep and goes to sleep for the third time and won’t wake up till adhan.[1]

Note: Masturbation is defined as self-stimulation of the sexual organ till one achieves emission of semen or orgasm. This applies to both men and women. This Self-satisfaction which is referred to as Istimna’ (masturbation) is a major sin and haram. It has a heavy punishment. If one has committed such forbidden act repentance and seeking God’s forgiveness would be sufficient for forgiveness.[2]

It should be noted that masturbation is one of the forbidden act which a person keeping fast must abstain. Ejaculation of the Semen, whether by masturbation, touching, kissing, rubbing (the male organ) on the thighs (of another person), or such other acts which are intended to cause discharge of semen. Rather even in case when the discharge of semen is not intended, but it was the usual consequence of the said act, in that case too it shall render the fast void. Of course, if ejaculation takes place without doing something which causes ejaculation in a person as a matter of his habit even without any intention on his part, it shall not render the fast void.[3]

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index: Rules concerning Janabat during night or day time in the month of Ramadan, answer 394.

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

Index: Number of things which are disapproved (Makruh) for a person observing fast, answer 566.

Index: Rules of prayers and fasting performed without ghusl, answer 034.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

[1] . Tawzih al-masa’il (al-mohasha), vol 1, p 912, question 1627 . Ibid, p 914, question 1630.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding masturbation.

[3] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Chapter on Things Which Must Be Refrained in a Fast.

post

Add anything in Adhan as blessing

Question 285: obviously who thinks about it before reciting that,”I’m about to recite this but not as a part but as a blessing”.Its either you do it or don’t. Its absolute. But what about those sources which say Bilal actually included Ali un waliullah in the adhan during the adhan in Ghadeer Khumn?

And also as per the blessing logic, why can’t I simply add anything in adhan as a blessing? I can say Gabriel is the supreme angel ,Ibrahim was a great imam and prophet etc.I mean,all of these would also bless me.I still don’t get the logic.

Answer 285: There are some particular traditions in which we are allowed to recite the third testimony in Adhan as a blessing and with the intention of Qurbat, however there has not been mentioned any reliable hadith saying that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has ever recited it to His Adhan or even allowed others to do so.

Although, in book “al-Salafa fee Amrel Khilafa” mentioned that when Salman Farsi added the third testimony in Adhan one complained to the Holy Prophet (PBUH), He Said: “You heard a kind word”. In this book it is also mentioned, after Ghadir Khum when the Holy Prophet heard that Abadar Ghifari added it to the Adhan, He said: “What was the meaning of the Sermon on that hot weather I addressed You? Didn’t it mean that Ali Amirul Momenin is Waliullah?”[1]

But, first of all this book is not accessible to search about the reliability of the ahadith mentioned there and second these traditions haven’t found before seventh century, so we ought not to discuss about their Sanad whether they are reliable or not.

There are some traditions in which reciting the third testimony is permissible in Adhan as follows: Imam Sadiq (as) has said: When Allah has created the heavens and the earth said, O harbinger Witness to the three testimony.[2]

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.
In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also.

Note: Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, reciting other things no hadith prove it is treated as Bid’ah.

Adding the third testimony in Tashahud:  As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do.

Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index:  Saying Āmīn during prayer in validate the prayer, answer 017.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/615016361983008/?__mref=message_bubble

[1] . Maraghi Mesri, Sheikh Abdullah, al-Salafa fee Amrel Khilafa, Pgs. 32 & 33.

[2] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, researcher and editior, Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Muhammad, Vol. 1, Pg. 441, Darel Kotob al-Islamiya, fourth edition, 1407 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, al-Amali, Pg. 604, A’lami, Beirut, fifth edition, 1400 A.H.

[3] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

post

Adding the third testimony in Tashahud

Question 268: Why do Usooli Shia Muslim consider Tashood cannot be changed with 3rd Sahada of Imam Ali AS. If azaan is added with Ali Un Wali Ullah.

Answer 268: As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do. Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[1]

There are different narrations regarding zikr (recital) of Tashahhud. However, all jurisprudents consider what they have mentioned in their Manuals of Islamic Laws (Resalah) as sufficient. When it comes to reciting more azkar (plural of zikr) in Tashahhud, if one recites them without the intention of wurud (i.e. doing an act which has no religious origin or validation), there is no problem in it but if he recites with the intention of wurud, some scholars have allowed reciting an additional zikr keeping in view that some of the narrations have been accepted and others have not.[2] However, most of the jurisprudents have sufficed to the zikr that has been mentioned in the Manuals of Islamic Laws.

Fatawa:

Makarem Shirazi (ha): The precaution is that Tashahhud has to be recited as usual.

Saafi Gulpaigani (ha): Tashahhud has to be recited in the same way that has been prescribed in the book of Islamic Laws.

Noori Hamedani (ha): There is no objection in reciting the azkar without intention of wurud.

Sayyid Sistani (ha): The third testimony must not be recited in Tashahhud, as an obligatory precaution. It is recommended to recite the following zikr the second testimony in Tashahhud: “Arsalahu bil haqqi bashiran wa naziran bayna yada yis sa’ah, wa ashhadu anna rabbi ne’mar Rab wa anna Muhammadan ne’mar Rasul and then recite the salawat.”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Facebook.

[1] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

[2]  Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha).

post

“Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah

Question 276: Can someone provide the Sahih riwayahs from the Shi’i books which mention of Ash’hadu anna Ali’ un wali Ullah and the other phrase not included in conventional Aa’dhan?

Answer 276: In order to give a precise answer to the question, we shall follow up the discussion in three parts:

1) Is it basically okay to recite “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” in Adhan or is it totally wrong and false?

2) If it is supposedly correct, is it a part of Adhan or not?

3) If it is not a part of Adhan, is there any problem in reciting it in Adhan without considering it as a part?

In order to reply to the first part of the question, it would first be necessary to deal with the meaning and import of the word “wali”.

Meaning of “wali”:

  1. A) Wali in the sense of being a guardian or custodian: There are many Quranic verses in which the word “wali” has been used in the same meaning e.g. “You have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor”.[1]
  2. B) Wali in the sense of being a close friend[2]: There are also verses in the Quran with the word “wali” meaning friend. One of those verses is the following: “The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! he, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.”[3]
  3. C) Wali in the sense of helper and aide[4]: The Holy Quran says, “And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.”

Without doubt, there is no objection or problem in using “Waliullah” for believers in the second and third meaning (friend and helper). In fact, there are traditions transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni narrators with the word “wali” used in these meanings.[5]
As for the first meaning, it should be said that there are many narratives in which Ali (a.s.) has been introduced as the guardian, master and more entitled to be in authority in the same way as Holy Prophet (pbuh) was. Of course, Ali is a divinely-appointed leader; he was appointed as guardian and master of the Ummah by God in the same way as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was appointed as the Messenger of God.

As for whether “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is a part of Adhan or not, there are narrations from the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) which expressly state that Adhan consists of eighteen sentences. Those sentences are the following:

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah, Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah, Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah, Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal, Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal ; Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah; La ilaha illal lah.[6]

Thus, “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is not a part of Adhan. Shia jurists have issued verdicts on the basis of these narrations saying that the third testimony is not a part of Adhan.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu’minina ‘Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.[7]

Imam Khomeini (may Allah bless him) says in this regard: “Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences: Allahu Akbar four times; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal; Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah each two times.” Then he says, “Ash hadu anna Aliyyan Waliullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah.”[8]

The next question that has to be dealt with is: Does reciting “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” affect the prayers or not?
Obviously, there is a problem in reciting the third testimony as a part of Adhan. Some have said that if it is recited in such a way that it does not sound to be like one of the sentences of Adhan, there would be no problem.[9] At the most, the spurious argument that is likely to be raised is that reciting the third testimony is a mere bid’ah (innovation).

Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, if someone considers this sentence to be a part of Adhan and recites it with such an intention, it is bid’ah and forbidden. However, since none of the Shiite jurists and grand scholars considers it as a part of Adhan and if someone recites it in a way such that it does not turn out to be like one of the sentences of Adhan and Iqamah, it would not be bid’ah and there would be no problem in it.

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.

In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also. Therefore, whenever someone testifies to the oneness of God and prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he will also testify to the wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and this does not at all imply that the third testimony is a part of Adhan.

Also, there are special narrations which confirm the validity of reciting the third testimony in Adhan.[10] Hence, considering the lofty rank and position of the Commander of the Faithful, there would be no problem in reciting “Ali waliullah” in Adhan and in the Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body with the intention of Qurbat (seeking nearness to God) or Tabarruk (as a blessing), not as a part.

It is to be noted that many Sunni scholars admit that the sentence “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” (prayer is better than sleep) is not a part of Adhan and it is one of the innovations of the second caliph. It has been reported from Malik bin Anas that the Muezzin (one who calls for prayers) went to Umar to wake him up for Fajr prayers. He saw Umar sleeping. Then he said, “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm”. Umar then ordered him to recite this same sentence in Adhan also.[11]

The question is that what justifies the recitation and inclusion of this sentence (i.e. al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the Adhan for Fajr prayers by Sunnis? Is it comparable with what the Shiites are reciting and which has many narrations authenticating and confirming it?

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

-1 Facebook.

-2 Facebook.

[1] . Al-Sajdah: 4.

[2] . Tabari Kiyaharasi, Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad, Ahkaamul Quran (Al-Kiyaharasi), vol.3, pg.83, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1405. A.H.

[3] . Fussilat: 34.

[4] . Ibn Mazur, Muhammad bin Mukram, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, pg.407, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 3rd edition, 1414 A.H.

[5] . Ibn Abi Hatam, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad, Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim (Ibn Abi Hatam) vol.2, pg.675, published by Maktabat Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 3rd edition, 1419 A.H.

[6] . Saduq, Man La-yahzuruhul Faqih, vol.1, pg.289-291, Jame’ah Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[7] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah.

[8] . Tauzihul Masail (with connotation), vol.1, pg.519, issue No.918.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Vide: The Third Testimony in Adhan, Iqamah and Prayers.

[11] . Malik, Muwatta, vol.1, pg.210, al-Islam website: www.al-islam.com.

post

Rules concerning Janabat during the holy month of Ramadan

Question 394: What is the ruling on Ehtelam in Ramadan? If a person doesn’t perform ghusal before Imsak then what about the Fasting? And if a person is taking a nap afternoon, and something like this (2-3 drops not sperms) happens, what is he supposes to do, is ghusal wajib on him? and what about that fasting, is it makrooh, haram, batil? A friend needs help 🙂 Jurisprudent: Ayatollah Sayed Khamenai or Sistani I guess.

Answer 394: If a person enters the state of Janabat during a night in the month of Ramadhan, and does not take Ghusl intentionally till the time left before Adhan is short, he/she should perform tayammum and observe the fast. However, it is a recommended precaution that its qadha is also given.

If a person in Janabat in the month of Ramadhan forgets to take Ghusl and remembers it after one day, he should observe the qadha of the fast of that day. And if he remembers it after a number of days he should observe the qadha of the fasts of all those days, during which he is certain to have been in Janabat. For example, if he is not sure whether he was in Janabat for three days or four, he should observe the qadha of three days.

If a person who does not have time for Ghusl or performing tayammum in a night of Ramadhan gets into state of Janabat, his fast will be void and it will be obligatory upon him to give qadha of that fast, as well as Kaffarah.

If a person investigates whether or not he has enough time at his disposal, and believing that he has time for Ghusl, goes into state of Janabat and when he learns later that actually the time was short, he performs tayammum, his fast will be in order. And if he presumes without any investigation that he has enough time at his disposal and gets into Janabat and when he learns later that the time was short, keeps the fast with tayammum, he should, as a recommended precaution, observe the qadha of that fast.

If a person investigates whether or not he has enough time at his disposal, and believing that he has time for Ghusl, goes into state of Janabat and when he learns later that actually the time was short, he performs tayammum, his fast will be in order. And if he presumes without any investigation that he has enough time at his disposal and gets into Janabat and when he learns later that the time was short, keeps the fast with tayammum, he should, as a recommended precaution, observe the qadha of that fast.

When a person in Janabat goes to sleep in a night of Ramadhan and then wakes up, the obligatory precaution is that if he is not sure about waking up again, he should not go to sleep before Ghusl, even if he has a faint hope that he might wake up before Fajr if he sleeps again.

If a person in Janabat in the night of Ramadhan feels certain that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before the time of Fajr prayers, and is determined to do Ghusl upon waking up, and oversleeps with that determination till the time of Fajr prayers, his fast will be in order. And the same rule applies to a person who, though not absolutely certain, is hopeful about waking up before the time of Fajr prayers.

Ihtilam During Day Time: If a person observing fast becomes Mohtalim during day time, it is not obligatory on him to do Ghusl at once.

When a person wakes up in the month of Ramadhan after the Fajr prayers and finds that he has become Mohtalim his fast is in order, even if he knows that he became Mohtalim before the Fajr prayers.

Note: There are three characteristics of semen as follows: 1) A sticky liquid that smells like dough. 2) Its color is milky with a hint of either green or yellow. 3) It is ejaculated when orgasm is reached, after which the body feels relaxed.

There must exist three characteristics for it to be called semen. They are: Sexual desire, ejaculation, and resultant relaxation of the body. In sick people, however, sexual desire is sufficient. So, if you saw the drops (as you are sure it is not sperm) that has not the above mentioned sings of the three characteristics it would not regarded as sperm and then no need to perform Jinabat ghusl. As a result, your fast is in order.

When one cannot ascertain whether the fluid emitted from one’s body is semen, urine or something else, it will be treated as semen if it is thrown out with lust and if the body is slackened. If all or some of these signs are not present the fluid will not be treated as semen. In the case of illness, the fluid may not come out with sudden swiftness and the body may not slacken; but if the emission takes place with lust, it will be treated as semen.

So, if he becomes sure the drop is semen or any other najas thing the clothes is treated as impure. Otherwise, it is considered as clean. As a result, if it is not semen performing ghusl is not obligatory upon him.[1]

For further information regarding Kaffarah, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation), answer 372.

[1] . Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Fasting, Remaining in Janabat or Haidh or Nifas till Fajr time;  Ayatollah Khamenei (ha), Ajwabat al-Istiftaat, Q 180; Ibid, Istiftaat, rules concerning Jinaba ghusl, Q 177, Pg. 229.

post

Things from which a person keeping fast must abstain & Kaffarah (Expiation)

Question 372: what is the kaffarah for one day of not fasting Ramadan? (besides fasting 60 days)

Answer 372: There are nine acts which invalidate fast as follows:  1) Eating and drinking. 2) Sexual intercourse. 3) Masturbation (Istimna) which means self-abuse, resulting in ejaculation. 4) Ascribing false things to Allah, the Almighty or his Prophet or to the successors of the Holy Prophet (pbuth). 5) Swallowing thick dust. 6) Immersing one’s complete head in water. 7) Remaining in Janabat or Haidh or Nifas till the Adhan for Fajr prayers. 8) Enema with liquids. 9) Vomiting.

Commission of the things which invalidate fast as mentioned earlier are a cause of expiation in the same way as they make it obligatory to compensate for it, when it is done deliberately and willingly without any coercion, according to the more cautious opinion, as regards lying about Allah, the Exalted, His Prophet, Blessing be on him and his Progeny, and the Imams, Peace be upon them, and dipping in water, and having enema, and according to the stronger opinion, in case of the rest; rather, in case of lying about them, (Peace be upon them) is also not devoid of force. Of course, according to the stronger opinion, vomiting does not make it obligatory.

According to the more cautious opinion, in this respect there is no difference between the person knowing and an ignorant person who is neglectful. As regards an incapable (or interdicted) person who fails to pay heed to make query apparently it is not obligatory on him, though it would be more cautious (in his case too).

Note:  Here are three types of expiations (Kaffarah) for giving up the fast of the month of Ramadãn:

Emancipation of a slave, keeping fast for two months consecutively and feeding sixty indigent persons, whichever is chosen by him, though, it is more cautious to select one of them according to the above order, if possible. It is more cautious to perform all the three types of expiations if a person has broken his fast by something prohibited, such as eating something usurped, drinking wine, or having a prohibited sexual intercourse, or the like.

According to the stronger opinion, expiation is not repeated with the repetition of its cause in a single day, including performance of sexual intercourse, even if the type of its cause differs, but caution must not be given up in case of performance of sexual intercourse.

Conclusion:  The Kaffarah of leaving out a fast of Ramadhan is to: (a) free a slave, or (b) fast for two months or (c) feed sixty poor to their fill or give one mudd (= 3/4 kg.) of food-stuff, like, wheat or barley or bread etc. to each of them. If it is not possible for him to fulfil any of these, he should give Sadaqa according to his means and seek Divine forgiveness. And the obligatory precaution is that he should give Kaffarah as and when he is capable to do so.

A person who intends fasting for two months as a Kaffarah for a fast of Ramadhan, should fast continuously for one month and one day, and it would not matter if he did not maintain continuity for completion of the remaining fasts.

As regards the payment of expiation by feeding the poor it may be done either by feeding them to their full or by giving each of them a Mudd of wheat, barley, flour, rice, bread, or any other foodstuff, though, it is more cautious to give two Mudds. It is not sufficient in a single expiation to feed a single person twice or several time times or giving him two or more Mudds, when sixty poor persons are available, rather it would be indispensable that there should be sixty poor persons. If a person has a family (of several members), it shall be permissible to give him according to one Mudd for each member, provided that there is surety that the person shall feed them or give the food to them. One Mudd is equal to a quarter Sà’, and a Sã’ is equal to 214 ¼ Mithqals.[1]

Other Translation:

نمایه: چیزهایی که روزه را باطل می کند / آنچه که برای روزه دار مکروه است، سوال شماره 37.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 931, Q 1660 & 1661;  Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pg. 289;  The Official Website of Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha), rules concerning things which make a Fast void, issue #1582.