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Add anything in Adhan as blessing

Question 285: obviously who thinks about it before reciting that,”I’m about to recite this but not as a part but as a blessing”.Its either you do it or don’t. Its absolute. But what about those sources which say Bilal actually included Ali un waliullah in the adhan during the adhan in Ghadeer Khumn?

And also as per the blessing logic, why can’t I simply add anything in adhan as a blessing? I can say Gabriel is the supreme angel ,Ibrahim was a great imam and prophet etc.I mean,all of these would also bless me.I still don’t get the logic.

Answer 285: There are some particular traditions in which we are allowed to recite the third testimony in Adhan as a blessing and with the intention of Qurbat, however there has not been mentioned any reliable hadith saying that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has ever recited it to His Adhan or even allowed others to do so.

Although, in book “al-Salafa fee Amrel Khilafa” mentioned that when Salman Farsi added the third testimony in Adhan one complained to the Holy Prophet (PBUH), He Said: “You heard a kind word”. In this book it is also mentioned, after Ghadir Khum when the Holy Prophet heard that Abadar Ghifari added it to the Adhan, He said: “What was the meaning of the Sermon on that hot weather I addressed You? Didn’t it mean that Ali Amirul Momenin is Waliullah?”[1]

But, first of all this book is not accessible to search about the reliability of the ahadith mentioned there and second these traditions haven’t found before seventh century, so we ought not to discuss about their Sanad whether they are reliable or not.

There are some traditions in which reciting the third testimony is permissible in Adhan as follows: Imam Sadiq (as) has said: When Allah has created the heavens and the earth said, O harbinger Witness to the three testimony.[2]

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.
In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also.

Note: Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, reciting other things no hadith prove it is treated as Bid’ah.

Adding the third testimony in Tashahud:  As the prayer is Tawqifi act we must not add anything other than what shariat allowed us to do.

Since, the third testimony is not a part of prayer we are not allowed to add it in tashahud.[3]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate the prayer, answer 547.

Index:  Saying Āmīn during prayer in validate the prayer, answer 017.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/615016361983008/?__mref=message_bubble

[1] . Maraghi Mesri, Sheikh Abdullah, al-Salafa fee Amrel Khilafa, Pgs. 32 & 33.

[2] . Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, Al-Kafi, researcher and editior, Ghifari, Ali Akbar, Muhammad, Vol. 1, Pg. 441, Darel Kotob al-Islamiya, fourth edition, 1407 A.H; Sheikh Sadouq, al-Amali, Pg. 604, A’lami, Beirut, fifth edition, 1400 A.H.

[3] . Imam Khomeini, Istiftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 167.

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Marriage of Imam Ali and Fatimah Zahra (pbuth) in Quran

Question 275: salam and jum’ah mubarak to all i have a question about imam ali and fatima zahra a.s. imam is a cousin of prophet muhammad s.a.w and he was also the uncle of fatima, right? so my question how prophet s.a.w agree to marry her daughter to imam ali? and what is a sign that allah agree to marry his daughter? and what hadith in sunni narrated about the aproval of allah s.w.t to marry imam ali and fatima?

Answer 275: Imam Ali (sa) was the cousin of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). His father was Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib and His mother was Fatima bint Asad.

The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) father was Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib and His mother was Āmina.

Fatima Zahra (sa) was the daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Her mother was Khadīja bint Khuwaylid (sa).

There has not directly mentioned in any verse of the Holy Quran an issue related to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa), however there are verses of the holy Quran that somehow related to this issue, as follows:

  1. Sura al-Kawthar: “Surely We have given you Kawthar. Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice.  Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity.”

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had two sons were born of the Lady Khadijah namely; Ghasem and Taher (also called ‘Abdullah) who died in Mecca and so, there was no live male issue from the holy Prophet (pbuh), so, the Arabs used to call the one who had no son (abtar). Hence after, the holy Quran applied this name to the enemies of the Prophet.

Note: The Messenger of Allah (S) had another son by the name of Ibraheem, was born of Mariyah Qibtiyyah in 8 AH. He also died before he was 2 years old.

Therefore, as the abundance of goodness and blessing the Kawthar has granted to the Holy Prophet by Allah, the Almighty. This verse refers to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa).

According to Sheikh Mufid, Imam Ali (as) has asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh) regarding the meaning of Kawthar? The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said to him (as): “It is a stream that Allah (swt) granted to me, … the Holy Prophet then said to him: This stream is for me and you….”[1] Kawthar is Fatimah Zahra (sa).[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

قال له علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلام): «ما هو الكوثر يا رسول الله؟». قال: «نهر أكرمني الله به»… ثم ضرب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) يده على جنب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) و قال: «يا علي، إن هذا النهر لي، و لك، …».

  1. Surah al-Rahman verses 19-22: “He has made the two seas to flow freely (so that) they meet together Between them is a barrier which they cannot pass. There come forth from them pearls, both large and small.”

Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the word “Marajal­baḥ­ray­ni  yal­taqiyān” refers to Imam Ali (as) and Fatimah Zahra (sa) and “Yakh­ruju  min­humallu­lu­u  wal­mar­jān” refer to Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth).[3]

The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

علي بن إبراهيم، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن يحيى بن سعيد القطان، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول في قول الله عز و جل: مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيانِ بَيْنَهُما بَرْزَخٌ لا يَبْغِيانِ قال: «علي و فاطمة (عليهما السلام)، [بحران عميقان لا يبغي أحدهما على صاحبه‏] يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَ الْمَرْجانُ، الحسن و الحسين (عليهما السلام)».

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

Index: Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa), answer 492.

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

[1] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 772, H 11936.

[2] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 6, Pg. 599; Anwar Derakhshan, Vol. 18, Pg. 310.

[3] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 233.

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Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin

Question 621: Sallam O Alaikum. This Hadith is circulating in the social media and I really wanna know the authenticity of the Hadith will you confirm if it’s fake or a real Hadith. A man entered on Imam Sadeq and said: Salam Alikum ya Ameeral Mu’meneen. The Imam have stood up and said angerly: Behold! This is a title only suitable for Imam Ali! Allah have named him with it, and anyone who claim the title for himself, he is a penetrated homo [and if he isn’t, he will be]. Only Imam Ali (as) is Amir al-Mu’minin?

Tafsyr Al Ayashi v1 p276. Wasael al Shia v14 p600.

I would appreciate it. Thank you very much

Answer 621: As for the Hadith narrated from an unknown man without mentioning other chain of narrations it is considered as mursal and a weak hadith.

Note: Mursal is a hadith whose chain of transmitters lacks one or more narrators, and asserts that: The hadith is mursal and therefore unacceptable.

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَامَ عَلَى قَدَمَيْهِ فَقَالَ مَهْ هَذَا اسْمٌ لَا يَصْلُحُ إِلَّا لِأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع- سَمَّاهُ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَ لَمْ يُسَمَّ بِهِ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُ فَرَضِيَ بِهِ إِلَّا كَانَ‏ مَنْكُوحاً وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ (ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ) وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ فِي كِتَابِهِ‏ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِناثاً وَ إِنْ يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطاناً مَرِيداً- قَالَ قُلْتُ: فَمَا ذَا يُدْعَى بِهِ قَائِمُكُمْ قَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بَقِيَّةَ اللَّهِ- السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ.

The followings are some ahadith narrated from Infallibles (pbuth) in which relied on using this title only for Imam Ali (as).

  1. A man asked Imam Sadiq (as) if we are allowed to call Imam of the time (as) by Amir al-Momenin (Commander of the Faithful)? He said: No. Because, this name is specialized by Allah to Imam Ali (as). No one before him has been called by this name nor after him will be called, unless they are Kafir. The man asked how to say Salaam to Him? The Imam replied: say: Assalamu Alaika Ya Baqiyatallah.[1]
  2. The holy Prophet (pbuh) said: O people, Say whatever I’ve been telling you and say Salaam to Ali by Amir al-Momenin and say: O Allah, we understood and obeyed and seek your forgiveness, we will return to you. Say: All praises are for Allah who guide us to this order of Wilaya and if there wasn’t your guidance we have never guided, O people, the values that Ali bin Abi Talib has toward Allah that have been sent down in the holy Quran are more than what we can count and say.[2]
  3. Salman Farsi (ra) said: O people, follow Ale Muhammad who guide you to the Heaven and obey Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib, I swear to Allah that we said salaam to Ali (a) by Wali and Amir al-Momenin in front of the holy Prophet (pbuh) and He (the Prophet) bided us and relied on doing so.[3]
  4. Sulaim bin Qays said: I sat beside Salaman, Abuzar and Miqdad that a man of Ahl e Kuffa said to them: Be upon you to follow the holy Quran and Ali bin Abi Talib. Because, He is with the Quran and never be separated from it. We give testimony that

According to the holy Prophet’s (pbuh) order, we are all being ordered to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin.[4]

According to the previous mentioned traditions especially the first one, Amir al-Momnin is one of the specialized titles of Imam Ali (as) that chosen by Allah (swt) and the holy Prophet (s). Their saying was to call Ali bin Abi Talib by Amir al-Momenin. This title has never used for other Imams (as) in Shia sect. Because, it is only specialized to Imam Ali (as) [5]. [6]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

[1] . Kuleini, Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, Tehran,

[2] . Alam al-Huda, Khurasani, Nahj al-Khitabah, Sukhanan Payambar (s) wa Amir al-Momnin, Vol. 1, Pg. 154, Sadr Library, Tehran, second edition,

[3] . Allamah Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 29, Pg. 81, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, Lebanon, 1404 A.H.

[4] . Al-Ihtijaj ala Ahl al-Lujaj, Vol. 1, Pg. 157.

[5] . Atarodi, Azizullah, Zendegani Chahardah Masoom (as), Pg. 229, Islamiyyah, Tehran, first edtion, 1390 A.H.

[6] . Adopted from answer 11125 IQ.

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Returning Fadak to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth)

Question 244: Why didn’t Imam Ali (as) give Fadak to Imam Hassan (as) and Hussain (as)?

Answer 244: “Fadak” was a thriving and flourishing village located near Khaybar, 140 kilometers from Medinah. In the seventh of hijrah, the fortresses of Khaybar were conquered one after another and the central power of the Jews was overthrown. The residents of Fadak surrendered and promised to give the prophet (pbuh) half of their lands and orchards on condition of no fighting and keep the rest for themselves. In addition, they accepted to do the farming of his lands for a wage.

Lands that fall into the hands of the Muslim army without any fighting and violence become the personal property of the prophet (pbuh), and he can make any decisions about them, that is why when the verse: “وَ آتِ ذَا الْقُرْبى حَقَّهُ وَ الْمِسْكينَ وَ ابْنَ السَّبيلِ وَ لا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذيرا”[1] was revealed unto him, he summoned his daughter and granted her Fadak.[2]

But unfortunately, after the prophet (pbuh) passed away and during the reign of Abu Bakr, Lady Fatimah (as) was deprived of the gift of Fadak.[3]

In his famous book of Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn Hajjaj Neyshabouri narrates the story of Lady Fatimah claiming Fadak in detail and has reported Ayishah saying that after the khalifah refused to return it to her, she sulked and didn’t speak another word with him until her demise.[4]

It has also been stated in the Nahjul-Balaghah that: “Of course, all that we had in our possession under the sky was Fadak, but a group of people felt greedy for it and the other party [its rightful owners; Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah (as)] withheld themselves from it. Allah is, after all, the best arbiter.”[5]

In order to get the answer to your question, one fact that should be paid attention to is that the imam’s first and foremost priority always, was to preserve Islam itself, despite all of his objections to those in power before him, and that is why he would cooperate with them and help them in internal affairs and governing the Muslim nation, as he himself beautifully put it: “We [the progeny of the prophet (pbuh)] have a right [which was to be the true successors to the prophet (pbuh)] in which if we are allowed to exercise, then all the better, and if not, we prefer to be the second person sitting in the back of the camel [behind the person guiding it, instead of completely getting off]”.[6]

Therefore, in reality, the imam considered political power a tool and means of fulfilling godly objectives, not a goal, and that is why he would prefer to keep quiet about many different issues, both during his reign and the reign of those before him, leaving judgment for future generations to come. As for why he didn’t act according to his own viewpoint during his own rule, although he had the authority to do so, a small example will clarify things. During his own rule, when he attempted to bring an end to the “tarawih” prayer [that had been innovated by one of previous khalifahs and wasn’t a tradition of the prophet (pbuh)], he was confronted with objections and forced to leave the people to themselves.[7] Also, you surely know of his discontent regarding the arbitration of Abu Musa Ash’ari and that he was forced to give in to it. Essentially, the imam’s coming to power was preceded by twenty five years of continuous justification of all the actions and things the previous khalifahs had done, making it almost impossible to oppose their methods and bring change to some of them; one of those being returning the Fadak to its rightful owners, because some would think that the imam was making use of his power for his own benefit. Add to that the fact that Fadak was important to the household of the prophet (pbuh) and Lady Fatimah (as) because it was a gift and remembrance from him and more importantly, a financial asset and backing for them, especially Ali (as), and that is why the government of the time confiscated it; because it was their financial support; doing so would ensure that Ali (as) wouldn’t be able to do anything against them. Keeping in mind all of these and other circumstances, such as the battles and sabotage the nation was experiencing, preventing the imam (as) from making even important and primary changes that the nation was in need of, how was Ali (as) to take back Fadak? It would surely harm the Muslim nation and shadow over more important national issues, and that is why he chose not to.

Hadiths from the imams somewhat point to these issues:

1- Time had passed since the incident [of Fadak’s usurpation] and there was no need for Ali (as) to speak of it after so many years:

Abu Basir says: “I asked Imam Sadiq (as) why Imam Ali (as) didn’t repossess Fadak after he came to power. The imam (as) answered: “Because both the oppressed [Lady Fatimah (as)] and oppressor [those who deprived her of Fadak] had both died and Allah (swt) had punished the oppressor and rewarded the oppressed by then, and Ali ibn Abitaleb didn’t like the idea of returning a property in which its usurper had been punished and the one usurped from had been rewarded already.”[8]

2- Sacrificing personal benefits for higher and universal goals. Ibn Ibrahim Karakhi says: “I asked Imam Sadiq (as) about why Imam Ali (as) didn’t return Fadak after becoming khalifah. He answered: “When the prophet (pbuh) conquered Mekkah, he was asked if he would return to his homeland. He said: Aqil has sold my house. The people asked: Why don’t you take it back? He answered: We belong to a household that doesn’t take back what has been wrongfully taken from them; Imam Ali (as) did the same in order to have followed the prophet (pbuh) [in not taking back what rightfully belonged to him].[9]

A person asked Imam Kadhim (as) the same question; the imam answered: “Our household [the progeny of the prophet (pbuh)] whose guardian is Allah (swt); He is the one who makes sure what belongs to us comes back to us, and we are the guardians of the people and make sure what belongs to them returns to them, but we don’t take back what belongs to us.”[10]

Having said that, it’s good to see what the fate of Fadak was and what happened to it after the martyrdom of Imam Ali (as).
What historic records says is that after Mu’awiyyah took power, he divided it amongst Marwan, Amr ibn Uthman and his son Yazid. During Marwan’s rule, he took control of all of Fadak and he granted it to his son Abdul-Aziz, who later granted it to his son, Umar. Umar ibn Abdil-Aziz gave Fadak back to the descendants of Lady Fatimah (as). After his death, it once again fell into the hands of the Umayyid dynasty and remained there.

After rule of the Muslim empire shifted to the Abbasid dynasty, it was once again given back to Abdullah ibn Hasan [from the progeny of Imam Hasan (as)]. Mansour Davaneqi took it back from them when he took over, but his son returned it to them after his death.

After Mahdi, the son of Mansour, Musa and Haroun took it back again, but after them Ma’moun officially returned it to the progeny of Fatimah (as). It continued to be returned and taken after Ma’moun.

During that era, Fadak was considered a political issue, and wasn’t looked at as a financial asset, because the khalifahs of both dynasties were in no way in any need of the profits it yielded; that is why when Umar ibn Abdil-Aziz returned it, the Umayyids scolded him, saying: “By doing so, you have rejected Abu Bakr and Umar [who had refused to return it during their time]!”[11]

Eventually, during the Abbasid ruler, Mutawakkil, it was seized, its trees cut down by the order of a person by the name of “Abdullah ibn Umar Mazyar”. This shameful act remains a sign of disgrace for the wrongdoers of that time. It must be noted that even the eleven date palms that the prophet (pbuh) had planted with his own hands were cut down. History says Bashran ibn abi Umayyah Thaqafi, the person who had cut them down, suffered from paralysis after returning to Basrah.[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Imam Ali (as) Gave Bay’ah (Allegiance) to Abu Bakr?, answer 260.

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

[1] . Isra’:26.

[2] . See: Tabarsi, Majma’ul-Bayan, vol. 3, pg. 411.

[3] . Sharhe Nahjul-Balagheh, vol. 16, pg. 274.

[4] . Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, pg. 1380.

[5] . Nahjul-Balaghah, letter 45.

[6] . Nahjul-Balaghah, pg. 472.

[7] . Ibn Abil-Hadid, Sharhu Nahjil-Balaghah, Library of Ayatullah Mar’ashi Najafi, vol. 12, pg. 283.

[8] . “فَقَالَ لَهُ لِأَنَّ الظَّالِمَ وَ الْمَظْلُومَةَ قَدْ كَانَا قَدِمَا عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَثَابَ اللَّهُ الْمَظْلُومَةَ وَ عَاقَبَ الظَّالِمَ، فَكَرِهَ أَنْ يَسْتَرْجِعَ شَيْئاً قَدْ عَاقَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ غَاصِبَهُ وَ أَثَابَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَغْصُوبَةَ” Biharul-Anwar, vol. 29, pg. 395, hadith 1.

[9] . Ibid, hadith 2.

[10] . Ibid, hadith 3.

[11] . Jafar Sobhani, Furughe Abadiyyat, vol. 2, pg. 669.

[12] . Ahmadi Miyanji, Makatibul-Rasul.

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Reasoning for believing Imamat of the Infallible Imams

Question 619: Aselam akeyikum werahmetullah. Is believing in Imamiya part of an Aqida for Shi’ism? Meaning, any Muslim who doesn’t believe in Imamiya knowngly a Kaffir, otherwise a Fasiq?

Thanks a lot!

Answer 619: Imamate plays a crucial role in Islam. From the Holy Quran’s point of view, imamate is the final stage of human evolution, to which only Messengers of God have reached. The Holy Quran says about Prophet Abraham (a): ”Remember when Abraham’s God examined him with different means, and he successfully passed all those tests, so that God told him that he was appointed as the people’s Imam and leader, and Abraham (a) asked God to appoint his descendents as Imams as well, but God replied that imamate could not be handed over to tyrants, and only those of his offspring who were pure and sinless would deserve such a grace.”.[1]

This verse shows that imamate has a very high status and rank, since Prophet Abraham (a) was appointed as an Imam while he was already a Prophet. This happened only after he passed many difficult tests and trials.

The position of Imamate is sometimes combined with Prophethood, so that an eminent Prophet such as Abraham (a) becomes an Imam. Another evident reason is the combination of Prophethood and Imamate in the Prophet of Islam (s).

It also occurs that Imamate is separated from a Prophetic mission, such as what occurred in the case of the Shia Imams (a) who were only Imams, without being subject to direct divine revelation.

Reasoning for the Imamate of the Infallible Imams

Since the Imams are appointed by God, there is a need of rational reasoning to recognize the individuals who are actually imam. For instance, human logic can distinguish between an Imam and other people by witnessing characteristics such as knowledge, justice, courage, sinlessness and so forth in the Imam, and a lack of such characteristics in others. In addition, Quranic verses and authentic traditions also prove the imamate of an individual.

The following are some verses and their interpretations which are about the issue of imamate:

  • [2]«انما انت منذر و لکل قوم هاد», which means, “Your duty is to advise people, and there is a leader for every group.”

Shia interpreters and some Sunni ones, including Imam Fakhr Razi, says, “Here the term advisor refers to the Holy Prophet (s) and the leader to Imam Ali (a), since Ibn Abbas said that the Holy Prophet (s) put his hands on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added «و انت الهادی یا علی…» that means Ali (a) was the leader and shall continue to lead people after the Prophet (s).”[3]

In Al-Durrul-Manthur, one of the famous Sunni commentaries, several interpretations of the above verse are introduced, in which it is written that upon the revelation of this verse, the Holy Prophet (s) put his hand on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added that Ali was the leader.[4]

Other similar traditions from other theologians can be found in various other sources such as from Hakem Neyshabouri in “Mostadrak”, Dhahabi in “Talkhis”, Fakhr Razi and Ibn Kathir in their commentaries and Ibn Sabagh Maleki in “Alfusulul-Muhimmah” and Ganji Shafei in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, and Tabari in his commentary, and Ibn Hayan Andolosi in “Al-Bahrul-Muhit” and Neyshabouri in his commentary and Hamvini in “Faraed Olsamtin” and as well as many others. To become familiar with the sources of such traditions and their evidences, see the book Ihghagh Olhagh, Vol. 3, pp 88-92.

  • «با ایها الذین آمنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین[5] Which reads, “O, believers, avoid antagonism (toward God’s commands) and be with the loyal people.”

Imam Fakhr Razi interpreted the phrase ‘loyal people’ as meaning infallibles. He also added, “By infallible the verse refers to the whole nation in its entirety.”[6] This is while no Arab speaker, at the date of revelation of this verse, was using this phrase to refer to the nation; therefore, such an interpretation does not seem to be valid.

We should accept that in every era, there are loyal people who do not make any mistakes in their deeds and speeches, whom we should follow.

Moreover, many Sunni interpreters have quoted Ibn Abbas as saying that the above-mentioned verse is referring to Imam Ali (a). Allamah Tha’alabi in his book of commentary, Ganji in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, Allamah Sibt Jowzi in “Tadhkirah”, all interpret this verse as referring to Imam Ali (a) and his household. Ibn Abbas added, “Ali (a) is the most loyal man.”[7]

Many other traditions quoted from the members of the prophetic household confirm this same interpretation.[8]

  • «اطیعواالله و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم»,[9] Says: “Obey God and obey the Messenger of God and the Holders of Authority.”

Shia interpreters unanimously believe that by the ‘Holders of Authority’, the verse is referring to the Infallible Imams (a).

In addition, the Hanafi Sheikh Soleiman Qanduzi in his book “Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah” quoted the book “Mujahid” as saying that the verse refers to Ali (a) when the Holy Prophet (s) appointed him as his substitute in Madinah when he himself was involved in the Tabuk war.

It is also quoted from Imam Ali (a) as referring to this verse in a debate with the Mohajerin and Ansar, so that they admitted to the legitimacy of his rule.[10]

In “Shawahidul-Tanzil” of Hakem Haskani, a Sunni scholar, the interpretation of the same verse includes a quotation from Imam Ali (a) as saying that he once asked the Holy Prophet (s) about the meaning of “ruler”, to which the Holy Prophet (s) replied, “You are the first of them.”

Islamic beliefs are like a connected chain, such that if one part is missing, then the whole chain will be useless and have no benefit.  In other words, believing in Allah has its entailments; belief in these entailments is what makes the difference and brings about Allah’s satisfaction.  If you examine the story of Satan being expelled from heaven, you will find that he asked Allah for the chance to live until the Day of Judgment to deviate man.[11]  Therefore, it is understood that Satan believed in Allah and the Day of Judgment but Allah still names him a Kāfir.[12]  So just believing in Allah is not enough for one’s belief to be accepted, but one must also stay firm in regard to the results and implications of this belief.  One of the results of one’s belief in Allah is belief in His messengers meaning the prophets, in such a way that denying them would be like denying Allah.  Also, believing in the Imams, meaning the prophets’ successors, is the inevitable result and reflection of one’s belief in the prophet, because the Imams are the prophet’s successors that were appointed by himself and denying them is like denying the prophet himself.  Therefore, one cannot believe in the prophet and not believe in the imams.  It is the same between each one of the imams, meaning that denying one of them is like denying all of them, for the reason that proves the Imamate of each one of them is the same and applies to all of them; all of them are the successors of the prophet and each Imam has been approved of by the previous one and has introduced the next Imam.  Therefore, denying one of them leads to the denial of the previous one and because all of them were appointed by the prophet, denying them is denial of the prophet.

Finally, we will mention a few ahadith in this regard: Imam Sadiq narrates from his great ancestors, meaning the previous Imams, that they narrated from the prophet that he said: “My successors are twelve individuals, the first is Ali bin Abi Talib and the last is the ‘Ghā’im’, they are my successors, vicegerents, the leaders after me and my Hujjats (reasons) over my Ummah, whoever bears witness to their imamate is a Mu’min (Believer), and whoever denies their Imamate is a kāfir (disbeliever).”[13]

It is narrated in another hadith by Imam Sadiq that: “One who does not follow our words has rejected Allah’s words, and one who rejects Allah’s words is a polytheist”.[14]

Also, it is mentioned in another hadith by Imam Kadhim that: “One who has hate for us resents the prophet of Allah and he actually has hate for Allah, and one who has hate for Allah deserves the hellfire and will not receive help from anyone.”[15]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: Shia Ithna Ashari is Jafari school of thought, answer 111.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran, answer 129.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!

[1] Surah Baqarah, Verse 124

7 Surah Ra’ad, Verse 7

[3] Tafsir Kabir, Fakhr Razi, Volume 19, Page 14

[4] Al-Durrul-Manthur, Jalaladdin Suyuti, Volume. 4 Page 45

[5] Surah Bara’at, Verse 119

[6] Commentary of Fakhre Razi, volume 16, Page 221

[7] Ihqaqul-Haqq Volume. 3 Page 297

[8] Commentary of Noor Al Thaqalain Volume 2 Page 280,

[9] Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah, Page 114 – 115 – 116

[10] Shawahidul-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 148

[11] “قالَ رَبِّ فَاَنظِرنِي ِالَي َيوِم يُبعَثُون …” Hijr:36; Sād:79.

[12] Baqarah:34; Sād:74.

[13] “عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ص قَالَ الْأَئِمَّةُ بَعْدِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَوَّلُهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ آخِرُهُمُ الْقَائِمُ فَهُم خُلَفَائِي و أَوصِيَائِي و أَولِيَائِي وَ حُجَجُ اللَّه عَلَي اُمّتِي بَعدِي الْمُقِرُّ بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنٌ وَ الْمُنْكِرُ لَهُمْ كَافِرٌ”، Sheikh Saduq, Man lā Yahduruhū al-Faqīh, vol. 4, book of wasiyyah (i.e., making a will), the chapter on the will of Adam (as), pg. 180,…hadith 5406, Jame’eye Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH. Of course, the term ‘kufr here is to be taken in its literal sense, which is to hide and conceal the truth, and not in its common usage.

[14] “الرَّادُّ عَلَينَا الرَّادّ عَلَى الله وَ هُوَ عَلَى حَدِّ الشَّركِ بِاللهِ…” Kuleini, vol. 1, chapter of difference in hadith, pg. 68, Dār al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah Publication, Tehran, 1365 (solar calendar).

[15] “ألا يا عبد الرحمن من أبغضنا فقد أبغض محمدا و من أبغض محمدا فقد أبغض الله جل و علا، و من أبغض الله جل و علا كان حقا على الله أن يصليه النار و ماله من نصير” Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 97, pg. 122, Al-Wafā’ Institute, Lebanon, 1404 AH.

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A Study of Al-Bayan, Iftikhariyah and Tatanjiyah Sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as)

Question 569: Agha! Are al-Bayan, al-Iftikhariya and Al-Tatanjiya sermons imputed to Mola Ali A.s which are found in Mashariq al-Anwar of Shaykh Rajab Borsi, are authentic? What are their health of authentication in regards of Ayatollah Sistani and the rest of mujtahideen? what is the take of Shariyah on them?

Answer 569: There are many sermons attributed to Imam Ali (as) mentioned in traditional and historical sources. But, they haven’t been mentioned in Nahj al-Balaghah.

Al-Bayan Sermon: Khutbatul Bayan or Iftikhar Sermon is one of them attributed to the Imam (as).

In this sermon, Imam Ali (as) introduces himself, foretells about the future and states the end of time and signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf). A major part of the sermon relates to messianic issues as well as the apocalyptic period and signs of reappearance. This sermon discusses the signs of reappearance and also deals with the subject of Sayyid Hasani and his uprising and conduct with Imam Mahdi (atf) as well as his surrender to the Imam.  When it comes to the chain of transmission of this narration and its validity, there are discrepant views and comments among Shia scholars some affirming it, others opposing.

According to the references mentioned in this sermon, Abdullh bin Masood said: When Imam Ali (as) being appointed to caliphate, He came back to Basrah after three days, ascended to pulpit in the Jame’ Mosque of the city and delivered a sermon saying about the difficulties and calamities happened the death of the holy Prophet (pbuh). While Imam Ali (as) delivering speech a man named Suwaid bin Nufil Hilahi, one of the great man of Khawarij interrupted the his speech, and asked: from where did the Imam know these things? Imam Ali (as) looked at the man angrily and talked about his attributes and knowledge. The followings are a few phrases the Imam introduced himself: Ana’ Sirr al-Asrar, Ana’ Shajarat al-Anwar; Ana’ Dalil al-Samawat; Ana’ Anis al-Musabbahat.[1]

This long sermon has only mentioned in recent sources. Ilzam al-Nasib, written by Ali Yazdi haeri (d. 1333 A.h) is one of the most accessible sources. In this book, there are three different versions of this sermon, Khutbat al-Bayan that each of them has vast difference with the other. The first two versions have no references, but the book al-Durr al-Munazzam fee al-Sirr al-Aazam, written by Muhammad bin Talhah Shafe’ei, the Sunni scholars but loving Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) is the only sources mentioned for the third version of this sermon.[2]

Those who mentioned in this book as the chain of narrations for this sermon are unknown except Tawq bin Malik, because he is not a narrator and had never narrated a hadith from him. He is one of the Harun al-Rashid’s commander that passed away in the year 216 A.H.[3]

The followings are some points we should take into consideration about Abdullah bin Masood, the main narrator that is the most important reason than the chain of narration.

  1. He has passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). So, he couldn’t narrate this sermon, because Imam Ali (as) was delivered it after being appointed to caliphate in Basra or Kufa.
  2. This chain of narration is Marfoo. This means that there are some unknown persons between ibn Masood and the listener of Khutbah, so we ought not to accept this hadith as Sahih.
  3. According to Sunni scholars, Abdullah bin Masood has never narrated a Hadith from Imam Ali (as).[4]
  4. According to Shia, ibn Masood wasn’t careful about narrating hadith. Meaning that he cannot be trusted.[5]

Therefore, according to the previous mentioned reasons, we ought not to trust about the chain of narration of this sermon.

In his book Bisharat al-Islam, Sayyid Mustafa  Ale Haydar said: we haven’t found the correct chain of narration for this sermon. None of the great narrators like Kulayni, sadouq and Sheikh Tusi have never narrated it. We can conclude that since Allamah Majlisi never narrated this sermon that this sermon is not reliable.[6]

Late Mirza-ye Qummi, the author Qawanin al-Usul after denying the attribution of this sermon to Imam Ali (as), talked about Khutbat al-Bayan and its problems in detail at the end of book Jame’ al-Shatat.[7]

Allamah Jafar Murtadha Ameli specialized an important part of his book, al-dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur wa al-Jazirat al-Khazra, to reecting this sermon, some of which are as follows:

  1. In this sermon, some persons like Amr bin Saleh, Salman, Miqdad and ibn Yaqtin have been mentioned as those who were presented there, while salman and Miqdad have already passed away before the caliphate of Imam Ali (as). Also, Amr bin Saleh and ibn Yaqtin weren’t contemporary to the Imam.

Suwayd bin Nufil Hilali who mentioned in this sermon as the great man of Khawarij is not exist.

  1. As we read in the first version of this sermon, Gabriel (as) has descended on the Rock of Jerusalem, while this place is the Jewish Kiblah and Bani Umayyah forged some traditions in praise of it.
  2. According to Islamic traditions, Imam Hussain (as) will give Ghusl to, shroud and bury the Imam of the Time (ajtf), but this sermon says: Prophet Jesus (as) will do it.
  3. There are some ambiguous phrases mentioned in this sermon, some of which are as follows: Ana Mus’haf al-Injil, Ana Sher al-Zabraqan, Ana Unuq al-Sibtayn, Ana Atarud al-Ta’til, Ana Nasikh al-Mary, Ana Ghufran al-Shartayn and etc.
  4. There are many highly colored statements in this sermon, some of them are: Ana Alaniyat al-Mabood, Ana al-Dhahir ma’a al-Anbiya, Ana Sabab al-Asbab, Ana al-Awwalu wal Akhar, Ana al-Dhahir, Ana al-Batin, Ana Waze al-Shariat and etc.
  5. There are some solecisms, incorrect words (grammatical mistakes) and Farsi words like Keywan have mentioned in this sermon.
  6. As we Shia denied determining the time of Reappearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf), but there have mentioned some strange signs of re-emergence and determined that the Imam will appear in the year 1184 A.H.
  7. Many repetitive phrases are exist in this sermon.
  8. As the following phrase has mentioned in this sermon we come to the conclusion that one who forged this sermon is Nasebi and an enemy of Ahlul Bayt (pbuth). [8]

“ضيّعتُ الارض و حُكم الفرض”

Mirza-ye Qummi said: I haven’t seen in any authentic book that this sermon is attributed to Imam, but it has mentioned in some Sufism resources.[9]

Al-Iftikhariya Sermon: In his Mashariq al-Anwar, Hafez Rajab Borsi has narrated from Asbagh bin Nabatah a relatively long sermon named Al-Iftikhar Sermon which the narrator has attributed to Imam Ali (A.S). In that sermon, Imam Ali (A.S) introduces himself with these words: “I am the brother of the Messenger of God and the Heir to His knowledge, the treasury of His wisdom, and the Companion of His secret. There is not a letter revealed by God in any of His Books whose intention does not point towards me. He hath vouchsafed unto me the knowledge of what was from eternity and what will happen unto the Day of Resurrection. To me hath been vouchsafed the knowledge of past and future generations and their genealogies.”[10] Then he refers to future events and the signs of reappearance.[11] If you go through the sermon and take careful a look at the words, you will come to know that a lot of the words and meanings in this sermon are also found in other narrations which have been substantiated and approved in their own respective places.

Al-Tatanjiya Sermon: Late Hafez Rajab Borsi has reported this sermon in his Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin”.[12] Considering that Imam Ali (A.S) says in a part of this sermon: «اَنَا الْواقِفُ عَلَى التُّطُنْجَیْنِ» [13](I am abiding over the two gulfs (tatanjayn)), this sermon is called Al-Tatanjiya which means two gulfs of water or this world and the hereafter. The first part of the sermon dealing with creation of the world is very similar to the first part of Nahjul Balaghah. Most of the wordings and sentence structures are completely overshadowed by Quranic verses and are relying on traditional beliefs. The sermon deals mainly with Imam Ali’s expanse of knowledge, especially his super knowledge of the universe, the preceding and future events. It is for the same reason that the sermon is replete with statements about the cosmos as well as reports about the apocalyptic period or the end of time.  This sermon explains the course of glorification of Allah, the Exalted, throughout the history of prophets as well as the existential guardianship (wilayat takvini) and knowledge of the Infallible Imams (A.S). In other words, it introduces the perfect man. The discourse is about the first creation and created which have been referred to in the tradition as such: «اَوَّلُ ما خَلَقَ اللّه‏ُ الْعَقْلُ» (The first thing that God created was the intelligence).[14]

This position of intelligence has different expressions in its various dimensions. This position of intelligence is the “Muhammadan Reality (haqiqat muhammadia)”.

The Al-Tatanjiya Sermon has not been narrated in Nahjul Balaghah but Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad Musavi (d. 703 A.H.) has recorded it in his al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq Min Ezhar al-Hadaiq.[15] Some recent scholars like Ali Yazdi Haeri (d. 1323 A.H.) have also narrated it.[16]

At the end of this sermon, there is a description of the four realms (aqalim) and Sheikh Agha Buzurg Tehrani has considered it probable that this sermon might be united with the Al-Aqalim Sermon which Ibn Shahrashub has talked about in his Al-Manaqib.[17] This sermon has been published either independently or as supplements in other publications. Different manuscripts of this sermon are said to be in the libraries of the University of Tehran, the Iranian parliament, Waziri Yazd and Masjid A’azam of Qom.[18] Many commentaries have been written expounding the said sermon[19] the most famous of which is Irshad Al-Mustarshideen by Sayyid Kazim Rashti (d.1259 A.H) of which seventeen manuscripts are available in Iran’s libraries.[20]

This sermon is defective in terms of its chain of transmission. Thus, the chain of transmission cannot be considered as reliable but the contents and significations of the sermon are acceptable even though they may not be those of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali, peace be upon him.  Keeping in view the fact that there are also other narrations having higher and more perfect contents than those of this narration reaffirming it, some scholars are of the view that the contents of the Al-Tatanjiya Sermon are correct. They maintain that by turning to the reports regarding the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (A.S), the doubt concerning this sermon will be removed. In fact, they state that the reports, like verses, explicit or implicit, general and particular, restricted and unrestricted, ambiguous and unambiguous. Some of them should be interpreted in the same way as the Quranic verses. Hence, it is necessary for every just and fair individual not to reject a tradition which he finds apparently dichotomous with the principles and rules. He should rather reflect and contemplate on it and should also compare it with other reports which have been passed on from the Infallibles (A.S) and which interpret the report. That is because their reports, like the holy verses of the Quran, expound and interpret one another.[21] For instance, in Kulayni’s Al-Kafi, there are traditions about perfect man which are in no way in contradiction with Islamic doctrines. For example, Imam Ali (A.S) has been reported as having said:

«أَنَا عَيْنُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا يَدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا جَنْبُ اللَّهِ- وَ أَنَا بَابُ اللَّهِ»[22]

“I am God’s eye, and I am God’s hand…”  Hence, it can be said that the traditions in this regard confirm the content of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon to some extent.

[1] .Haeri Yazdi, Ali, Ilzam al-Nasib fee Ithbat  al-Hujjat al-Ghaeb, Vol. 2, Pgs. 148-191, first edition, Beirut, 1422 A.H.

[2] . Ibid, Pg. 232.

[3] . Al-Tabari, Abu Jafar, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 8, Pg. 323, Dar al-Turath, Beirut, second edition,; Al-Yaqoubi, Ahmad bin Abi Yaqoub, Tarikh al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 2, Pg. 424, Dar al-Sader, Beirut, Bita.

[4] . Al-Mazy, Yousef bin al-Zaki, Tahzib al-Kamal fee Asma al-Rijal, Vol. 16, Pg. 121, N. 3564, al-Risalah Institution, Beirut, 1400 A.H.

[5] . Kashi, Abu Amr, Muhammad bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Rijal al-Kashi, Pg. 38, Mashad University Publication Instirution, Mashhad, 1490 A.H.

[6] . Ale Haydar, Sayyid Mustafa, Bisharat al-Islam, Pg. 75, H. 214, al-Bithat Institution, Tehran, 1410 A.H.

[7] .Qummi, Abul Qasim, Jame’ al-Shatat, Pg. 792, Kayhan Institution, first edition, Tehran, 1413 A.H.

[8] . Ameli, Jafar murtadha, Dirasat fee Alamat al-Dhuhur, Pg. 75, Muntadi Jabal al-Amel al-Islami, Qom, 1412 A.H.

[9] . Jame al-Shatat, Pg. 792.

[10] Hafez, Borsi, Rajab bin Muhammad, Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin fi Asrar Amir al-Momeneen (A.S), researched and edited by Ashur,Ali, p. 260, A’lami, 260, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[11] Vide: Ibid, p. 260 – 262.

[12] Ibid, p. 263.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Sheikh Hurr Amili, Muhammad bin Hasan, al-Jawahir al-Saniyah fi al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyah (generalities of Qudsi hadiths), p. 647, Dehqan Publications’, Tehran, third edition, 1380 (2001); Ibn Abil Hadid, Abdul Hamid bin Hebahullah, Sharh Nahjul Balaghah, researched and corrected by Ibrahim, Muhammad Abulfazl, vol.18, p. 185, Late Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi’s Library, Qom, first edition, 1404 A.H.

[15] Musavi, Sayyid Hebatullah Abi Muhammad, al-Majmu’ al-Rayiq min Ezhar al-Hadaiq, vol.1, p. 452, Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance, Tehran, 1375 A.H.

[16] Yazdi Haeri, Ali, Elzam al-Nasib fi Ethbat al-Hujjah al-Ghaib (atf), researched and corrected by Ashur, Ali, vol.2, p. 199, al-A’lami Institute, Beirut, first edition, 1422 A.H.

[17] Agha Buzurg Tehrani, al-Zari’ah Ela Tasanif al-Shi’ah, vol.7, p. 199, and 201, Ismailiyan, Qom, 1408 A.H; Ibn Shahrashub Mazandarani, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib (A.S), vol.2, p. 274, Allamah Publications, Qom, first edition, 1379 A.H.

[18] Vide: Fehres (Catalogue) of the Library of the University of Tehran, vol.13, p. 3380, and vol.6, p. 365; Fehres of Majlis Library, vol. 38, p. 497; Fehres  of Waziri Yazd Library, vol.1, p. 21, Fehres of Masjid A’azam Library, Qom, 606.

[19] Muhammad Karim Khan bin Ibrahim Kermani (d. 1288 A.H.), A Commentary of Al-Tatanjiya Sermon (a manuscript of which is kept in Sepahsalar Library. There is also an unknown commentary on Al-Tatanjiya Library in the Catalogue of the University of Tehran (vol.2, p. 703, No. 1067). Vide: Ali Sadrai, Khoei, with cooperation of Abul Fazl Sulaymani, Mahdi, Ashtiani, Ihsan, Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 377 – 378, Dar al-Hadith Printing and Publication Institution, Qom, first edition, 1384 (2005).

[20] Vide: Catalogue of Manuscripts (Shiite Hadith and Hadith Sciences), vol.4, p. 375 – 377.

[21] Vide: Allamah Hasanzadeh Amuli, Hasan, The Best Work in Rejection of Compulsion and Predestination and Two other Treatises, p. 98, Islamic Propagations Office, Qom, fourth edition,1379 (2000).

[22] Kulayni, Muhammad bin Ya’qub, Al-Kafi, researched and corrected by Ghaffari, Ali Akbar, Akhundi, Muhammad, vol.1, p. 145, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H.

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Barzakh / Whoever dies shall see the Infallibles (pbuth) in His Grave

Question 564: Salam. Tell me about great explanation Alam e burzkh? And Ali a. S arrival in our grave? Bcz MOLA a. S said from kumail Ibne zayadh. I will come in grave of every, momin, munafik and kafir? Please explain?

Answer 564: Rational arguments, the Quranic verses and prophetic traditions clearly indicate that man is not perished with death.  In fact, man’s spirit which is an independent entity constitutes his identity. The Quran ascribes accidents and flaws to the body only not to the spirit. The interesting thing is that in the Holy Qur’an “dying” is mentioned fourteen times with the word tawaffa which means “entrusting”. That is to say after death one will not be perished but that Allah will take His thing back without increase or decrease and Who will entrust it to His appointed workers.[1] There are also other proofs in this regard in the Quran and traditions of which one is the Holy Prophet’s address to the people of the graves.[2]

As for the question about the situation of the spirit after death, it is also a question whose answer should be found from the Quranic verses as well as traditions. In this regard the Holy Quran says: “And behind them is a barrier [partition] until the day [of resurrection] when they are raised.”[3] The Intermediate World refers to the realm of grave; it is a realm in which man lives a special kind of life until the Day of Resurrection. This fact is affirmed by many verses of the Holy Quran as well as traditions which have been narrated through both Shia and Sunni sources.[4]

The literal meaning of Barzakh is obstruction or barrier intervening between two things. However in Islamic eschatology, Barzakh is the intermediate state between this world and the Hereafter. It is very different from the material world. The existents in the intermediate realm are not material, yet they have some features which are characteristic of matter[5] such as forms, time and place. Thus, they can perceive different conditions like hardship, tranquility, happiness and sadness etc.

It is very important to note that when it is said that the intermediate world is devoid of matter, we should not think that the pleasures of the intermediate realm is imaginary and unreal or visionary because it has some of the material concomitants, though it is not material by itself. [6]

In order to understand this point more clearly, it would be beneficial to note that man is a composite of two bodies: 1. The ideal (mithali) or light body; 2. The weighty body. The weighty body is the very body which we have now and which needs food, clothing, care etc. The light body (corpus) is the body we have in the realm of sleep with which we travel sometimes for hundreds of kilometers in an instant. It is for the same reason that it is also called “the light body”.  That is because if we were supposed to tread a long distance in the state of wakefulness, it would take us many hours and require us to use a lot of energy. We will live with this light body in the intermediate world until the Day of Judgment when the scattered particles of human body would be gathered together and resurrected in the form of a weighty body.[7]

Although the ideal body is not weighty, it can perceive various conditions in the same way as it feels things with their external appearance in the state of sleep.  In the intermediate world, our body possesses the same characteristics as it does in the state of sleep in this world. According to some traditions, man lives in the intermediate world with the form and skeleton like those of the worldly form and worldly skeleton.[8]

Finally, it is important to note two points in this regard:

  1. The intermediate world is much bigger and wider than this world because the ideal world is more extensive and bigger than the material world; the former does not have limitations and constraints of the latter.
  2. According to many traditions, the earth has been appointed as a place for punishment or rewards of the intermediate world and for meeting of the spirits with their families. For example, it has been reported in some traditions that the Paradise of Barzakh is Wadi al-Salam and its fire is the Barahut Valley whereas the Beit al-Moqaddas Rock is the place of the congregation of the spirits. Definitely, these traditions imply that the material relation of the spirits with the world is not severed completely. These possible incidents indicate the fact that the spirits are into some communications with the world because of the excellence of the place or time or situation.[9]

Second: Characteristics of the Intermediate Life

As we mentioned above, Barzakh is an intervening stage between this world and the Hereafter. It is considered to be a realm between the material and the abstract realm. In philosophical terms, this world is called the ideal (mithali) world. Therefore, the existents of the intermediate realm are not material but they do feature some of the material concomitants because they are not completely devoid of matter.[10] Therefore, Barzakh is not timeless and placeless; rather, it is possible that time may elapse very faster than it does in this world. Similarly, the “place” in the intermediate realm may also be characterized by less limitations as compared to this world. This point can be substantiated through the verses of the Quran also. It says:

“On the Day that the Hour (of Reckoning) will be established, the transgressors will swear that they tarried not but an hour.”[11]

This verse clearly states that people live a short period of time in this place, the intermediate realm.[12] It can be inferred from this verse and other similar verses that there are time and place in Barzakh but with less constraints. The intermediate world is, for the good doers, a kind of emancipation from the material world which to them looks like a cage but it is very horrible and fearsome for the sinners. Depending on the deeds which a person may have done in this world, he lives there either in agony or in comfort.[13]

When it comes to the nature of Bazakh, there are different interpretations in our traditions. A few examples can be read below. Imam Ali (a.s) said in a letter to his son:

“Be mindful that a grave is either a garden from the gardens of Paradise or a pit from among the pit-holes of Hell Fire.”[14]

It is deduced from the above verse that bounties in Barzakh are paradigms or instances of the bounties given in the hereafter and its punishments are also instances of the punishments in the afterworld.[15]

It has been stated in some traditions that a heavenly position is shown to a believer in the hereafter. So he is made happy.[16]

Third: Conditions of the People of Barzakh

The people of Barzakh live either in agony or in comfort in the same way as the people of this world are tormented by a nightmare or become happy when they see a happy dream. Some deeds like taking prayer lightly or not helping the oppressed etc. entail punishments for a person in Barzakh. Likewise, some other actions like martyrdom in the way of God, religious propagation and giving religious awareness bring about comfort and happiness in the intermediate world.[17]

The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his holy family) is reported to have said that the squeezing of the grave is the expiation of the sin of wasting and not appreciating the bounties granted by God.[18] Some of the other reasons for this punishment include laziness in purifying oneself after urinating, creating mischief amongst the people, backbiting, bad behavior towards one’s family members, and making false allegations.

The people of Barzakh are divided into three groups each dwelling in a particular place: 1. The true perfect believers; 2. The confirmed unbelievers; 3. Mustaz’afeen or those who are neither perfect believers nor confirmed unbelievers.[19]

In another traditions narrated from Imam Sadiq (a.s), he has been quoted as having said: “The spirits of the believers are lodged in Paradise and the spirits of the unbelievers are lodged in Hell Fire.”[20]

It has also been reported from the Imam that the spirits of Mustaz’afeen (the third group) are stored in their graves where the sweet fragrance of Paradise reach them.[21]

Of course, it has been said in other traditions also that the spirits of believers go to Wadi al-Salam[22] or they go on the night of Friday to a rock in Beit al-Moqaddas.[23] These traditions are not contradicting the previous tradition because it is possible that all of these may happen to be at one place or it is possible that the spirits of the believers may sometimes be at one place and other times at another place.[24] The spirits of the unbelievers are also, as mentioned in narrations, in rooms of fire or at a place named “Hadramout” in Yemen or at Barahut Valley.[25]

As for the spirits of the Mustaz’afeen, they remain in the grave until the Day of Judgment and if they have done any good deeds, a window will be opened in their grave to Paradise and they will benefit from it.[26]

Based on the above, it can be said that the conditions of the spirits depends on their degrees and ranks after death. One who is strongly attached to this world, it will take him a long time to believe death and forget the world and its attractions. And he who is from the middle group, goes to a deep sleep never seeing any dream to be either tormented or pleased with it.  He will not have any special feeling of the intermediate life. As for the perfect believers, since they have strengthened their spirits and prepared themselves for the hereafter, they can also establish relations with the spirits of other believers in that abode. Thus, they can get news  of their friends and ask after their health in the material world. They become happy when they see that their friends are in good health. They pray for those who live in the world. Therefore, only those who are perfect believers can have the opportunity to meet other believers and ask after their health.

Imam Sadiq (a.s) says: When a human being enters the grave and Barzakh, the people of Barzakh rush to see him. They console him for a while until he comes to his senses because he has just passed the horrors, the tiring moments of the grave, its questioning and squeezing etc. Then they approach him and ask him about the lives and conditions of the friends.  If he says that they are still in the world, they become hopeful that they might see him later. And if he says that they had died long time ago, they will say “He has fallen.” That is to say, he is suffering from divine punishment, otherwise he would have been brought to us.”[27]

Imam Ali (as) will come in the grave of believers:

According to the following verse of the holy Quran in which Allah, the Almighty says: “And there is not one of the followers of the Book but most certainly believes in this before his death And on the Day of Resurrection he (Prophet lsa) shall be a witness against them”[28], all the human beings such as Muslims, Christians, Jewish and other religions see the holy Prophet (pbuh) and the Infallibles Imams especially Imam Ali (pbuth) at the time of death. They all believe in the Infallibles (pbuth) but this belief will not be accepted as Pharaoh believed when he was disappointed. [29] In this regards, there is a hadith in which Imam Ali (as) said to Harith al-Hamdani: “O Harith of Hamadan, whoever dies shall see me, Be he a believer or a hypocrite, a clear sight before him. His eyes shall recognize me, and I will know him, By his attributes, his name, and by his deeds. I shall quench his thirst with cold water, The sweetness of which will seem to you like that of honey. And when you will stand before hell fire, I shall say, Leave him, and do not be near him, Leave him, and be away from him, for indeed, He has a rope bound with the rope of the Prophet’s successor.”[30]

The Arabic version of this hadith:

يَا حَارِ هَمْدَانَ مَنْ يَمُتْ يَرَنِي. مِنْ مُؤْمِنٍ أَوْ مُنَافِقٍ قُبُلًا. يَعْرِفُنِي طَرْفُهُ وَ أَعْرِفُهُ. بِنَعْتِهِ وَ اسْمِهِ وَ مَا فَعَلَا. وَ أَنْتَ عِنْدَ الصِّرَاطِ مُعْتَرِضِي. فَلَا تَخَفْ عَثْرَةً وَ لَا زَلَلًا. أَقُولُ لِلنَّارِ حِينَ تُوقَفُ. لِلْعَرْضِ ذَرِيهِ لَا تَقْرَبِي الرَّجُلَا. ذَرِيهِ لَا تَقْرَبِيهِ إِنَّ لَهُ. حبْلًا بِحَبْلِ الْوَصِيِّ مُتَّصِلًا. أَسْقِيكَ مِنْ بَارِدٍ عَلَى ظَمَإٍ. تَخَالُهُ فِي الْحَلَاوَةِ الْعَسَلَا. قَوْلُ عَلِيٍّ لِحَارِثٍ عَجَبٌ. كَمْ ثَمَّ أُعْجُوبَةٍ لَهُ حَمَلا.

 

Also, when a believer dies the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Imam Ali, Lady Fatimah Zahra, Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth) along with the archangels will come in the grave of a believer to help him answer the questions asked by the angels Nakir and Munkar. If he is able to answer their questions the Infallibles (pbuth) will testify for him, if not they will testify that he keeps still at the moment, but he believes in each question you asked.[31]

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

 

كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ مَا يَقُولُ النَّاسُ فِي أَرْوَاحِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِمْ قُلْتُ يَقُولُونَ فِي حَوَاصِلِ طُيُورٍ خُضْرٍ فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْمُؤْمِنُ أَكْرَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ أَتَاهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ ع وَ مَعَهُمْ مَلَائِكَةُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ فَإِنْ أَنْطَقَ اللَّهُ لِسَانَهُ بِالشَّهَادَةِ لَهُ بِالتَّوْحِيدِ وَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ بِالنُّبُوَّةِ وَ الْوَلَايَةِ لِأَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ شَهِدَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ ع وَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَ إِنِ اعْتُقِلَ لِسَانُهُ خَصَّ اللَّهُ نَبِيَّهُ ص بِعِلْمِ مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَشَهِدَ بِهِ وَ شَهِدَ عَلَى شَهَادَةِ النَّبِيِّ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ عَلَى جَمَاعَتِهِمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ أَفْضَلُ السَّلَامِ وَ مَنْ حَضَرَ مَعَهُمْ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَإِذَا قَبَضَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ صَيَّرَ تِلْكَ الرُّوحَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ فِي صُورَةٍ كَصُورَتِهِ فَيَأْكُلُونَ وَ يَشْرَبُونَ فَإِذَا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَادِمُ عَرَفَهُمْ بِتِلْكَ الصُّورَةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ فِي الدُّنْيَا.

Imam sadiq (as) said: whoever choose Imam Ali (as) as his wali (“supporter”, “guardian” or “protector”) he will see the Imam at three times: at the time of death, at the Sirat (the bridge which every person must pass on), at the Hawz (The Cistern of al-Kawthar).[32]

For further information, please read the following answer:

Index: Barzakh / Everyone Shall Enter the Hell, answer 326.

[1] – “Say: The angel of death who is given charge of you shall cause you to die, then to your Lord you shall be brought back.” [As-Sajdah, 11]

[2] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 169.

[3] – Al-Mumenoon, 100

[4] – Tabatabai, Muhammad Hussein, Tafsir al-Mizan, translation, Muhammad Baqir Musavi Hamedani, vol.15, pg. 97, Islamic Publications Office.

[5] – Tabatabai, Muhammad Hussein, Mankind from the Beginning until the End, translated and annotated by Sadiq Larijani, pg. 77- 78, Al-Zahra Publications.

[6] – Qasimi, Ali Mhammad, Bazakh, A Quranic and Narrative Research, pg. 16, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute Publications Center, 1st edition.

[7] – Qira’ati, Mohsen, Roots of Religion, pg.584.

[8] – Allamah Majlisi, Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 244 – 345, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, 1362 (1983).

[9] – The Life after Death, pg.48

[10] – Tabatabai, Muhammad Hussein, Mankind from the Beginning until the End, translated and annotated by Sadiq Larijani, pg. 77- 78, Al-Zahra Publications.

[11] – Room, 55.

[12] – Tafsir al-Mizan, translation, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Hamedani, vol.16, pg. 308.

[13] – Roots of Religion, pg. 582.

[14] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 218.

[15] – Mankind from the Beginning until the End, pg. 79

[16] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 237

[17] – For further information about the sins which entail punishments and the good deeds which entail reward for the doer in the intermediate world, vide: Qira’ati, Mohsen, Roots of Religion, pg. 590 – 596.

[18] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 169

[19] – The word Mustaz’afeen refers to those who at times tried to understand and act but they did not have the intellectual capacity, such as the made and insane people. See: Mazaheri, Muhammad, Man and the Intermediate World, pg. 58 – 64, Nabawi Publications Institute.

[20] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 234.

[21] – Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.3, pg. 246.

[22] – Ibid, vol.3, pg. 243

[23] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 286.

[24] – Man and the Intermediate World, pg. 55, Nabawi Publications Institute, Tehran, 1375 (1996).

[25] – Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.3, pg. 246

[26] – ibid

[27] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.6, pg. 249 – 250, 269.

[28] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 159.

[29] . Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 1, Pgs. 572-573; Tafsir Kanz al-Daqaeq wa Bahr al-Gharaeb, Vol. 3, Pg. 584; Tafsir Forat al-Kufi, Pg. 116.

[30] . Tafsir al-Safi, Vol. 1, Pg. 519; Sharh e Nahjul Balaghah Li ibn Abi al-Hadid, Vol. 1, Pg. 299; Divan Amir al-Momenin (as), Pg. 352; Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 6, Pg. 180; al-Amali (Tusi), al-Nass, Pg. 627; al-Amali (Mufid), al-Nass, Pg. 7; Tafsi al-Qummi, Vol. 2, Pg. 266.

[31] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 6, Pg. 229.

[32] . Man La Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 1, Pg. 137, chapter of Ghusl, Pg. 131.

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Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba

Question 069: Is it true that Imam Ali (as) was born inside the holy kaaba? What hadith proves this in Sunni reference book regarding the Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)?

Answer 069: No one such as Shia and Sunni can dispute that Imam Ali (AS) was the only man in history born inside the Holy Kaaba.
One of the close companions of the Prophet (SAW), Yazid ibn Qana’b, narrates the incident of the amazing birth of Imam Ali (AS) in the following words, “Abbas ibn Abdul Mutallib and I were sitting among a group of members from the Bani Abdul Azi tribe, facing the Kaaba. We could observe Fatima bint Asad who was still carrying Imam Ali (AS) in her womb, walking towards the Kaaba. It was evident that she was undergoing labor pains and we could hear her conversing in these words with her Lord: “O my Nurturer, I have full faith in You and Your Prophet (SAW) as well as the books that You have sent. I testify the words of my forefather Abraham (AS), the one who had built the Ka’ba. For the sake of the one who built this House and for the sake of the child that I am bearing, make this delivery easy for me.” At that moment, I witnessed that the rear wall of the Ka’ba suddenly cracked open and Fatima entered into it and disappeared. Abbas ibn Mutallib and I approached the crack at once, thinking that we too would be able to pass through it, but found the wall closed. We immediately understood that this was a divine act. Fatima bint Asad walked out of the Ka’ba on the forth day with her baby, Imam Ali (AS), in her arms.”

This incident has been confirmed by numerous reliable sources, making this event the first and the last of its kind. Fatima bint Asad, in evaluating herself, in comparison with the other great female personalities of Islamic history, has thus described her unique position by the ‘Will of Allah’. She says, “Allah raised my status over that of all the other ladies before me. Asiyah (wife of Pharaoh) was forced to worship her Lord from a rather undesirable place, that is acceptable only on condition that one is left with no other choice. Maryam, the daughter of Imran (SA) had to shake the date-palm in order to feed herself – but I entered into the House of Allah and was fed on heavenly fruits. As I wanted to come out from the Kaaba I heard the Command saying, “O Fatima, name this child Imam Ali, because he is exalted and his Lord is the Most exalted. I have named him after Me and have conferred on him the secrets of My Knowledge. He is the one who will clear My House from the filth of idols. He will call one and all to prayer, from atop of My House and will worship only Me. Blessed are the ones who will love him and will follow him; cursed are the ones who oppose him or are his enemies.””

Although Maryam (SA) lived in Masjid al-Aqsa (the first Muslim Qiblah), Allah (SWT) did not will that she delivered her son, Isa (AS) within of the Sacred House, however, Allah wished that Imam Ali (AS) be given birth within His House.
Most Sunni scholars accept the fact that Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) was the only man in history born inside the Holy Kaaba.

In his Mustadrak Hakim said: “No one before Ali was born in the Kaaba.” Also, Saedi has quoted from Sihah al-Sittah (“The Authentic Six”) of Ahlu Sunna: according to a narration, Imam Ali (a.s) was born in the Ka’ba on Friday, 13 Rajab, thirty years after the Amul-Fil (the year of the elephant) and according to other narration, it was after 25 years of the Amul-Fil and 12 years after Bisat (the appointment of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and No one before Ali was born in the Ka’ba).[1]

[1] . Bahrani, Sayyid Hashem, Tafsir al-Burhan, Vol. 1, Pg. 661, H 36. Sheikh Sadough, Amali, translated by Ayatollah Muhammada Baqer Kamaraei, Pg. 133, Islamiyah Publisher, sixth edition, Tehran, 1997. Hakim Neishabouri, Muhammad, Mustadrak alal Sahihain, Vol. 3, Pg. 483, Darul Marefat Publisher, second edition, Beirut, 1406 A.H. Saedi, Muhammad Baqir, Fadhael PanjeTan (the Virtues of the five purified holy personalities that together are the Founding Islamic Family) in Sihah al-Sitta of Ahlul Sunna, Vol. 1, Pg. 304, Firouz A’badi, first edition, Qom 1995. Muruj adh-dhahab, Vol. 2, Pg. 349, Dar Al-Hijrah, Qom, second edition, 1409 A.H, “و كان مولده في الكعبة” (Wa Ka’na Moledohu Fel Kaaba).

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Shibli Shumayyil Praised the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali (pbuth)

Question 538: Asslam o alikum. Sea of knowledge, I have important question from you, I listen the name of “Shibli Shumayyil”, I only just name that name of philosopher ,who was materialist but he attracted from ali a.s

Please tell about the biography or pic any some data about him please?

Answer 538: Shibli Shumayyil was a controversial Greek Catholic doctor, scientist, journalist, philosopher, poet, social reformer and polymath educated at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. He was born in Kafr Shima (Syria).

Shymayyil studied and taught medicine at the College, then traveled to Paris and Istanbul to complete his studies. He practiced medicine in Egypt for about ten years, and founded Al-Shifa Magazine in Cairo in the year 1886 in order to publicize medical advances.

In addition, he lived in the Europe for a short period of time then traveled to Egypt and settled in Alexandria, Tantar and finally in Cairo.

Shumayyil also wrote the program of the socialist party in Egypt. He was the foremost popularizer of Darwinism in the Arab World, considering science the hey to the secret of the universe. Apart from his works on Darwin’s theory of the Evolution, he published many articles on science, history, literature, criticism and politics; a work of Hippocrates; a treatise on the plague; a book on the urgent need for science and liberty in the Ottooman Empire (1895); a novel al-Hubb ‘ala al-fatra; ‘Human Society or Civilization’ that was published in 1885 in Al-Muqtataf, ‘The history of natural society’ (Tarikh al-ijtima al-tabi’i), ‘Physiology of groups’ (fisiologiyat al-ijtima’at). Shumyyil also translated Racin’e Iphigence, and wrote a play on Work War 1. [1]  It is said that Shumayyil had consciously adapted Ibn Khaldun to the intellectual framework of his time and had bent his concepts of society and political authority in significant ways.[2]

It is most noteworthy that although Shumayyil was a Christian and the Arab atheist, but he composed some poetry in praise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Imam Ali (as).

Shumayyil said about Imam Ali (as): “The leader, Ali bin Abi Taleb, the greatest of the great, is the only exemplar that neither the East nor the West, has never seen the likes of, neither in the past nor the present.[3]

One of the good poetry he composed in praise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Quran which is available in Arabic language is as follows:[4]

أنی و إن أک قد کفرت بدینه *** هل أکفرن بمحکم الآیات

أو ما حوت فی ناصع الألفاظ من *** حکم روادع للهوی وعظات

و شرائع لو أنهم عقلو بها *** ماقید العمران بالعادات

نعم المدبر و الحکیم و إنه *** رب الفصاحه مصطفی الکلمات

رجل الحجی رجل السیاسه والدها *** بطل حلیف النصر و الغارات

ببلاغه القرآن قد غلب النهی *** و بسیفه انهی علی الهامات

من دونه الأبطال من کل الوری *** من غائب أو حاضر أو آت

[1] . Haroun, G, Sibli Sumayyil, Une Pensee Evolutionniste arabe a l’epopue a’an-Nahda, Beirut (1985) which is available in French language;  Hourani, A., Arabic Thought in the liberal age, 1798-1939, London (1962), 248-53;  Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Volume 2, Pg. 716.

[2] . Muhammad Ridha Hakimi, Adabiyyat wa Ta’ahhud dar Islam, Pgs. 250-252.

[3] . George Gordaq, Sawtul-Adalah al-Insaniyyah, pg. 19 (quoted by the translation and commentary of the Nahjul-Balaghah, Jafari, Muhammad Taqi, vol. 1, pg. 171).

[4] . Muhammad Ridha Hakimi, Adabiyyat wa Ta’ahhud dar Islam, Pgs. 250-252.