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Ashra Mubashra, the ten Sahaba Promised Paradise

Question 221: Assalamu alikum, what u think about ashabs esp Abu bakr, umer n usman? Why u call them bidati, did prophet consider them as munafiq. And also explain your views regarding ashr-e-mubashara. thank you.

Answer 221: According to Shia school of thought, such traditions are classified into da’if (weak) and are considered as fake. The following are some reasons by which these ahadith have been rejected.

There are some traditions have been narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd and Zubair in which both but Imam Ali (as) were mentioned among those ten sahaba’s promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra). A question is now raised that how’s it possible that Imam Ali (as) was among them, but they refused allegiance to (like Abi Waqas) and fought against him?

The following hadith was narrated by Sa’id Ibn Zayd in which the Prophet (saws) said: “10 sahaba’s are promised paradise (Ashra Mubashra) are: Abu Bakr in paradise, Omar in paradise, ‘Uthman in paradise, Ali in paradise, Talha in paradise, Al-Zubair Bin Al-‘Awwam in paradise, Abdul Rahman Bin ‘Awf in paradise, Saad Bin Abi Waqqass in paradise, Saeed Bin Zaid, and Abu ‘Ubaida Bin Al-Jarrah in paradise.”[1]

The Arabic version of this tradition is as follows:

«حَدَّثَنَا صَالِحُ بْنُ مِسْمَارٍ المَرْوَزِی قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِی فُدَیكٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ یعْقُوبَ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ سَعِیدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ حُمَیدٍ، عَنْ أَبِیهِ، أَنَّ سَعِیدَ بْنَ زَیدٍ، حَدَّثَهُ فِی نَفَرٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَیهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: عَشَرَةٌ فِی الجَنَّةِ: أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُمَرُ فِی الجَنَّةِ، وَعُثْمَانُ وَعَلِی وَالزُّبَیرُ وَطَلْحَةُ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ وَأَبُو عُبَیدَةَ وَسَعْدُ بْنُ أَبِی وَقَّاصٍ

During the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (as) called Zubair and Talha, “O Aba Abdillah and Talha come here. I administer an oath to both of you. Do you know that the companions of the battles of Jamal and Nahrawan have been cursed by the Holy Prophet (saws)?”

Zubaid said: “How is it possible that we were cursed, whereas we are among the 10 sahaba’s promised paradise?” The Imam (as) said, “If I knew you were among the dwellers of the heaven, I would never have fought against you!” Zubair said, “Didn’t you hear that the Prophet (saws) said, on the day of the Uhud battle, “Talha deserves heaven?” The Imam (as) said, “Name those who are promised paradise for me?” Zubair told him the names of nine people. The Imam (as) said, “Who is the tenth person?” Zubair replied, “You are the tenth one!” The Imam (as) said, “You confess that I am one of the dwellers of the heaven, but I deny those sahaba you named. They will be dwelled in a coffin at the lowest place of the Hell.” The Imam (as) said, “The Holy Prophet (saws) said it to me.” Zubair went back to his armies while he was crying![2]

The Holy Prophet (saws) variously promised so many believers heaven: E.g. Imam Ali (as) and His followers will be dwelled in the heaven.[3]He also said, “Heaven will eagerly anticipate four persons to come: Ali bin Abi Talib, Ammar, Salman and Miqdad, however none of these four persons except Imam Ali (as) were mentioned in that hadith![4] Those who narrated these (Ashra Mubasharah) tradition have only tried to justify the hadith as sahih by mentioning the name of Imam Ali (as). How is possible for those who have cruelly fought against Imam Ali (as) to be dowelled in the heaven, while we know that the Holy Prophet (saws) has said, “Anyone who fight against Ali, fight against me?”[5]

Conclusion: Although, this tradition has been mentioned in Sunni sources, it is classified as da’if (weak), according to the above mentioned reliable sources.

This hadith is contrary to the Holy Qur’an as Allah (swt) has never mentioned any names of the dwellers of the heaven. In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) always say, “And (as for) those who believe and do good deeds, these are the dwellers of the garden, in it they shall abide.”[6]

Some of the sahaba mentioned in the hadith have been considered as unbelievers by each other, such as Othman who is considered an unbeliever by Talha and Zubair. Both (Talha and Zubair) have issued a fatwa, by which Othman has deserved to be killed, as he is Kafir. That’s why Othman has been killed by such fatwas!

If this hadith is sahih, after choosing Abu Bakr as the first caliph, why did Omar order that anyone of the six persons that participated in the council, who may disagree with the decision, would be killed?[7]

If this hadith is sahih, why did Abdullah ibn Umar who has narrated this hadith deny allegiance to Imam Ali (as).[8] Thus, this hadith due to the above mentioned reasons is not considered as sahih. It is such a fake and da’if one which has no reliable sources.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!, answer 203.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha, answer 180.

Index: The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida, answer 028.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Al-Tirmidhi, Muhammad bin Isa, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Pg. 648.

[2] . Ibn Uqdah Kufi, Ahmad bin Muhammad, the virtues of Amirul Momenin (as), researcher and editor: Hirzuddin, Abdul Razzaq Muhammad Hussain, Pgs. 166-167; Tabarsi, Ahmad bin Ali, Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl e al-Lujaj, researcher and editor: Khorasan, Muhammad Baqir, Vol. 1, Pg. 162, Murtadha Publisher, Mashhad, first edition, 1403 A.H.

[3] . Tabari Amoli Kabir, Muhammad bin Jurair bin Rostam, al-Mostarshed fee Imamat Ali bin Abi Talib (as), researcher: Mahmoodi, Ahmad, Pg. 401, Kooshanpoor, Qom, first edition, 1415 A.H; Bahrani, Sayyid Hashim, al-Borhan fee Tafseer al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 347, Bonyad Be’sat, Tehran, first edition, 1416 A.H.

[4] . Sheikh Sadouq, al-Khisal, researcher: Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Vol. 1, Pg. 303, office of Islamic publication, first edition, 1983; Ibn Kathir Basari, Esmaeel bin Omar, Jame’ al-Masanid wa al-Sonan al-Hadi, Vol. 3, Pg. 495, Dar e Khizr liltaba’at wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzei, Beirut, second edition, 1419 A.H.

[5] . Khazaz Razi, Ali bin Muhammad, Kifaya al-Athar fee al-Nass ala al-A’imma al-Ithna Ashar, researcher: Hussaini Koohkamari, Abdul Latif, Pg. 181, Bidar, Qom, 1401 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, etigadat al-Imamiyah, Pg. 105, Sheikh Mofid Congress, Qom, second edition, 1414 A.H.

[6] . Surah Baqarah, verses: 25- 82.

[7] . Amini, al-Ghadir, Beirut, Dar al-Kotob al-Arabi, 1397 A.H, Vol. 10, Pgs. 156-157.

[8] . Ibid, Pgs. 149- 161.

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Can Sunnis Go To Heaven / Types of Non-Muslims

Question 317: Guys, I am Al-Sunni, Will I go to Jannat? Generally, can Sunnis Go To Heaven?

Answer 317: Those who weren’t Muslim can be divided into two categories:

1- The infidels and rejecters of faith: Those who knew Islam was the true religion, yet refused to accept it out of negligence and other personal reasons. This group deserve to go to Hell and remain there forever.

2- Those who never heard of Islam or what they heard of was a small part of it, making it resemble other religions that they knew were false. Such people will be saved given they were sincere in their own religions.

Islam says these people will have a chance if they had followed their own religions; religions that were in harmony with their human nature.

The same things that were said go for those who were Muslim, but didn’t hear about Imam Ali (as) or heard very little.
In a nutshell, all of those whom the truth hasn’t reached not as a result of shortcoming and not striving for the truth, don’t deserve to go to Hell, because it is the place for the sinners, and those who tried but never found the truth aren’t considered sinners and negligent.

The criterion for going to Paradise and Hell, according to the Quran, are a person’s deeds. A person’s individual profile shall not be taken into consideration because there must be a difference between one who is wholeheartedly believing in Islam and one who is just accepting it. God, the Exalted, says to those who claim to be believing Muslims: “Say, We submit; and faith has not yet entered into your hearts.”

Reciting the Two Testimonies (Shahaadatayn) makes a person Muslim; he enters the pale of Islam by reciting them. That is to say, the two testimonies have something to do with the aspects of his worldly, legal and social life. One who converts to Islam enjoys certain rights which a non-Muslim does not. However, being entitled to Paradise is something beyond this. That is to say, in order for a person to enter Paradise, not only submission to God is necessary but hearty belief and good deeds are also required. That is to say practical backing is essential for gaining divine reward.

Conclusively, if a person is not up to the standards and criteria for going to Paradise as mentioned in the Quran, mere qualification by the term Shia or Islam would not save him from divine punishment or entering Hell.

In conclusion, we must say that man’s deeds have been considered to be the criterion for entering Paradise. Nominal Shi’ism or Islamic identifications do not save a person from Hell fire. Hence, based on Quranic verses and sayings from the Infallible Imams, peace be upon them, Muslims and Shias who do not act upon God’s injunctions and who do not stay away from prohibitions and have not fulfilled His commands will be deprived of divine mercy and blessings and will be subjected to punishment in Hell. When it comes to whether the punishments are eternal or not or what the nature of the rewards and punishments is and how intercession works, all of these should be discussed in their appropriate place.

At the end, it should be noted that our answer to the question does not mean that being Shia has no role in one’s entering the Paradise and that whoever does good deeds, be he a non-Shia, will be entitled to Paradise. Because we believe that thought and good deeds are both important and they are like two wings with which an individual flies to eternal felicity and happiness.[1]

Paradise is an indisputable vow of Allah (swt).[2] The question is, who are those who will go to paradise? Considering the collection of verses on this matter, the answer is[3] meaning that there is one condition and that is being a “Mumin” [believer]. Another question comes to mind; who are the believers and what are their traits? Is it enough to recite the Shahaadatayn to be a believer?[4] Those who go to heaven are those who have completely obeyed Allah (swt) and His messenger (pbuh). How is one to obey them? Once again, taking into consideration the verses on this issue, the things that Allah (swt) and His messenger want from us can be summed up into two categories: beliefs and actions.[5] (Indeed those who have faith and do righteous deeds, for them will be gardens with streams running in them).

So:
– As long as we don’t obey the prophet (pbuh), we aren’t considered obedient.

– Obedience is both in action and in belief

– Obeying the prophet (pbuh) in some of what he has asked us to do isn’t considered true complete obedience!

What is the outcome of faith and good deeds?

According to the Quran, the fruit of these two is “taqwa” (piety), and those who are pious will enter paradise for sure:[6]

Conclusion of what was said till now: The essence of salvation is taqwa which means to completely obey all of Allah’s (swt) and His messenger’s (pbuh) commands.

Although taqwa has different degrees, the least needed to possess it is to perform all wajib duties and refrain from all sins. So a prerequisite to taqwa would be to learn about what things are wajib and what things are forbidden and haram in Islam so that we can perform and refrain from them respectfully.

One of the prophet’s (pbuh) most important commands is to know and obey his true successors (imams).[7] Clearly, anyone who doesn’t believe in them verbally, in the heart and in his/her actions, cannot be considered a true believer and righteous person and lacks taqwa, because he hasn’t obeyed the prophet (pbuh) in one of the most important things he has asked us to do.

Significant Point: According to verse 59 of surah Nisa, obeying “those vested with authority” is obligatory, to the extent that obeying them has been considered equal to obeying Allah (swt) and their disobedience, His disobedience. What needs to be mentioned here is that they must be infallible, making them invulnerable to any form of sin and even mistake. It isn’t true to say that anyone who becomes ruler of the Muslim nation, falls under the category of “those vested with authority”, because if those vested with authority weren’t to be infallible, there would always be chances of their commands not being in correspondence with Allah’s (swt) and His messenger’s (pbuh), hence the discrepancy between the order of obeying Allah (swt) and obeying those vested with authority [for instance, if the imams were mistakenly to say something isn’t mandatory, while Allah (swt) says it is, there is clear contradiction between saying both Allah (swt) and they have to be obeyed; it is impossible!].
Now that we have spoken about how believing in the imams plays a role in our salvation [which was that since it is obedience of one of the prophet’s (pbuh) most important commands, it is part of taqwa], it is good to speak a bit about what role the imams play in the salvation of people and society and in whether one will go to heaven or hell.[8]

The impact of believing in the imam on one’s salvation: Keeping in mind what was said above, here we will speak of the concept of salvation and success; what it is in this world and the next and the role belief in the imam plays in bringing salvation.

  1. a) The concept of salvation: Each and every person has his/her own perception of salvation and happiness, but it seems this variety in views isn’t to the benefit of those who are in pursuit of the truth. So it’s better to seek the true meaning from that who is to divide all people into the two groups of those who have reached salvation and those who don’t and are at loss.
    When Allah (swt) wants to describe one of His successful servants, Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh), this is how He does it:[9] (And verily, Ibrahim was a true follower Of Nuh; He came towards his Creator and Nurturer With a pure heart). He also quotes him saying:

“Do not disgrace me on the day that they will be resurrected; the day when neither wealth nor children will avail; except him who comes to Allah with a pure heart”. [10]

As you can see, a pure heart has been emphasized in these verses. What can be deduced is that one reaches salvation when he/she lives in a way that when the time to part this world and meet Allah (swt) arrives, he/she has a pure heart.
What is interesting is that after verse 89 of surah Shu’ara [that says “except him who comes to Allah (swt) with a pure heart], the verse comes, which means: “[And on the Day of Judgement] Paradise is drawn near to the muttaqin or pious people”. The message this verse conveys is that the outcome of having a pure heart is to have taqwa, and that paradise is the reward of those who bear taqwa.

Conclusion: Happiness and salvation are contingent upon having a pure heart, and a sign if having it is taqwa. The person who has truly reached salvation is one who possesses a pure heart.

  1. b) The role believing in an imam plays in one reaching salvation: Many Sunni and Shia scholars have narrated the following hadith; a portion of it will be narrated here:

The prophet (pbuh) told Ali (as): “Prophet Musa’s (pbuh) nation was split into seventy-one sects in which only one of those sects was delivered while all the others would go to Hell; Prophet Isa’s (pbuh) nation was split into seventy-two groups in which only one of them was delivered and the rest all companions of the Hellfire; my nation will also be split into seventy-three groups in which only one of them will be delivered, while the rest will all go to Hell. Imam Ali (as) asked: “O Messenger of Allah (swt)! Which of them is to be delivered?” He answered: “Those who go your way and the way of your followers and embrace it.”[11]

Baridah Aslami [whom the Sunnis believe to be one of the prophet’s (pbuh) companions] quotes the prophet (pbuh) saying that what is meant by “the straight path” in surah Fatihah that says “guide us to the straight path” is Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his progeny.[12]

The prophet (pbuh) has said: “Whoever wishes to swiftly pass “the bridge of sirat” [on the Day of Judgment] like a typhoon and enter paradise without any reckoning, has to accept my friend, successor, companion and the one to take my place after me over my progeny, Ali ibn Abi Taleb.” If anyone desires to go to Hell, then he should: “disregard his [Ali’s (as)] authority, for by my lord’s glory and magnificence, he [Ali (as)] is the only door to Allah (swt) and the straight path and the one whose authority and imamate will be asked of on the Day of Judgment [from the rest of the people].”[13]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Jannatul Firdaus (Garden of Paradise) is the paradise which God has made of gold and silver, answer 338.

Index: Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell, answer 326.

Index: Rest, Rain and Snow in the Heaven, answer 325.

[1] . Hujraat, 14.

[2]  . “مثل الجنة التی وعد المتقون” Muhammad: 47.

[3] . Tawbah: 72.

[4] . Nisa’:13.

[5] . Buruj:11.

[6] . Ale-Imran:15.

[7] . Nisa’:59; Shura:23; Al-Mustadrak alal-Sahihain, vol. 3, pg. 109.

[8] . Of course, the subject of the need of people for an imam is one that calls for an extensive discussion, in which isn’t the theme of this article.

[9] . Saffat:83-84.

[10] . Shu’ara:87-89.

[11] . Asqalani, Al-Isabah fi Tamyeezil-Sahabah, vol. 2, pg. 174.

[12] . Sayyid Shahabuddin Shafe’I, Rashfatul-Sadi, pg. 25; Sheikh Salman Hanafi, Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah, pg. 114.

[13] . Haskani, Shawahidul-Tanzil, vol. 1, pp. 51 and 90.

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Four of the Prophets are Alive / two are in the Heavens and tow are in Land

Question 277: Assalamu alayka ya dear brothers and sisters wa rahmatullahi wa barakatoh. Can someone briefly relate me what states have Hazrat Idris (a.s.), Hazrat Khidr (a.s.), Hazrat Iliya (a.s.) reach, if there are differences between each of theirs states, how they reach these states, and what is their present and future relation with our 12th Imam (mAhhr) ?

I ask this because, I heard that there are five persons that literaly elevated to heaven before death and taken to unknown celestial realm and continue to live there, each one of them are in different state, until the reapparenc oh the Mahdi (mAhhr).

May Allah reward you.

Answer 277: Four of the prophets are alive two of whom are in the heavens: Jesus and Edris, and two of them are in the land: Khidr and Elias, Ilyas (Elias). As for Khidr, he is in the sea but his companion is in the land.”[1]

Prophet Jesus: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says about the Prophet Jesus (as) as follows: “and for their saying,” We killed the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the apostle of Allah” though they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but so it was made to appear to them. Indeed those who differ concerning him are surely in doubt about him: they do not have any knowledge of that beyond following conjectures, and certainly they did not kill him”.[2]

In other verse of the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “When Allah said,” O Jesus, I shall take you] r soul [, and I shall raise you up toward Myself[3]”.

According to the previous verses of the holy Quran, we can come to the conclusion that the Prophet Jesus (as) is still alive. He is in the Heaven, though, considering the meaning of the word ‘Mutawaffika‘’ mentioned in the verse, the Prophet’s soul had been taken and He brought back to Allah, according to some interpreters of the holy Quran. [4]

Prophet Ilyas: It is said that Prophet Ilyas (Elias) is in the Heaven, too. He had been inviting people of the Baalbek to the Prophet Musa’s Shariah Law for 22 years. Some say that Prophet Ilyas is Prophet Idris (Enoch). They say: He was one of the Harun’s children and the Prophet Khidr’s brother.[5]

Prophet Khidr: Khidr is one of the four prophets recognizes as being alive. It is said that He drank from the water of life and is alive forever. He is at the Sa’sa’ah and Sahlah Mosques. Sayyid ibn Tawus narrated that when Imam Ali (as) martyred Prophet Khidr participated in the funeral. He went to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth) condoled them and showed them the place of the Prophet Noah’s (as) grave.[6]

Some hadiths and verses of the Quran imply that he was a prophet and messenger of Allah (swt) to his tribe and people, to invite them to tawhid (the oneness of God) and accepting Allah’s (swt) prophets and the divine books. His miracle was that whenever desired, he could revive any dead and dry branch or dry and barren land, making it green again, thus being given the title “Khidhr”. His real name is Talya ibn Malekan ibn Aber ibn Arafkhshad (ارفخشد) ibn Sam ibn Nuh.

As for the prolonged life of this prophet, we would like to draw your attention to a hadith from Imam Sadiq (as): “… As for the servant of Allah (swt) Khidr, Allah (swt) extended his life, but not because of his prophetic mission, nor in order to reveal a book onto him, nor to nullify through him, the religion of the past prophets, nor for him to become leader to a nation following him, nor for the obedience that Allah (swt) had made obligatory upon him, but He (Allah (swt)) extended his life because He chosen to lengthen the occultation of the Qa’im (Imam Mahdi (as)) and knew that some of the people would begin doubting about him as a result, so He lengthened the life of this good servant of His in order for it to be reason for accepting the long life of the Qa’im and so that his life would be compared with the imam’s, rejecting the objection and criticism of the enemies and the bad-minded.[7]

He is, without a doubt, still alive and is currently more than six thousand years old.[8]

Prophet Idris: According to the following verse of the Holy Quran in which Allah (SWT) says about the Prophet Idris, He is still alive. “And mention in the Book Idris. Indeed he was a truthful one, a prophet”.[9]

The two Prophets who are in the Heaven, Prophet Idris and Jesus. And the two are still alive and are in the land, Prophet Khidr and Ilyas.

Prophet Idris’ name mentioned twice in the Quran, he has revered and celebrated as truthful, prophet, patient, righteous etc. Prophet Idris is among the grandsons of Prophet Seth reaching Adam (a.s.) through five intermediaries. One of his grandfathers is Prophet Noah (a.s.). Most historians have said that he lived 365 years before his ascension, or his death according to another report. Based on narrations, four of the prophets are still alive two of whom i.e. Prophet Khizr and Prophet Ilyas (Elias), peace be upon them, are living on earth and the two others i.e. Prophet Idris and Prophet Jesus, peace be upon them are in the heavens.

Allamah Tabatabai (RA) interpreting the verse 65 of Surah al-Kahf (Then they found one from among Our servants whom We had granted mercy from Us and whom We had taught knowledge from Ourselves[10]) appertained to Prophet Moses (AS) and Prophet Khidr (AS) quotes narrations from a number of Sunni and Shia sources about some prophets being alive.

Among the narrations he has quoted is a tradition from Jalaluddin in his Al-Durr al-Manthur which is narrated from Shahin from Khasif that says:[11]

«أربعة من الأنبیاء أحیاء اثنان فی السماء: عیسى و إدریس، و اثنان فی الأرض الخضر و إلیاس- فأما الخضر فإنه فی البحر و أما صاحبه فإنه فی البر»

It is noteworthy that this narration is also available in Shia sources but it is narrated from Sunni sources.[12]

Those Prophets and Imams (pbuth) who will return and accompany Imam Mahdi’s (ajtf) reappearance: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: “When the Twelfth Imam (aj) appears and leadership is passed on to him, at that time, the Prophet (pbuh) and Amir al-Muminin (as) shall appear. Amir al-Muminin will carry with him a cane and a branding iron.[13]

Upon the cane there is a figure which reads ‘bismillah’ (in the name of Allah), which he will use to mark the foreheads of those who are believers. The figure upon the branding iron reads ‘bismilkafir’ (in the name of disbelievers), which he will use to brand the foreheads of the disbelievers. This way, believers and disbelievers will once again be distinguished. At that time, all of the Imams (as) shall return to assist Amir al-Muminin (as) and Imam Mahdi (aj). Prophets who endures much hardship and strife in the way of Allah, such as Zakariyyah (Zachary), Yahya (John), Hizqil (Ezekiel), and other Prophets which were injured or killed at the hands of the disbelievers shall also return to this world. Verily, news has been given to me of their reappearance to bring about swift retribution to their killers and oppressors as well as seek justice from those who spilt the blood of Hussain (as).”[14]

Narrations pertaining to the reappearance of the Twelfth Imam (aj) state that Prophet Isa (Jesus) (as) shall be once again sent to this world at the permission of Allah. He shall appear before everyone as one of the companions of Imam Mahdi (aj) and shall stand in prayer behind the Imam. It is narrated that the Holy Prophet said: “I swear by that which has instated me as a bearer of the truth, if there remains but one day to this world, Allah shall prolong that day until my son Mahdi (aj) reappears. After his reappearance, Prophet Isa (Jesus) Ruhollah (as) will descend to this world and will stand in prayer behind the Imam. It is then that Allah shall light up the world with His Light, and the government of Imam Mahdi shall encompass everywhere from east to west.”

Imam Sadiq (as) says: The first Imam to return is Imam Hussein (as), after which he will govern [the Islamic nation] for a lengthy period of time. He will govern for so many years that his eyebrows will cover his eyes as a result of old age.[15]

[1] . Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Hussein, Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol.13, p. 353, Islamic Publications Office, Qom, fifth edition, 1417.

[2] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 157.

[3] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 55.

[4] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 2, Pg. 431.

[5] . Emad Zadeh Esfahani, Qasas Qurani, Pg. 680.

[6] . Ibid.

[7] . Kamaluddin, vol. 3, pg. 357; Biharul-Anwar, vol. 51, pg. 222.

[8] . Yawmul-Khalas, pg. 157.

[9] . Surah Maryam, verse 56.

[10] . Surah Kahf, verse 65. «فَوَجَدا عَبْداً مِنْ عِبادِنا آتَیناهُ رَحْمَةً مِنْ عِنْدِنا وَ عَلَّمْناهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا عِلْماً»

[11] . Suyuti, Jalaluddin, al-Durr al-Manthur fi Tafsir al-Ma’thur, vol.4, p. 239, Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi Library, Qom, 1404 A.H.

[12] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwar, vol13, p. 402, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, second dition, 1403 A.H; Ibn Tavus, Ali bin Musa, Sa’ad al-Saud Lil-Nofus Mandhud, p. 163 – 164, Dar al-Dhakhaer, Qom, first edition (date missing).

[13] . In Arabic: میسم.

[14] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharul-Anwar, translation of 13th volume by Davani, pg.1165.

[15] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharul-Anwar, vol. 53, pg.46.

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Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell

Question 326: Do believers go to hell? Or they suffer only Barzakh?

Answer 326: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: And there is not one of you but shall come to it, This is an unavoidable decree of your Lord. And We will deliver those who guarded (against evil), and We will leave the unjust therein on their knees. [1]

The interpreters of the holy Quran have different opinions about this previous mentioned verse of the holy Quran as follows:

First Interpretation: According to some of interpreters of the holy Quran, the meaning of the word ‘Waredoha’ that mentioned in this verse is to go near or approach. This means that all the human beings such as good and bad people, without exception, will go near the Hell in order to see how the wrongdoers and sinners will be judged and what final destination they will have on the Day of Resurrection, but Allah (SWT) will save the believers.

The following is a verse of the holy Quran that the interpreters give it as a reason to support their idea. In Surah Qasas verse 23 Allah (SWT) says: “And when he arrived at the watering (place) in Madyan”.[2]

Arabic version:

وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ

Second Interpretation: According to most of interpreters of the holy Quran, the word ‘Waredoha’ means Entrance. Therefore, all the human beings, without exception, enter the Hell, however it would be cold and comfort for the believers as Nimrod’s fire had been cooled and comforted upon Abraham. In this regards, Allah (SWT) says: “We said: O fire! be a comfort and peace to Ibrahim.”[3]

It seems that the second interpretation is in harmony with the apparent of the verse. Because, the main meaning of the word ‘Waredoha’ is entrance and the next verse of this Surah ‘ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّنَذَرُ الظَّالِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيًّا’ also support this meaning. Furthermore, the following are some traditions by which we can come to the conclusion that the second interpretation is correct.

A man asked Jaber bin Abdullah Ansari about this verse and Jaber pointed to his ears saying that I heard an issue from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) by my own ears that if I lie my ears would become deaf. The Prophet said: Al-Worood al-Dokhool. Meaning that the word ‘Worood’ is entrance. And there is not one of you good and bad people but will enter the Hell. But, the fire will be cooled and comforted for the believers ….[4]

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: The Hellfire will say to the believers ‘pass me soon, as your light (noor) is turning my flame off.’[5]

What the philosophy of entering Hell for the believers, according to the second interpretation, that is actually Alla’s (SWT) wisdom is that after seeing the chastisement of Hell they (the believers) shall be the Dwellers of the Garden and well pleased with and abide in that which their souls long for.[6]

Barzakh: There is a verse in the holy Quran which explicitly states that there is an intermediate world (Barzakh) between death and resurrection.[7] There are other examples in the Quran in which it speaks of or describe people who have passed away from the world and who have not yet reached the Day of Resurrection.[8] These verses indicate that there is an intermediate world called “Barzakh”.

There are many narrations in Shiite and Sunni sources which describe the intermediate world with more precise details.[9]

Based on the above, the existence of an intermediate world is unquestionable but there is a difference of opinion as to the specific features of this world; different Muslim scholars have provided varying details in their analysis.

Avael ul Maqalat is also a book authored by Shaykh Mufid, one of the prominent Shiite scholars of the fourth and fifth century of the Islamic calendar. He wrote the book in response to various questions and queries on ideological subjects including the intermediate world. Naturally, the inferences made by him with reliance on the verses and traditions are those of him, not of the entire Shiite community.

In this book, Shaykh Mufid accepts the intermediate world in a general way and describes the situation of people therein. He says: We can study the situation of people in the intermediate world under one of the following four groups:[10]

The first group of people is those who are alive enjoying divine bounties and living in close proximity to the imams. The second group of people is those who are alive and are being chastised. There is a third group of people also about whom we have no precise information nor have we come to a certain conclusion about the way they are living. Basically, we are not sure if they are having an intermediate life. Finally, the fourth group of people includes those people who do not have an intermediate life and that they are numb and dead in the period between this world and the hereafter.

Shaykh Mufid (r.a) then goes on analyzing the above four groups one after another:

  1. Those people who have complete inner vision of themselves in the world and are fulfilling their divine obligations in proper manner shall be alive and shall benefit from the bounties bestowed upon by them by the Lord.
  2. There are some people in this world who do not embrace the true religion on account of grudge and stubbornness. Such people who have the ability to know the truth or know it and still oppose it for the sake of material worldly benefits and continue to commit major sins are alive in the intermediate world. Unlike the first group, they have a life fraught with anguish, agony and punishment.
  3. There are also some people who despite believing in the right religion commit great sins. In fact, they do not commit sins owing to grudge and stubbornness or because they consider them as permissible; rather they commit sins on account of their being overpowered and overcome by their whims and carnal desires. What would be their situation like in the intermediate world, if they fail to repent before death?

Thereupon, Shaykh Mufid (r.a) says: We do not know as to how their situation in the intermediate world is as we maintain doubt about the destiny Almighty Allah has set for them. It is likely that:

1 – 3. God, the Exalted, may keep them alive in the intermediate world and subject them to punishment so that they may, after getting the punishment in the grave and in the intermediate world, be purified and go to Paradise.

2 – 3. This group of people has no intermediate life and that they will be held responsible for their deeds on the Day of Judgment. God, the Exalted, will deal with them and consider some of them to be liable to punishment in Hell and some others as worthy of forgiveness and mercy.

Finally, Shaykh Mufid (may Allah bless him) concludes that in spite of having access to the Quranic verses and also traditions, he could not have verified the situation of the third group. He says that God, the Glorified, may have wanted to conceal their situation from us.

  1. There are two other groups of people one of which includes apparently faithful people who do not have the least understanding and insight about religion, and the other includes unbelievers whose disbelief in the right religion is not because of grudge and stubbornness but because of lacking access to a proper cultural atmosphere and to the means of understanding. In other words, they are suffering from cultural poverty and weakness. According to Shaykh Mufid (r.a), these two groups of people do not have an intermediate life and that they are numb and dead in the period between this world and the hereafter.
    Meanwhile, we should reiterate that the above classification and the inferences made by Shaykh Mufid with reliance on the verses and traditions are those of him, not of the entire Shiite community. Therefore, other Shiite scholars may have other juridical views in this regard.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answer:

Index: Barzakh is the intermediate state between this world and the Hereafter / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth), answer 564.

[1] . Surah Marym, verses 71-72.

[2] . Surah Qasas, verse 23.

[3] . Surah Anbiya, verse 69.

[4] .  Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 3, Pg. 353.

[5] . Ibid.

[6] . Surah Anbiya, verse 102.

[7] . Al-Momenoon, 100, “و من ورائهم برزخ إلی یوم یبعثون”.

[8] . Aal-e Imran: 169 – 171; Yasin, 26-27.

[9] . See: Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwra, vol.6, pg.202 onward, Al-Vafa Insititute, Beirut, 1401 A.H; Qurtubi, Al-Jame’ le-Ahkaam al-Quran, vol.13, pg. 150, Intisharat Naser Khosro, Tehran, 1985.

[10] . Shaykh Mufid, Avael ul Maqalat, p.g75 – 76, Congress on Shaykh Mufid (r.a), Qom 1413 A.H.

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Rest, Rain and Snow in the Heaven

Question 325: 1) Does it rain in heaven? 2) May we can rest in heaven?

Answer 325: A 1: According to the Holy Quran, the answer to your question is yes. There you will have all that you desire such as rain, snow and etc. and there are other blissful things with Allah, the Almighty which we have no knowledge of. This means that Allah (SW) will grant us anything even more than we deserve. In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “There they will have whatever they wish, and with Us there is yet more.”

The Arabic version of this verse is as follows:
لَهُمْ ما يَشاؤُنَ فيها وَ لَدَيْنا مَزيد
Also, there is another verse of the holy Quran in which Allah (SWT) says: “And you shall have therein what your souls desire and you shall have therein what you ask for”.
The Arabic version:
وَ لَكُمْ فيها ما تَشْتَهي‏ أَنْفُسُكُمْ وَ لَكُمْ فيها ما تَدَّعُون‏

A 2: If you want to stop being active for a period of time in order to relax and get back your strength, you need to rest. But, you won’t feel tiered or lose your strength to get it back by resting in the Heaven.
In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says in this regards: “Abiding therein; they shall not desire removal from them”. So, we won’t get bored in the Heaven, but in the World. Because, Life of the world is only a (passing) enjoyment, and surely the hereafter is the abode to settle.
If we ourselves want to rest in the Heaven we would be able to, but it doesn’t mean that we get bored or lose our strength in order to get it back by.