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Kunya Abul Qasim referring to the Holy Prophet (pbuh)

Question 075: So in shia duaas and sufi duaas. We here “Abul Qasim” mentioned. Is this referring to the Rasulallah SA or Mehdi A.S? Or referring to it dually?

Answer 075: This kunya is describing the Holy Prophet (pbuh) as father to his son Qasim ibn Muhammad. Read More

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Common and Specific A’amaal for three nights of Qadr

Question 637: What are the common and specific A’amaal we the Muslim can perform during the three Nights of Power (Laylatul Qadr)?

Answer 637: The Night of Power (Laylatul Qard) is the night, which is the most blessed and excellent of all nights. A prayer during this night is superior to the prayer of a thousand months.[1] The destiny for the year is decided (decreed) on this night.[2] That is why the Du`as for this night ask for special favours in the decree for the year. Believers are encouraged to stay awake the entire night, and pray for blessings and forgiveness. It is the holiest night of the year, and it would be unwise to be heedless of the tremendous benefits of this night. The Angels and Roohul Ameen (a highly dignified Angel) descend on this earth, with the permission of Allah (swt) & call on the Imam of the time, and what is ordained (by Allah) for everybody is presented before the Imam.[3] Read More

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Shia consider Abu Bakr and Umar as Kafirs?

Question 214: To clear misconception by way of academic proof from the School of Ahlulbayt (as): Do the Shia not respect the four Khalifah, except Imam Ali (as)?

Answer 214: First of all, although the Shia has some criticism towards the khalifahs, they don’t see them as kafirs; the same way they don’t consider any of the other Sahabah as kafirs. In dealing with the khalifahs, the Shia follow the footsteps of the imams, especially Imam Ali (as), in how they would deal with them, not anyone else, because the Shia consider themselves the followers of their infallible imams. Read More

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Ashra Mubashra, the ten Sahaba Promised Paradise

Question 221: Assalamu alikum, what u think about ashabs esp Abu bakr, umer n usman? Why u call them bidati, did prophet consider them as munafiq. And also explain your views regarding ashr-e-mubashara. thank you.

Answer 221: According to Shia school of thought, such traditions are classified into da’if (weak) and are considered as fake. The following are some reasons by which these ahadith have been rejected. Read More

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Adding the third testimony in Tashahud

Question 268: Why do Usooli Shia Muslim consider Tashood cannot be changed with 3rd Sahada of Imam Ali AS. If azaan is added with Ali Un Wali Ullah.

Answer 268: As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do. Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[1]

There are different narrations regarding zikr (recital) of Tashahhud. However, all jurisprudents consider what they have mentioned in their Manuals of Islamic Laws (Resalah) as sufficient. When it comes to reciting more azkar (plural of zikr) in Tashahhud, if one recites them without the intention of wurud (i.e. doing an act which has no religious origin or validation), there is no problem in it but if he recites with the intention of wurud, some scholars have allowed reciting an additional zikr keeping in view that some of the narrations have been accepted and others have not.[2] However, most of the jurisprudents have sufficed to the zikr that has been mentioned in the Manuals of Islamic Laws.

Fatawa:

Makarem Shirazi (ha): The precaution is that Tashahhud has to be recited as usual.

Saafi Gulpaigani (ha): Tashahhud has to be recited in the same way that has been prescribed in the book of Islamic Laws.

Noori Hamedani (ha): There is no objection in reciting the azkar without intention of wurud.

Sayyid Sistani (ha): The third testimony must not be recited in Tashahhud, as an obligatory precaution. It is recommended to recite the following zikr the second testimony in Tashahhud: “Arsalahu bil haqqi bashiran wa naziran bayna yada yis sa’ah, wa ashhadu anna rabbi ne’mar Rab wa anna Muhammadan ne’mar Rasul and then recite the salawat.”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

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[1] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

[2]  Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha).

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“Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah

Question 276: Can someone provide the Sahih riwayahs from the Shi’i books which mention of Ash’hadu anna Ali’ un wali Ullah and the other phrase not included in conventional Aa’dhan?

Answer 276: In order to give a precise answer to the question, we shall follow up the discussion in three parts:

1) Is it basically okay to recite “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” in Adhan or is it totally wrong and false?

2) If it is supposedly correct, is it a part of Adhan or not?

3) If it is not a part of Adhan, is there any problem in reciting it in Adhan without considering it as a part?

In order to reply to the first part of the question, it would first be necessary to deal with the meaning and import of the word “wali”.

Meaning of “wali”:

  1. A) Wali in the sense of being a guardian or custodian: There are many Quranic verses in which the word “wali” has been used in the same meaning e.g. “You have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor”.[1]
  2. B) Wali in the sense of being a close friend[2]: There are also verses in the Quran with the word “wali” meaning friend. One of those verses is the following: “The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! he, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.”[3]
  3. C) Wali in the sense of helper and aide[4]: The Holy Quran says, “And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.”

Without doubt, there is no objection or problem in using “Waliullah” for believers in the second and third meaning (friend and helper). In fact, there are traditions transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni narrators with the word “wali” used in these meanings.[5]
As for the first meaning, it should be said that there are many narratives in which Ali (a.s.) has been introduced as the guardian, master and more entitled to be in authority in the same way as Holy Prophet (pbuh) was. Of course, Ali is a divinely-appointed leader; he was appointed as guardian and master of the Ummah by God in the same way as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was appointed as the Messenger of God.

As for whether “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is a part of Adhan or not, there are narrations from the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) which expressly state that Adhan consists of eighteen sentences. Those sentences are the following:

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah, Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah, Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah, Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal, Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal ; Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah; La ilaha illal lah.[6]

Thus, “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” is not a part of Adhan. Shia jurists have issued verdicts on the basis of these narrations saying that the third testimony is not a part of Adhan.

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu’minina ‘Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.[7]

Imam Khomeini (may Allah bless him) says in this regard: “Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences: Allahu Akbar four times; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal; Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah each two times.” Then he says, “Ash hadu anna Aliyyan Waliullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah.”[8]

The next question that has to be dealt with is: Does reciting “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” affect the prayers or not?
Obviously, there is a problem in reciting the third testimony as a part of Adhan. Some have said that if it is recited in such a way that it does not sound to be like one of the sentences of Adhan, there would be no problem.[9] At the most, the spurious argument that is likely to be raised is that reciting the third testimony is a mere bid’ah (innovation).

Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, if someone considers this sentence to be a part of Adhan and recites it with such an intention, it is bid’ah and forbidden. However, since none of the Shiite jurists and grand scholars considers it as a part of Adhan and if someone recites it in a way such that it does not turn out to be like one of the sentences of Adhan and Iqamah, it would not be bid’ah and there would be no problem in it.

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.

In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also. Therefore, whenever someone testifies to the oneness of God and prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he will also testify to the wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and this does not at all imply that the third testimony is a part of Adhan.

Also, there are special narrations which confirm the validity of reciting the third testimony in Adhan.[10] Hence, considering the lofty rank and position of the Commander of the Faithful, there would be no problem in reciting “Ali waliullah” in Adhan and in the Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body with the intention of Qurbat (seeking nearness to God) or Tabarruk (as a blessing), not as a part.

It is to be noted that many Sunni scholars admit that the sentence “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” (prayer is better than sleep) is not a part of Adhan and it is one of the innovations of the second caliph. It has been reported from Malik bin Anas that the Muezzin (one who calls for prayers) went to Umar to wake him up for Fajr prayers. He saw Umar sleeping. Then he said, “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm”. Umar then ordered him to recite this same sentence in Adhan also.[11]

The question is that what justifies the recitation and inclusion of this sentence (i.e. al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the Adhan for Fajr prayers by Sunnis? Is it comparable with what the Shiites are reciting and which has many narrations authenticating and confirming it?

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

-1 Facebook.

-2 Facebook.

[1] . Al-Sajdah: 4.

[2] . Tabari Kiyaharasi, Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad, Ahkaamul Quran (Al-Kiyaharasi), vol.3, pg.83, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1405. A.H.

[3] . Fussilat: 34.

[4] . Ibn Mazur, Muhammad bin Mukram, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, pg.407, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 3rd edition, 1414 A.H.

[5] . Ibn Abi Hatam, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad, Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim (Ibn Abi Hatam) vol.2, pg.675, published by Maktabat Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 3rd edition, 1419 A.H.

[6] . Saduq, Man La-yahzuruhul Faqih, vol.1, pg.289-291, Jame’ah Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[7] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah.

[8] . Tauzihul Masail (with connotation), vol.1, pg.519, issue No.918.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Vide: The Third Testimony in Adhan, Iqamah and Prayers.

[11] . Malik, Muwatta, vol.1, pg.210, al-Islam website: www.al-islam.com.

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Permissibility of doing Matam for those passed away

Question 051: According to the hadith in the attached meme, from how I understand it, a person was killed and the Prophet Muhammad (saws) saw women doing matam due to the person being killed and he said for them to stop doing matam and only ghum and crying are accepted. So, is matam really allowed?

Rough translation of the attached meme, “One time the Prophet (saws) was passing from near Sham and saw women doing matam on a killed person. The Prophet (saws) called the owner of that qabila and asked him, why have you not told them that they cant do this; only weep and ghum a lot. Go and tell them to stop.”

Answer 051: There are many traditions narrated from our Infallibles (pbuth) in which we are allowed to do matam. Like what has been mentioned in Dua Abu Hamza Thumali.[1]

Given the supposition made in your questions, this Hadith is narrated from Imam Ali (A.S) not the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The following is the hadith I have translated it:

The tribe of Hamdan was one of the three tribes having the largest number of combatants in the army of Hadrat Ali (as). In one of the encounters in Siffin, members of this tribe, being on the right flank, had shown their unique firmness especially eight hundred from among their youth who remained steadfast till their last breath. One hundred and eighty of them were martyred and wounded; eleven among those who attained martyrdom were commanders.

When the Imam (as) was passing from Hamdan, He asked why they are mourning? Nasr replied: they are mourning for those of their family killed in Siffin Battle. Imam (as) has said, “I witness (and guarantee) that every one of them who were killed, were very patient and his Shahada (martyrdom) is accepted”. Then. Imam Ali (as) was passing from Sham (Syria) and heard some women mourning loudly. Harb Bin Syurahbil approached Imam Ali (as). The Imam has said to him: “Do your wives overcome to you? You cannot prevent them from mourning? Harb replied, “O Amir al-Momenin, if it was one, two or three persons we could do so, but one hundred and eighty of this tribe were martyred.” Imam Ali (as) said to him, “May Allah bless your martyrs.”[2]

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

نصر عن عمر قال حدثني عبد الله بن عاصم الفائشي قال لما مر علي بالثوريين يعني ثور همدان سمع البكاء فقال ما هذه الأصوات قيل هذا البكاء على من قتل بصفين فقال أما إني أشهد لمن قتل منهم صابرا محتسبا بالشهادة ثم مر بالفائشيين فسمع الأصوات فقال مثل ذلك ثم مر بالشباميين فسمع رنة شديدة و صوتا مرتفعا عاليا فخرج إليه حرب بن شرحبيل الشبامي فقال علي أ يغلبكم نساؤكم أ لا تنهونهن عن هذا الصياح و الرنين قال يا أمير المؤمنين لو كانت دارا أو دارين أو ثلاثا قدرنا على ذلك و لكن من هذا الحي ثمانون و مائة قتيل فليس من دار إلا و فيها بكاء

The following verses of the Holy Qur’an tell us there is no problem to do matam for those who have passed away or have been killed.

In the Holy Qur’an Allah (SWT) says: And he turned away from them, and said, “Alas! My grief is great for Yusuf!” And his eyes turned white due to weeping [and he kept his anger within Himself.” They said, “By Allah! You will go on remembering Joseph until you wreck your health or perish.” He said, “I complain of my anguish and grief only to Allah. I know from Allah what you do not know.”[3] Thus, according to the Holy Qur’an, there is no problem to do matam.

For further information regarding other traditions in which such mourning is considered as makruh, please refer to:

– Mustadrak al-Wasael wa Mustanbit al-Masael Vol. 2, Chapter Mourning, Pgs. 456-457 & ….

Index: Mourning for Imam Hussain (as) while you are grieving, answer 047.

[1] . Mafatih al-Jinan, Dua Abu Hamza Thumali.

[2] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 79, Pg, 89, Chapter 16.

[3] . Surah Yousef, verses 84-85 &86.

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Enemies killed by Imam Hussain (as) in Karbala on the Day of Ashura

Question 598: Salam. How many zio-Muslim pagans from the army of satan (yazeed son of Moawia) were sent to hell by Imam Hussain a.s before embracing martyrdom? How many Enemies killed by Imam Hussain (as) in Karbala on the Day of Ashura?

Answer 598: Some narrators said: when Imam Hussain became alone on the Day of Ashura, we, the narrators swore  by Allah that there was no one braver than him, because his children, families and companions have been killed, but when the enemies attacked Him He attacked them all too. He himself attacked the whole enemies in a way that they were all running away from Him like locust, He then came back to his military base saying: La Hawla wa la Quwwata illa billah al-Ali al-Adhim.

In Ithbat al-Wasiyya there is a tradition in which mentioned that 1800 fighters, the infidels have been killed by Imam Hussain (as) on the Day of Ashura.[1]

In Bihrar al-Anwar ibn Shar Ashub and Muhammad bin Abi Talib narrated: The Imam (as) has been continuously attacked and finally single-handedly killed 1,950 infidels in Karbala. And then Umar bin Sa’ad shouted at his army and said: Woe is to you! Do you know with whom you are fighting? He is the son of Qattal al-Arab! Attack him from all sides. And then Four thousands fighters surrounded him and close the way toward his tents.

In response to this question that how is it possible that the Imam (as) can kill the number of infidels, we should say that since the army of Umar Sa’ad were afraid of the Imam’s fighting they were running away from Him in order to save their lives. So, some of them have been killed under the hands and feet of horses and the crowd of people and therefore, the dead were too much in number.[2]

The Arabic version of this narration is as follows:

قال بعض الرواة فو الله ما رأيت مكثورا قط قد قتل ولده و أهل بيته و صحبه أربط جأشا منه و إن كانت الرجال لتشد عليه فيشد عليها بسيفه فتنكشف عنه انكشاف المعزى إذا شد فيها الذئب و لقد كان يحمل فيهم و قد تكملوا ألفا فينهزمون بين يديه كأنهم الجراد المنتشر ثم يرجع إلى مركزه و هو يقول لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ.

و قال ابن شهرآشوب و محمد بن أبي طالب و لم يزل يقاتل حتى قتل ألف رجل و تسعمائة رجل و خمسين رجلا سوى المجروحين فقال عمر بن سعد لقومه الويل لكم أ تدرون لمن تقاتلون هذا ابن الأنزع البطين هذا ابن قتال العرب فاحملوا عليه من كل جانب و كانت الرماة أربعة آلاف فرموه بالسهام فحالوا بينه و بين رحله‏.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The number of soldiers who came to Karbala to fight against Imam Hussain (as), answer 568.

[1] . Ithbat al-Wasiyya, Al-Mas’udi, Pg. 168.

[2] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 45, Pg. 50.

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Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?

Question 260:  Was Bay’ah (allegiance) performed by Imam Ali (as) or was it not taken? Did the caliphate have Imam Ali’s (as) silent approval?

Answer 260: When Imam Ali (as) has been carrying the funeral of the holy Prophet (PBUH) such as washing and enshrouding -in accordance with the Will of the Prophet (s)- the event of Saqifah happened.

According to some narrations, Imam Ali (as) abstained from supporting and giving the bay’ah to Abu Bakr until after Lady Fatima (sa) passed away.[1] When the Imam (as) saw people turned their face away from him (as), he was compelled to give bay’ah to him.

Why didn’t Imam Ali fight is a typical Sunni argument? Some Shia narrations indicate that if Imam Ali had 40 men he would have fought, but his much smaller group of followers meant that if Imam Ali had fought for the leadership, the nascent and young Muslim state would have been ripped into shreds, and in all honesty, Islam probably wouldn’t exist today.

Assuming Imam Ali did give bayah, this does not mean to say he considered Abu Bakr’s rule legitimate. Nay, he only paid allegiance for the greater good, and that was to reconcile the nation. His views remained the same, and are expressed most famously in Khutbatul Shaqshaqiyya, delivered during his reign as caliph.

What was of dire importance to Imam Ali (as) and the other imams, to the extent that they sacrificed everything, even their lives for it, was the preservation of Islam. It was for the preservation of Islam that Imam Ali (as) would cooperate with the khalifahs and give them the best consultation he could, whenever needed.

The reason being that the imam didn’t want anything for himself; anything he wanted was for Islam’s flourishing and since, in any case, Abu Bakr and Umar were the heads of the Islamic state then, and opposing them, in that sensitive and pivotal time in which Islam was expanding its boundaries and there were conquests, and Islam had many adversaries, and the Roman and Persian empires were great threats, Imam Ali (as), through his deep insight, took the right stances, not making Islam any more vulnerable than it already was, and in this way, putting an end to the dreams of the enemies of Islam taking advantage of the circumstances.

What was asserted in the question about Imam Ali (as) accepting the caliphate of the khalifahs, isn’t correct, because on top of all the objections and oppositions he had before the martyrdom of Lady Zahra (as), in the following years, especially during his own rule, he would strongly criticize their actions and would question their caliphate itself. The third sermon of the Nahjul-Balaghah, known as the sermon of Shiqshiqiyyah, is clear evidence of this claim

In this sermon, the imam (as) says: “…Then I began to think whether I should assault or endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations…”

We must say that those taking care of the issue of caliphate acted so fast that they didn’t even wait for the prophet to be buried so that they could at least consult with the Harun of the Muslim nation (meaning Imam Ali (as)), and as was said, considering the pressure and propaganda that was dominant at the time and the danger of conflict breaking out between two of the Ansar’s tribes, they rushed in doing bey’ah with Abu Bakr without any further ado, although some of them regretted their bey’ah later, when Lady Fatimah (as) said some things to them and asked them to support Ali (as); they said: If you had told us these things earlier, we would have never preferred anyone over Ali (as)![2]

Did they give Imam Ali (as) a chance to voice his opinion? The only way such a thing seems possible is if he had abandoned the prophet’s body like everyone else and tried to get his right too! This is something that the imam was avoiding, or else he could have done that too. As he himself says: “We have a right that if we are given, then all the better, and if we are denied it, we prefer to, as the second person (and not the caliph), to ride the back of the camel, no matter how long that takes.”[3]

In addition to all of this, the Shia believe that imamate and leadership of the Muslim nation can only be determined by divine decree, therefore, considering all of the clear injunctions by the prophet about Imam Ali (as) being his successor, there remains no room for any of these theories and conjectures, because when there is a nass or legal injunction, all ijtihad and personal opinions are invalid.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Shia consider Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman as Hypocrite, Q 265.

[1] . Tabari, Tarikh al-Umam wal Moluk, Vol. 2m Pg. 448, Istiqamat publication, Cairo.

[2] Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 30, pg. 124, Al-Wafa’ Publications, Beirut, 1404 (AH).

[3] Nahjul-Balaghah, pg. 472, Dar al-Hijrah Publications, Qom.

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The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (s) Delivered at Ghadir Khum / after Hajjatul Wida

Question 028: Can you please provide me with the Last Sermon of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) delivered at Ghadir Khum?

Answer 028: The full text of the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) last sermon delivered at Ghadir Khum after Hajjatul Wida and before He (sa) left this World is as follows: Read More