post

Wilayah al-Takwini according to Shia

Question 302: Would anyone explain about Wilayah al-Takwini according to Shia? I am sunni and recently heard about it. I am so confused. Prior hearing about it i was seriously considering to convert to Shia Islam. I will be grateful if anyone explain it to me.  W. Salam.

Answer 302: Wilayah is an Arabic word derived from the word (ولی). In Arabic Wilayah means the coming of something right after another, without any space existing in between them. This calls for the closeness and nearness of these two to each other. Read More

post

Add anything in Adhan as blessing

Question 285: obviously who thinks about it before reciting that,”I’m about to recite this but not as a part but as a blessing”.Its either you do it or don’t. Its absolute. But what about those sources which say Bilal actually included Ali un waliullah in the adhan during the adhan in Ghadeer Khumn?

And also as per the blessing logic, why can’t I simply add anything in adhan as a blessing? I can say Gabriel is the supreme angel ,Ibrahim was a great imam and prophet etc.I mean,all of these would also bless me.I still don’t get the logic.

Answer 285: There are some particular traditions in which we are allowed to recite the third testimony in Adhan as a blessing and with the intention of Qurbat, however there has not been mentioned any reliable hadith saying that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has ever recited it to His Adhan or even allowed others to do so. Read More

post

Marriage of Imam Ali and Fatimah Zahra (pbuth) in Quran

Question 275: salam and jum’ah mubarak to all i have a question about imam ali and fatima zahra a.s. imam is a cousin of prophet muhammad s.a.w and he was also the uncle of fatima, right? so my question how prophet s.a.w agree to marry her daughter to imam ali? and what is a sign that allah agree to marry his daughter? and what hadith in sunni narrated about the aproval of allah s.w.t to marry imam ali and fatima?

Answer 275: Imam Ali (sa) was the cousin of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). His father was Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib and His mother was Fatima bint Asad.

The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) father was Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib and His mother was Āmina.

Fatima Zahra (sa) was the daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Her mother was Khadīja bint Khuwaylid (sa).

There has not directly mentioned in any verse of the Holy Quran an issue related to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa), however there are verses of the holy Quran that somehow related to this issue, as follows:

  1. Sura al-Kawthar: “Surely We have given you Kawthar. Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice.  Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity.”

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had two sons were born of the Lady Khadijah namely; Ghasem and Taher (also called ‘Abdullah) who died in Mecca and so, there was no live male issue from the holy Prophet (pbuh), so, the Arabs used to call the one who had no son (abtar). Hence after, the holy Quran applied this name to the enemies of the Prophet.

Note: The Messenger of Allah (S) had another son by the name of Ibraheem, was born of Mariyah Qibtiyyah in 8 AH. He also died before he was 2 years old.

Therefore, as the abundance of goodness and blessing the Kawthar has granted to the Holy Prophet by Allah, the Almighty. This verse refers to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa).

According to Sheikh Mufid, Imam Ali (as) has asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh) regarding the meaning of Kawthar? The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said to him (as): “It is a stream that Allah (swt) granted to me, … the Holy Prophet then said to him: This stream is for me and you….”[1] Kawthar is Fatimah Zahra (sa).[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

قال له علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلام): «ما هو الكوثر يا رسول الله؟». قال: «نهر أكرمني الله به»… ثم ضرب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) يده على جنب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) و قال: «يا علي، إن هذا النهر لي، و لك، …».

  1. Surah al-Rahman verses 19-22: “He has made the two seas to flow freely (so that) they meet together Between them is a barrier which they cannot pass. There come forth from them pearls, both large and small.”

Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the word “Marajal­baḥ­ray­ni  yal­taqiyān” refers to Imam Ali (as) and Fatimah Zahra (sa) and “Yakh­ruju  min­humallu­lu­u  wal­mar­jān” refer to Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth).[3]

The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

علي بن إبراهيم، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن يحيى بن سعيد القطان، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول في قول الله عز و جل: مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيانِ بَيْنَهُما بَرْزَخٌ لا يَبْغِيانِ قال: «علي و فاطمة (عليهما السلام)، [بحران عميقان لا يبغي أحدهما على صاحبه‏] يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَ الْمَرْجانُ، الحسن و الحسين (عليهما السلام)».

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

Index: Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa), answer 492.

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

[1] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 772, H 11936.

[2] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 6, Pg. 599; Anwar Derakhshan, Vol. 18, Pg. 310.

[3] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 233.

post

Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin

Question 621: Sallam O Alaikum. This Hadith is circulating in the social media and I really wanna know the authenticity of the Hadith will you confirm if it’s fake or a real Hadith. A man entered on Imam Sadeq and said: Salam Alikum ya Ameeral Mu’meneen. The Imam have stood up and said angerly: Behold! This is a title only suitable for Imam Ali! Allah have named him with it, and anyone who claim the title for himself, he is a penetrated homo [and if he isn’t, he will be]. Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin? Tafsyr Al Ayashi v1 p276. Wasael al Shia v14 p600. I would appreciate it. Thank you very much

Answer 621: As for the Hadith narrated from an unknown man without mentioning other chain of narrations it is considered as mursal and a weak hadith. Read More

post

Returning Fadak to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth)

Question 244: Why didn’t Imam Ali (as) give Fadak to Imam Hassan (as) and Hussain (as)?

Answer 244: “Fadak” was a thriving and flourishing village located near Khaybar, 140 kilometers from Medinah. In the seventh of hijrah, the fortresses of Khaybar were conquered one after another and the central power of the Jews was overthrown. The residents of Fadak surrendered and promised to give the prophet (pbuh) half of their lands and orchards on condition of no fighting and keep the rest for themselves. In addition, they accepted to do the farming of his lands for a wage. Read More

post

Reasoning for believing Imamat of the Infallible Imams

Question 619: Aselam akeyikum werahmetullah. Is believing in Imamiya part of an Aqida for Shi’ism? Meaning, any Muslim who doesn’t believe in Imamiya knowngly a Kaffir, otherwise a Fasiq?

Thanks a lot!

Answer 619: Imamate plays a crucial role in Islam. From the Holy Quran’s point of view, imamate is the final stage of human evolution, to which only Messengers of God have reached. The Holy Quran says about Prophet Abraham (a): ”Remember when Abraham’s God examined him with different means, and he successfully passed all those tests, so that God told him that he was appointed as the people’s Imam and leader, and Abraham (a) asked God to appoint his descendents as Imams as well, but God replied that imamate could not be handed over to tyrants, and only those of his offspring who were pure and sinless would deserve such a grace.”.[1]

This verse shows that imamate has a very high status and rank, since Prophet Abraham (a) was appointed as an Imam while he was already a Prophet. This happened only after he passed many difficult tests and trials.

The position of Imamate is sometimes combined with Prophethood, so that an eminent Prophet such as Abraham (a) becomes an Imam. Another evident reason is the combination of Prophethood and Imamate in the Prophet of Islam (s).

It also occurs that Imamate is separated from a Prophetic mission, such as what occurred in the case of the Shia Imams (a) who were only Imams, without being subject to direct divine revelation.

Reasoning for the Imamate of the Infallible Imams

Since the Imams are appointed by God, there is a need of rational reasoning to recognize the individuals who are actually imam. For instance, human logic can distinguish between an Imam and other people by witnessing characteristics such as knowledge, justice, courage, sinlessness and so forth in the Imam, and a lack of such characteristics in others. In addition, Quranic verses and authentic traditions also prove the imamate of an individual.

The following are some verses and their interpretations which are about the issue of imamate:

  • [2]«انما انت منذر و لکل قوم هاد», which means, “Your duty is to advise people, and there is a leader for every group.”

Shia interpreters and some Sunni ones, including Imam Fakhr Razi, says, “Here the term advisor refers to the Holy Prophet (s) and the leader to Imam Ali (a), since Ibn Abbas said that the Holy Prophet (s) put his hands on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added «و انت الهادی یا علی…» that means Ali (a) was the leader and shall continue to lead people after the Prophet (s).”[3]

In Al-Durrul-Manthur, one of the famous Sunni commentaries, several interpretations of the above verse are introduced, in which it is written that upon the revelation of this verse, the Holy Prophet (s) put his hand on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added that Ali was the leader.[4]

Other similar traditions from other theologians can be found in various other sources such as from Hakem Neyshabouri in “Mostadrak”, Dhahabi in “Talkhis”, Fakhr Razi and Ibn Kathir in their commentaries and Ibn Sabagh Maleki in “Alfusulul-Muhimmah” and Ganji Shafei in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, and Tabari in his commentary, and Ibn Hayan Andolosi in “Al-Bahrul-Muhit” and Neyshabouri in his commentary and Hamvini in “Faraed Olsamtin” and as well as many others. To become familiar with the sources of such traditions and their evidences, see the book Ihghagh Olhagh, Vol. 3, pp 88-92.

  • «با ایها الذین آمنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین[5] Which reads, “O, believers, avoid antagonism (toward God’s commands) and be with the loyal people.”

Imam Fakhr Razi interpreted the phrase ‘loyal people’ as meaning infallibles. He also added, “By infallible the verse refers to the whole nation in its entirety.”[6] This is while no Arab speaker, at the date of revelation of this verse, was using this phrase to refer to the nation; therefore, such an interpretation does not seem to be valid.

We should accept that in every era, there are loyal people who do not make any mistakes in their deeds and speeches, whom we should follow.

Moreover, many Sunni interpreters have quoted Ibn Abbas as saying that the above-mentioned verse is referring to Imam Ali (a). Allamah Tha’alabi in his book of commentary, Ganji in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, Allamah Sibt Jowzi in “Tadhkirah”, all interpret this verse as referring to Imam Ali (a) and his household. Ibn Abbas added, “Ali (a) is the most loyal man.”[7]

Many other traditions quoted from the members of the prophetic household confirm this same interpretation.[8]

  • «اطیعواالله و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم»,[9] Says: “Obey God and obey the Messenger of God and the Holders of Authority.”

Shia interpreters unanimously believe that by the ‘Holders of Authority’, the verse is referring to the Infallible Imams (a).

In addition, the Hanafi Sheikh Soleiman Qanduzi in his book “Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah” quoted the book “Mujahid” as saying that the verse refers to Ali (a) when the Holy Prophet (s) appointed him as his substitute in Madinah when he himself was involved in the Tabuk war.

It is also quoted from Imam Ali (a) as referring to this verse in a debate with the Mohajerin and Ansar, so that they admitted to the legitimacy of his rule.[10]

In “Shawahidul-Tanzil” of Hakem Haskani, a Sunni scholar, the interpretation of the same verse includes a quotation from Imam Ali (a) as saying that he once asked the Holy Prophet (s) about the meaning of “ruler”, to which the Holy Prophet (s) replied, “You are the first of them.”

Islamic beliefs are like a connected chain, such that if one part is missing, then the whole chain will be useless and have no benefit.  In other words, believing in Allah has its entailments; belief in these entailments is what makes the difference and brings about Allah’s satisfaction.  If you examine the story of Satan being expelled from heaven, you will find that he asked Allah for the chance to live until the Day of Judgment to deviate man.[11]  Therefore, it is understood that Satan believed in Allah and the Day of Judgment but Allah still names him a Kāfir.[12]  So just believing in Allah is not enough for one’s belief to be accepted, but one must also stay firm in regard to the results and implications of this belief.  One of the results of one’s belief in Allah is belief in His messengers meaning the prophets, in such a way that denying them would be like denying Allah.  Also, believing in the Imams, meaning the prophets’ successors, is the inevitable result and reflection of one’s belief in the prophet, because the Imams are the prophet’s successors that were appointed by himself and denying them is like denying the prophet himself.  Therefore, one cannot believe in the prophet and not believe in the imams.  It is the same between each one of the imams, meaning that denying one of them is like denying all of them, for the reason that proves the Imamate of each one of them is the same and applies to all of them; all of them are the successors of the prophet and each Imam has been approved of by the previous one and has introduced the next Imam.  Therefore, denying one of them leads to the denial of the previous one and because all of them were appointed by the prophet, denying them is denial of the prophet.

Finally, we will mention a few ahadith in this regard: Imam Sadiq narrates from his great ancestors, meaning the previous Imams, that they narrated from the prophet that he said: “My successors are twelve individuals, the first is Ali bin Abi Talib and the last is the ‘Ghā’im’, they are my successors, vicegerents, the leaders after me and my Hujjats (reasons) over my Ummah, whoever bears witness to their imamate is a Mu’min (Believer), and whoever denies their Imamate is a kāfir (disbeliever).”[13]

It is narrated in another hadith by Imam Sadiq that: “One who does not follow our words has rejected Allah’s words, and one who rejects Allah’s words is a polytheist”.[14]

Also, it is mentioned in another hadith by Imam Kadhim that: “One who has hate for us resents the prophet of Allah and he actually has hate for Allah, and one who has hate for Allah deserves the hellfire and will not receive help from anyone.”[15]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: Shia Ithna Ashari is Jafari school of thought, answer 111.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran, answer 129.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!

[1] Surah Baqarah, Verse 124

7 Surah Ra’ad, Verse 7

[3] Tafsir Kabir, Fakhr Razi, Volume 19, Page 14

[4] Al-Durrul-Manthur, Jalaladdin Suyuti, Volume. 4 Page 45

[5] Surah Bara’at, Verse 119

[6] Commentary of Fakhre Razi, volume 16, Page 221

[7] Ihqaqul-Haqq Volume. 3 Page 297

[8] Commentary of Noor Al Thaqalain Volume 2 Page 280,

[9] Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah, Page 114 – 115 – 116

[10] Shawahidul-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 148

[11] “قالَ رَبِّ فَاَنظِرنِي ِالَي َيوِم يُبعَثُون …” Hijr:36; Sād:79.

[12] Baqarah:34; Sād:74.

[13] “عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ص قَالَ الْأَئِمَّةُ بَعْدِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَوَّلُهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ آخِرُهُمُ الْقَائِمُ فَهُم خُلَفَائِي و أَوصِيَائِي و أَولِيَائِي وَ حُجَجُ اللَّه عَلَي اُمّتِي بَعدِي الْمُقِرُّ بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنٌ وَ الْمُنْكِرُ لَهُمْ كَافِرٌ”، Sheikh Saduq, Man lā Yahduruhū al-Faqīh, vol. 4, book of wasiyyah (i.e., making a will), the chapter on the will of Adam (as), pg. 180,…hadith 5406, Jame’eye Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH. Of course, the term ‘kufr here is to be taken in its literal sense, which is to hide and conceal the truth, and not in its common usage.

[14] “الرَّادُّ عَلَينَا الرَّادّ عَلَى الله وَ هُوَ عَلَى حَدِّ الشَّركِ بِاللهِ…” Kuleini, vol. 1, chapter of difference in hadith, pg. 68, Dār al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah Publication, Tehran, 1365 (solar calendar).

[15] “ألا يا عبد الرحمن من أبغضنا فقد أبغض محمدا و من أبغض محمدا فقد أبغض الله جل و علا، و من أبغض الله جل و علا كان حقا على الله أن يصليه النار و ماله من نصير” Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 97, pg. 122, Al-Wafā’ Institute, Lebanon, 1404 AH.

post

A Study of Al-Bayan, Iftikhariyah and Tatanjiyah Sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as)

Question 569: Agha! Are al-Bayan, al-Iftikhariya and Al-Tatanjiya sermons imputed to Mola Ali A.s which are found in Mashariq al-Anwar of Shaykh Rajab Borsi, are authentic? What are their health of authentication in regards of Ayatollah Sistani and the rest of mujtahideen? what is the take of Shariyah on them?

Answer 569: There are many sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as) mentioned in traditional and historical sources. But, they haven’t been mentioned in Nahj al-Balaghah.

Al-Bayan Sermon: Khutbatul Bayan or Iftikhar Sermon is one of them attributed to the Imam (as).

In this sermon, Imam Ali (as) introduces himself, foretells about the future and states the end of time and signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf). A major part of the sermon relates to messianic issues as well as the apocalyptic period and signs of reappearance. This sermon discusses the signs of reappearance and also deals with the subject of Sayyid Hasani and his uprising and conduct with Imam Mahdi (atf) as well as his surrender to the Imam.  When it comes to the chain of transmission of this narration and its validity, there are discrepant views and comments among Shia scholars some affirming it, others opposing.

According to the references mentioned in this sermon, Abdullh bin Masood said: When Imam Ali (as) being appointed to caliphate, He came back to Basrah after three days, ascended to pulpit in the Jame’ Mosque of the city and delivered a sermon saying about the difficulties and calamities happened the death of the holy Prophet (pbuh). While Imam Ali (as) delivering speech a man named Suwaid bin Nufil Hilahi, one of the great man of Khawarij interrupted the his speech, and asked: from where did the Imam know these things? Imam Ali (as) looked at the man angrily and talked about his attributes and knowledge. The followings are a few phrases the Imam introduced himself: Ana’ Sirr al-Asrar, Ana’ Shajarat al-Anwar; Ana’ Dalil al-Samawat; Ana’ Anis al-Musabbahat.[1]

This long sermon has only mentioned in recent sources. Ilzam al-Nasib, written by Ali Yazdi haeri (d. 1333 A.h) is one of the most accessible sources. In this book, there are three different versions of this sermon, Khutbat al-Bayan that each of them has vast difference with the other. The first two versions have no references, but the book al-Durr al-Munazzam fee al-Sirr al-Aazam, written by Muhammad bin Talhah Shafe’ei, the Sunni scholars but loving Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) is the only sources mentioned for the third version of this sermon.[2]

Those who mentioned in this book as the chain of narrations for this sermon are unknown except Tawq bin Malik, because he is not a narrator and had never narrated a hadith from him. He is one of the Harun al-Rashid’s commander that passed away in the year 216 A.H.[3]

The followings are some points we should take into consideration about Abdullah bin Masood, the main narrator that is the most important reason than the chain of narration.

  1. He has passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). So, he couldn’t narrate this sermon, because Imam Ali (as) was delivered it after being appointed to caliphate in Basra or Kufa.
  2. This chain of narration is Marfoo. This means that there are some unknown persons between ibn Masood and the listener of Khutbah, so we ought not to accept this hadith as Sahih.
  3. According to Sunni scholars, Abdullah bin Masood has never narrated a Hadith from Imam Ali (as).[4]
  4. According to Shia, ibn Masood wasn’t careful about narrating hadith. Meaning that he cannot be trusted.[5]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned reasons, we ought not to trust about the chain of narration of this sermon.

In his book Bisharat al-Islam, Sayyid Mustafa  Ale Haydar said: we haven’t found the correct chain of narration for this sermon. None of the great narrators like Kulayni, sadouq and Sheikh Tusi have never narrated it. We can conclude that since Allamah Majlisi never narrated this sermon that this sermon is not reliable.[6]

Late Mirza-ye Qummi, the author Qawanin al-Usul after denying the attribution of this sermon to Imam Ali (as), talked about Khutbat al-Bayan and its problems in detail at the end of book Jame’ al-Shatat.[7]

Allamah Jafar Murtadha Ameli specialized an important part of his book, al-dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur wa al-Jazirat al-Khazra, to reecting this sermon, some of which are as follows:

  1. In this sermon, some persons like Amr bin Saleh, Salman, Miqdad and ibn Yaqtin have been mentioned as those who were presented there, while salman and Miqdad have already passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). Also, Amr bin Saleh and ibn Yaqtin weren’t contemporary to the Imam.

Suwayd bin Nufil Hilali who mentioned in this sermon as the great man of Khawarij is not exist.

  1. As we read in the first version of this sermon, Gabriel (as) has descended on the Rock of Jerusalem, while this place is the Jewish Kiblah and Bani Umayyah forged some traditions in praise of it.
  2. According to Islamic traditions, Imam Hussain (as) will give Ghusl to, shroud and bury the Imam of the Time (ajtf), but this sermon says: Prophet Jesus (as) will do it.
  3. There are some ambiguous phrases mentioned in this sermon, some of which are as follows: Ana Mus’haf al-Injil, Ana Sher al-Zabraqan, Ana Unuq al-Sibtayn, Ana Atarud al-Ta’til, Ana Nasikh al-Mary, Ana Ghufran al-Shartayn and etc.
  4. There are many highly colored statements in this sermon, some of them are: Ana Alaniyat al-Mabood, Ana al-Dhahir ma’a al-Anbiya, Ana Sabab al-Asbab, Ana al-Awwalu wal Akhar, Ana al-Dhahir, Ana al-Batin, Ana Waze al-Shariat and etc.
  5. There are some solecisms, incorrect words (grammatical mistakes) and Farsi words like Keywan have mentioned in this sermon.
  6. As we Shia denied determining the time of Reappearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf), but there have mentioned some strange signs of re-emergence and determined that the Imam will appear in the year 1184 A.H.
  7. Many repetitive phrases are exist in this sermon.
  8. As the following phrase has mentioned in this sermon we come to the conclusion that one who forged this sermon is Nasebi and an enemy of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth). [8]

“ضيّعتُ الارض و حُكم الفرض”

Mirza-ye Qummi said: I haven’t seen in any authentic book that this sermon is attributed to Imam, but it has mentioned in some Sufism resources.[9]

Al-Iftikhariya Sermon: In his Mashariq al-Anwar, Hafez Rajab Borsi has narrated from Asbagh bin Nabatah a relatively long sermon named Al-Iftikhar Sermon which the narrator has attributed to Imam Ali (A.S). In that sermon, Imam Ali (A.S) introduces himself with these words: “I am the brother of the Messenger of God and the Heir to His knowledge, the treasury of His wisdom, and the Companion of His secret. There is not a letter revealed by God in any of His Books whose intention does not point towards me. He hath vouchsafed unto me the knowledge of what was from eternity and what will happen unto the Day of Resurrection. To me hath been vouchsafed the knowledge of past and future generations and their genealogies.”[10] Then he refers to future events and the signs of reappearance.[11] If you go through the sermon and take careful a look at the words, you will come to know that a lot of the words and meanings in this sermon are also found in other narrations which have been substantiated and approved in their own respective places.

Al-Tatanjiya Sermon: Late Hafez Rajab Borsi has reported this sermon in his Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin”.[12] Considering that Imam Ali (A.S) says in a part of this sermon: «اَنَا الْواقِفُ عَلَى التُّطُنْجَیْنِ» [13](I am abiding over the two gulfs (tatanjayn)), this sermon is called Al-Tatanjiya which means two gulfs of water or this world and the hereafter. The first part of the sermon dealing with creation of the world is very similar to the first part of Nahjul Balaghah. Most of the wordings and sentence structures are completely overshadowed by Quranic verses and are relying on traditional beliefs. The sermon deals mainly with Imam Ali’s expanse of knowledge, especially his super knowledge of the universe, the preceding and future events. It is for the same reason that the sermon is replete with statements about the cosmos as well as reports about the apocalyptic period or the end of time.  This sermon explains the course of glorification of Allah, the Exalted, throughout the history of prophets as well as the existential guardianship (wilayat takvini) and knowledge of the Infallible Imams (A.S). In other words, it introduces the perfect man. The discourse is about the first creation and created which have been referred to in the tradition as such: «اَوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللّه‏ُ الْعَقْلُ» (The first thing that God created was the intelligence).[14]

This position of intelligence has different expressions in its various dimensions. This position of intelligence is the “Muhammadan Reality (haqiqat muhammadia)”.

The Al-Tatanjiya Sermon has not been narrated in Nahjul Balaghah but Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad Musavi (d. 703 A.H.) has recorded it in his al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq Min Ezhar al-Hadaiq.[15] Some recent scholars like Ali Yazdi Haeri (d. 1323 A.H.) have also narrated it.[16]

At the end of this sermon, there is a description of the four realms (aqalim) and Sheikh Agha Buzurg Tehrani has considered it probable that this sermon might be united with the Al-Aqalim Sermon which Ibn Shahrashub has talked about in his Al-Manaqib.[17] This sermon has been published either independently or as supplements in other publications. Different manuscripts of this sermon are said to be in the libraries of the University of Tehran, the Iranian parliament, Waziri Yazd and Masjid A’azam of Qom.[18] Many commentaries have been written expounding the said sermon[19] the most famous of which is Irshad Al-Mustarshideen by Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d.1259 A.H) of which seventeen manuscripts are available in Iran’s libraries.[20]

This sermon is defective in terms of its chain of transmission. Thus, the chain of transmission cannot be considered as reliable but the contents and significations of the sermon are acceptable even though they may not be those of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali, peace be upon him.  Keeping in view the fact that there are also other narrations having higher and more perfect contents than those of this narration reaffirming it, some scholars are of the view that the contents of the Al-Tatanjiya Sermon are correct. They maintain that by turning to the reports regarding the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (A.S), the doubt concerning this sermon will be removed. In fact, they state that the reports, like verses, explicit or implicit, general and particular, restricted and unrestricted, ambiguous and unambiguous. Some of them should be interpreted in the same way as the Quranic verses. Hence, it is necessary for every just and fair individual not to reject a tradition which he finds apparently dichotomous with the principles and rules. He should rather reflect and contemplate on it and should also compare it with other reports which have been passed on from the Infallibles (A.S) and which interpret the report. That is because their reports, like the holy verses of the Quran, expound and interpret one another.[21] For instance, in Kulayni’s Al-Kafi, there are traditions about perfect man which are in no way in contradiction with Islamic doctrines. For example, Imam Ali (A.S) has been reported as having said:

«أَنَا عَيْنُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا يَدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا جَنْبُ اللَّهِ- وَ أَنَا بَابُ اللَّهِ»[22]

“I am God’s eye, and I am God’s hand…”  Hence, it can be said that the traditions in this regard confirm the content of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon to some extent.

[1] .Haeri Yazdi, Ali, Ilzam al-Nasib fee Ithbat  al-Hujjat al-Ghaeb, Vol. 2, Pgs. 148-191, first edition, Beirut, 1422 A.H.

[2] . Ibid, Pg. 232.

[3] . Al-Tabari, Abu Jafar, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 8, Pg. 323, Dar al-Turath, Beirut, second edition,; Al-Yaqoubi, Ahmad bin Abi Yaqoub, Tarikh al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 2, Pg. 424, Dar al-Sader, Beirut, Bita.

[4] . Al-Mazy, Yousef bin al-Zaki, Tahzib al-Kamal fee Asma al-Rijal, Vol. 16, Pg. 121, N. 3564, al-Risalah Institution, Beirut, 1400 A.H.

[5] . Kashi, Abu Amr, Muhammad bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Rijal al-Kashi, Pg. 38, Mashad University Publication Instirution, Mashhad, 1490 A.H.

[6] . Ale Haydar, Sayyid Mustafa, Bisharat al-Islam, Pg. 75, H. 214, al-Bithat Institution, Tehran, 1410 A.H.

[7] .Qummi, Abul Qasim, Jame’ al-Shatat, Pg. 792, Kayhan Institution, first edition, Tehran, 1413 A.H.

[8] . Ameli, Jafar murtadha, Dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur, Pg. 75, Muntadi Jabal al-Amel al-Islami, Qom, 1412 A.H.

[9] . Jame al-Shatat, Pg. 792.

[10] Hafez, Borsi, Rajab bin Muhammad, Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin fi Asrar Amir al-Momeneen (A.S), researched and edited by Ashur,Ali, p. 260, A’lami, 260, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[11] Vide: Ibid, p. 260 – 262.

[12] Ibid, p. 263.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Sheikh Hurr Amili, Muhammad bin Hasan, al-Jawahir al-Saniyah fi al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyah (generalities of Qudsi hadiths), p. 647, Dehqan Publications’, Tehran, third edition, 1380 (2001); Ibn Abil Hadid, Abdul Hamid bin Hebahullah, Sharh Nahjul Balaghah, researched and corrected by Ibrahim, Muhammad Abulfazl, vol.18, p. 185, Late Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi’s Library, Qom, first edition, 1404 A.H.

[15] Musavi, Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad, al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq min Ezhar al-Hadaiq, vol.1, p. 452, Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance, Tehran, 1375 A.H.

[16] Yazdi Haeri, Ali, Elzam al-Nasib fi Ethbat al-Hujjah al-Ghaib (atf), researched and corrected by Ashur, Ali, vol.2, p. 199, al-A’lami Institute, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[17] Agha Buzurg Tehrani, al-Zari’ah Ela Tasanif al-Shi’ah, vol.7, p. 199, and 201, Ismailiyan, Qom, 1408 A.H; Ibn Shahrashub Mazandarani, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib (A.S), vol.2, p. 274, Allamah Publications, Qom, first edition, 1379 A.H.

[18] Vide: Fehres (Catalogue) of the Library of the University of Tehran, vol.13, p. 3380, and vol.6, p. 365; Fehres of Majlis Library, vol. 38, p. 497; Fehres  of Waziri Yazd Library, vol.1, p. 21, Fehres of Masjid A’azam Library, Qom, 606.

[19] Muhammad Karim Khan bin Ibrahim Kermani (d. 1288 A.H.), A Commentary of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon (a manuscript of which is kept in Sepahsalar Library. There is also an unknown commentary on Al-Tatanjiya Library in the Catalogue of the University of Tehran (vol.2, p. 703, No. 1067). Vide: Ali Sadrai, Khoei, with cooperation of Abul Fazl Sulaymani, Mahdi, Ashtiani, Ihsan, Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 377 – 378, Dar al-Hadith Printing and Publication Institution, Qom, first edition, 1384 (2005).

[20] Vide: Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 375 – 377.

[21] Vide: Allamah Hasanzadeh Amuli, Hasan, The Best Work in Rejection of Compulsion and Predestination and Two other Treatises, p. 98, Islamic Propagations Office, Qom, fourth edition,1379 (2000).

[22] Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Al-Kafi, researched and corrected by Ghaffari, Ali Akbar, Akhundi, Muhammad, vol.1, p. 145, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H.

post

Barzakh / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth) in His Grave

Question 564: Salam. Tell me about great explanation Alam e burzkh? And Ali a. S arrival in our grave? Bcz MOLA a. S said from kumail Ibne zayadh. I will come in grave of every, momin, munafik and kafir? Please explain?

Answer 564: Rational arguments, the Quranic verses and prophetic traditions clearly indicate that man is not perished with death.  In fact, man’s spirit which is an independent entity constitutes his identity. The Quran ascribes accidents and flaws to the body only not to the spirit. The interesting thing is that in the Holy Qur’an “dying” is mentioned fourteen times with the word tawaffa which means “entrusting”. That is to say after death one will not be perished but that Allah will take His thing back without increase or decrease and Who will entrust it to His appointed workers.[1] There are also other proofs in this regard in the Quran and traditions of which one is the Holy Prophet’s address to the people of the graves.[2] Read More

post

Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba

Question 069: Is it true that Imam Ali (as) was born inside the holy kaaba? What hadith proves this in Sunni reference book regarding the Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)?

Answer 069: No one such as Shia and Sunni can dispute that Imam Ali (AS) was the only man in history born inside the Holy Kaaba.
One of the close companions of the Prophet (SAW), Yazid ibn Qana’b, narrates the incident of the amazing birth of Imam Ali (AS) in the following words, “Abbas ibn Abdul Mutallib and I were sitting among a group of members from the Bani Abdul Azi tribe, facing the Kaaba. We could observe Fatima bint Asad who was still carrying Imam Ali (AS) in her womb, walking towards the Kaaba. It was evident that she was undergoing labor pains and we could hear her conversing in these words with her Lord: “O my Nurturer, I have full faith in You and Your Prophet (SAW) as well as the books that You have sent. I testify the words of my forefather Abraham (AS), the one who had built the Ka’ba. For the sake of the one who built this House and for the sake of the child that I am bearing, make this delivery easy for me.” At that moment, I witnessed that the rear wall of the Ka’ba suddenly cracked open and Fatima entered into it and disappeared. Abbas ibn Mutallib and I approached the crack at once, thinking that we too would be able to pass through it, but found the wall closed. We immediately understood that this was a divine act. Fatima bint Asad walked out of the Ka’ba on the forth day with her baby, Imam Ali (AS), in her arms.”

This incident has been confirmed by numerous reliable sources, making this event the first and the last of its kind. Fatima bint Asad, in evaluating herself, in comparison with the other great female personalities of Islamic history, has thus described her unique position by the ‘Will of Allah’. She says, “Allah raised my status over that of all the other ladies before me. Asiyah (wife of Pharaoh) was forced to worship her Lord from a rather undesirable place, that is acceptable only on condition that one is left with no other choice. Maryam, the daughter of Imran (SA) had to shake the date-palm in order to feed herself – but I entered into the House of Allah and was fed on heavenly fruits. As I wanted to come out from the Kaaba I heard the Command saying, “O Fatima, name this child Imam Ali, because he is exalted and his Lord is the Most exalted. I have named him after Me and have conferred on him the secrets of My Knowledge. He is the one who will clear My House from the filth of idols. He will call one and all to prayer, from atop of My House and will worship only Me. Blessed are the ones who will love him and will follow him; cursed are the ones who oppose him or are his enemies.””

Although Maryam (SA) lived in Masjid al-Aqsa (the first Muslim Qiblah), Allah (SWT) did not will that she delivered her son, Isa (AS) within of the Sacred House, however, Allah wished that Imam Ali (AS) be given birth within His House.
Most Sunni scholars accept the fact that Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) was the only man in history born inside the Holy Kaaba.

In his Mustadrak Hakim said: “No one before Ali was born in the Kaaba.” Also, Saedi has quoted from Sihah al-Sittah (“The Authentic Six”) of Ahlu Sunna: according to a narration, Imam Ali (a.s) was born in the Ka’ba on Friday, 13 Rajab, thirty years after the Amul-Fil (the year of the elephant) and according to other narration, it was after 25 years of the Amul-Fil and 12 years after Bisat (the appointment of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and No one before Ali was born in the Ka’ba).[1]

[1] . Bahrani, Sayyid Hashem, Tafsir al-Burhan, Vol. 1, Pg. 661, H 36. Sheikh Sadough, Amali, translated by Ayatollah Muhammada Baqer Kamaraei, Pg. 133, Islamiyah Publisher, sixth edition, Tehran, 1997. Hakim Neishabouri, Muhammad, Mustadrak alal Sahihain, Vol. 3, Pg. 483, Darul Marefat Publisher, second edition, Beirut, 1406 A.H. Saedi, Muhammad Baqir, Fadhael PanjeTan (the Virtues of the five purified holy personalities that together are the Founding Islamic Family) in Sihah al-Sitta of Ahlul Sunna, Vol. 1, Pg. 304, Firouz A’badi, first edition, Qom 1995. Muruj adh-dhahab, Vol. 2, Pg. 349, Dar Al-Hijrah, Qom, second edition, 1409 A.H, “و كان مولده في الكعبة” (Wa Ka’na Moledohu Fel Kaaba).

post

Shibli Shumayyil Praised the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali (pbuth)

Question 538: Assalam o alikum. Sea of knowledge, I have important question from you, I listen the name of “Shibli Shumayyil”, I only just name that name of philosopher ,who was materialist but he attracted from ali a.s. Did Shibli Shumayyil Praised the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali (pbuth)?

Please tell about the biography or pic any some data about him please?

Answer 538: Shibli Shumayyil was a controversial Greek Catholic doctor, scientist, journalist, philosopher, poet, social reformer and polymath educated at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. He was born in Kafr Shima (Syria).

Shymayyil studied and taught medicine at the College, then traveled to Paris and Istanbul to complete his studies. He practiced medicine in Egypt for about ten years, and founded Al-Shifa Magazine in Cairo in the year 1886 in order to publicize medical advances.

In addition, he lived in the Europe for a short period of time then traveled to Egypt and settled in Alexandria, Tantar and finally in Cairo.

Shumayyil also wrote the program of the socialist party in Egypt. He was the foremost popularizer of Darwinism in the Arab World, considering science the hey to the secret of the universe. Apart from his works on Darwin’s theory of the Evolution, he published many articles on science, history, literature, criticism and politics; a work of Hippocrates; a treatise on the plague; a book on the urgent need for science and liberty in the Ottooman Empire (1895); a novel al-Hubb ‘ala al-fatra; ‘Human Society or Civilization’ that was published in 1885 in Al-Muqtataf, ‘The history of natural society’ (Tarikh al-ijtima al-tabi’i), ‘Physiology of groups’ (fisiologiyat al-ijtima’at). Shumyyil also translated Racin’e Iphigence, and wrote a play on Work War 1. [1]  It is said that Shumayyil had consciously adapted Ibn Khaldun to the intellectual framework of his time and had bent his concepts of society and political authority in significant ways.[2]

It is most noteworthy that although Shumayyil was a Christian and the Arab atheist, but he composed some poetry in praise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Imam Ali (as).

Shumayyil said about Imam Ali (as): “The leader, Ali bin Abi Taleb, the greatest of the great, is the only exemplar that neither the East nor the West, has never seen the likes of, neither in the past nor the present.[3]

One of the good poetry he composed in praise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Quran which is available in Arabic language is as follows:[4]

أنی و إن أک قد کفرت بدینه *** هل أکفرن بمحکم الآیات

أو ما حوت فی ناصع الألفاظ من *** حکم روادع للهوی وعظات

و شرائع لو أنهم عقلو بها *** ماقید العمران بالعادات

نعم المدبر و الحکیم و إنه *** رب الفصاحه مصطفی الکلمات

رجل الحجی رجل السیاسه والدها *** بطل حلیف النصر و الغارات

ببلاغه القرآن قد غلب النهی *** و بسیفه انهی علی الهامات

من دونه الأبطال من کل الوری *** من غائب أو حاضر أو آت

[1] . Haroun, G, Sibli Sumayyil, Une Pensee Evolutionniste arabe a l’epopue a’an-Nahda, Beirut (1985) which is available in French language;  Hourani, A., Arabic Thought in the liberal age, 1798-1939, London (1962), 248-53;  Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Volume 2, Pg. 716.

[2] . Muhammad Ridha Hakimi, Adabiyyat wa Ta’ahhud dar Islam, Pgs. 250-252.

[3] . George Gordaq, Sawtul-Adalah al-Insaniyyah, pg. 19 (quoted by the translation and commentary of the Nahjul-Balaghah, Jafari, Muhammad Taqi, vol. 1, pg. 171).

[4] . Muhammad Ridha Hakimi, Adabiyyat wa Ta’ahhud dar Islam, Pgs. 250-252.