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Ziyarat Nahiya Muqaddasah

Question 147: I was reading Ziyaret Nahiyah and I came across a part of the Ziyaret that says, “I will continue to weep morning and evening and weep for you with tears of blood.” Can someone give me the tafsir on this Ziyaret and the meaning of this statement?

I was reading Ziyaret Nahiyah and I came across a part of the Ziyaret that says, “I will continue to weep morning and evening and weep for you with tears of blood.” Can someone give me the tafsir on this Ziyaret and the meaning of this statement?

Answer 147: The ziyarah of Nahiyah Muqaddasah is an ‘absolute’ or ‘unconditional’ ziyarah, meaning that it can be recited anytime; on Ashura or any other day.

This ziyarah begins with greeting the Prophet of Islam (pbuh), the other Prophets and the Imams (as), and is followed by greeting Imam Hussain (as) and his loyal companions. Afterwards, the ziyarah explains in detail the honorable characteristics, traditions and way of life of the Imam before his rise, the affection of Imam Mahdi (aj) for him, the circumstances that led to his rise, gives a description of what took place in Karbala, tells us of his martyrdom and the tragedies he suffered and underwent, and about the mourning of all earthly and heavenly creatures for him. The ziyarah ends with a tawassul (asking for mediation and intercession) to the imams and supplications to Allah (swt).

The famous Ziyarah Nahiyah Muqaddasah has an authentic and reliable chain of narrators [sanad] and has been issued by Imam Mahdi (as) to one of his “special” representatives [one of the four representatives that were specifically appointed by the imam (as) himself in the third century (ah) during his minor occultation] in the form of a tawqi’ [letters written by the imam in response to questions that were asked from him].

This ziyarah was passed down to great scholars such as Sheikh Mufid and Sayyid Murtadha through Shia narrators, and from them to others like Ibnul-Mashhadi. Finally from them on to later scholars, namely, Sayyid ibn Tawus and Allamah Majlisi.

In this Ziarat Imam Mahdi (ajtf) has said:

«فَلَأَنْدُبَنَّكَصَبَاحاً وَ مَسَاءً، وَ لَأَبْكِيَنَّعَلَيْكَ بَدَلَ الدُّمُوعِ دَماً،حَسْرَةً عَلَيْكَ وَ تَأَسُّفاً عَلَىمَا دَهَاكَ وَ تَلَهُّفاً، حَتَّىأَمُوتَ بِلَوْعَةِ الْمُصَابِ وَ غُصَّةِالِاكْتِيَاب»

Transliteration: “Fala’andubannaka šabāħan wa masā’ā, wa la’abkiyanna lakabadalad-dumū3i damā, ħasratan 3alayka wa ta’assufan 3alā mādahāka wa talahhufā”

Translation: “I will, therefore, lament you morning and evening, and will weep blood in place of tears, out of my anguish for you and my sorrow for all that befell you”.

We can figure out how much the above mentioned phrases allusively indicate Imam Mahdi’ (ajtf) anguish for Imam Hussain (a.s). This doesn’t mean, that its the actual meaning of such phrases. Imam Mahdi (ajtf) wouldn’t like to weep blood by using external devices. He wants to shed many tears in a way that make his eyes bloody, instead. Weeping and moaning is not damaging yourself when you are filled with a lot of grief, especially when it is related to divinely religious affairs.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index: Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman, answer 150.

Index: Ziyarat Ashura, Arabaeen, Ameenullah and Warith, answer 253.

Index: Ziyarat of Imam Hussain when you are far away from Karbala, answer 057.

Index: Every day is Ashura and Every Place is Karbala, answer 071.

[1] . Ibn Mashhadi, Muhammad bin Jafar, al-Mazar al-Kabir, editor and researcher: Qayoumi Esfahani, Jawad, Pg. 501, Qom, first edition 1419A.H. – Al-Mazar, Pg. 27 & 496. – Noori, Hussain, Khatimatul Mustadrak, Vol. 1, Pg. 360, first edition, Alul Bayt institution,Qom, 1415 A.H. – Qomi, Sheikh Abbas, al-Alqab, Vol. 1, Pg. 409, Maktabat al-Sard, Tehran, Bita. – Al-Mazar, introduction, Pg. 6.

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General appearance of Imam Mahdi (ajtf)

Question 267: Hi assalamualikum, This about Imam al mahdi(as), that there is a video in detail a documentry on physical charecteristics of imam mahdi(as) by harun yahya,a turkish. He had explained well in details about how we can identify imam mahdi by looking at his physical charecteristics when he appear…its a long video and available on youtube so that i kindly request you to have a look on to get in details..( video titled : The holy appearance that will identify imam mahdi(as). By harun yahya.

http://m.harunyahya.com/…/245…/the-holy-appearance-that-will

The question is, How accurate are those information and are they authentic when compared to the shia point of view?

Thanks

Brief Answer 267: According to some traditions, Imam Mahdi (ajtf) is the most similar person to the holy Prophet (PBUH). Some of his general appearance is as follows: youthful appearance with a brilliant face, curved eyebrows, a broad forehead, a nice stature, long straight nose, a small black spot on his right cheek, a face glowing like a shining star and had an appearance that no one has ever seen more beautiful, calm and pious complexion.

Answer 267: Imam Mahdī (ajtf) was born in 15 Sha‘bān 255 A.H. Since we are in the year 1438, the Imam (as) is said to be 1183 years old. After the death of His father (Imam Hasan al-Askari), Imam Mahdi (ajtf) were presented to offer prayer for the dead. All of the people that were presented there saw his face. He had a wheatish complexion, curly hair and a spacing with between his front teeth. [1]

There are two different types of traditions narrated in regards to the characteristic and general appearance of Imam Mahdi (as) as follows:

A: Traditions in which the Imam (as) is said to be youth without mentioning how old he is:

  1. He is young, though he is aged.[2]

Arabic version:

شابٌ بعد كبر السن

  1. He will appear at the best age of youth.[3]

رجوعه من غیبته بشرخ الشباب

  1. He is very old but with youthful appearance.[4]

فی سن الشیوخ و منظر الشباب

B: Traditions that rely on the both age and youthful appearance of Imam Mahdi as follows:

  1. with a complete youthful complexion and at the age of 30.[5]

Arabic version:

فی صورة فتیَ موفق ابن ثلاثین سنه

  1. Youthful complexion and less than 40 years old.[6]

فی صورة شاب دون اربعین سنة

  1. He is old, but with youthful complexion in a way that people think he has less than 40 years old. One of his signs is that he won’t be aged till the time of death.[7]

Sheikh Tusi quoted from those whom met the Imam (as) during the minor occultation that He was a handsome youth with fragrant smell and magnificent appearance. The narrator said: When he was delivering speech, we have never seen anyone can speak like him. [8]

It is narrated in other tradition that he is of medium height. He has a rounded head, broad forehead, long strait nose, shine cheeks and a small black spot on his right cheek.[9]

It is quoted from Imam Ridha (as) that he has said: One of his signs is that he is aged but with a youth appearance that when anyone look at him he is seemed to be at the age of 30 or less. He won’t grow old until he will die.[10]

When it comes to having long life, it is not specialized for Imam Mahdi (ajtf). Some individuals like the Prophet Noah (as) that lived long life (2500 years old), Prophet Khidhr (as) with thousands years old that he is still alive, Loqman bin Aad (3500 years old), Loqman Hakim or the Prophet Jesus (as) that he is still alive.

In order to justify it scientifically we can say that since getting old and death are because of some attrition factors. Therefore, if there are no attrition factors one would remain young.[11]

Know that Imam of the time (as) is the very beautiful and good-looking person among people. Because, he is the most similar person to the holy Prophet (PBUH).[12]

Jaber bin Abdullah Ansari narrated that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said: Mahid (as) is one my children. His name is my name, his Kunyah is my kunyah. He is the most similar person to me.[13]

Ibrahim bin Mahziyar whom met Imam Mahdi (ajtf), quoted: The Imam (as) was young with a brilliant face, his eyebrows were curved, he had a broad forehead, a nice stature, long straight nose, a small black spot on his right cheek, a face glowing like a shining star and had an appearance that no one has ever seen more beautiful, calm and pious complexion like him.[14]

Meeting with the Imam of Time (‘atf) during the period of occultation:

It is possible to meet with the Imam of Time (‘atf) during the period of occultation. Many scholars who is believed to be honest and just (‘adil) and who can be trusted in such matters have narrated stories of people meeting with Imam Mahdi, may Allah hasten his reappearance. These stories can be found in their books along with names of people who have been blessed with the opportunity to meet with him. Such meetings have taken place both during the period of minor occultation and major occultation.

It is inferred from narrations that the Imam of Age (May Allah hasten his reappearance) is not living far away from people and society. In fact, he is living with people and in their midst. He attends public congregations but people do not recognize him.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Possibility of Establishing Relationship with Imam Mahdi, answer 513.

Index: The Signs of the Re-Emergence, according to ibn Mahziyar Ahwazi, answer 072.

Index:  The Benefits of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) during His occultation, answer 026.

Index:  When appear: Imam Mahdi (ajtf) brings a new order, Method or Shari’ah with Him, answer 022.

Index: For how long Imam Mahdi will rule the whole world, answer 231.

Index: Proving the Ghaybah of Imam Mahdi, answer 252.

[1] . Refer to: Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 437.

[2] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 51, Pg. 217, chapter 13 (ما فيه ع من سنن الأنبياء).

[3] . Gheibat Tusi, Pg. 421.

[4] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 2, Pg. 376.

[5] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 287, chapter 26 (يوم خروجه و ما يدل عليه).

[6] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 1, Pg. 316.

[7] . Ekmal al-Din, Vol. 2, Pg. 652;  Ibid, chapter 57, Pg. 558, H. 12.

[8] . Refer to: Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 437.

[9] . Ibid.

[10] . Mawood Shenasi, Pg. 555.

[11] . Refer to: Edalat Gostar Jahan, Ibrahim Imani.

[12] . Haeri Qazwini, Mikyal al-Makarem, Vol. 1, Pg. 132.

[13] . Sheikh Sadouq, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’amat, translated by Mansoor Pahlawan, Vol. 1, chapter 25, Pgs. 534-535, H. 1.

[14] . Ibid, Vol. 2, chapter 43, Pgs. 180-181.

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Four of the Prophets are Alive / two are in the Heavens and tow are in Land

Question 277: Assalamu alayka ya dear brothers and sisters wa rahmatullahi wa barakatoh. Can someone briefly relate me what states have Hazrat Idris (a.s.), Hazrat Khidr (a.s.), Hazrat Iliya (a.s.) reach, if there are differences between each of theirs states, how they reach these states, and what is their present and future relation with our 12th Imam (mAhhr) ?

I ask this because, I heard that there are five persons that literaly elevated to heaven before death and taken to unknown celestial realm and continue to live there, each one of them are in different state, until the reapparenc oh the Mahdi (mAhhr).

May Allah reward you.

Answer 277: Four of the prophets are alive two of whom are in the heavens: Jesus and Edris, and two of them are in the land: Khidr and Elias, Ilyas (Elias). As for Khidr, he is in the sea but his companion is in the land.”[1]

Prophet Jesus: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says about the Prophet Jesus (as) as follows: “and for their saying,” We killed the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the apostle of Allah” though they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but so it was made to appear to them. Indeed those who differ concerning him are surely in doubt about him: they do not have any knowledge of that beyond following conjectures, and certainly they did not kill him”.[2]

In other verse of the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “When Allah said,” O Jesus, I shall take you] r soul [, and I shall raise you up toward Myself[3]”.

According to the previous verses of the holy Quran, we can come to the conclusion that the Prophet Jesus (as) is still alive. He is in the Heaven, though, considering the meaning of the word ‘Mutawaffika‘’ mentioned in the verse, the Prophet’s soul had been taken and He brought back to Allah, according to some interpreters of the holy Quran. [4]

Prophet Ilyas: It is said that Prophet Ilyas (Elias) is in the Heaven, too. He had been inviting people of the Baalbek to the Prophet Musa’s Shariah Law for 22 years. Some say that Prophet Ilyas is Prophet Idris (Enoch). They say: He was one of the Harun’s children and the Prophet Khidr’s brother.[5]

Prophet Khidr: Khidr is one of the four prophets recognizes as being alive. It is said that He drank from the water of life and is alive forever. He is at the Sa’sa’ah and Sahlah Mosques. Sayyid ibn Tawus narrated that when Imam Ali (as) martyred Prophet Khidr participated in the funeral. He went to Imam Hasan and Hussain (pbuth) condoled them and showed them the place of the Prophet Noah’s (as) grave.[6]

Some hadiths and verses of the Quran imply that he was a prophet and messenger of Allah (swt) to his tribe and people, to invite them to tawhid (the oneness of God) and accepting Allah’s (swt) prophets and the divine books. His miracle was that whenever desired, he could revive any dead and dry branch or dry and barren land, making it green again, thus being given the title “Khidhr”. His real name is Talya ibn Malekan ibn Aber ibn Arafkhshad (ارفخشد) ibn Sam ibn Nuh.

As for the prolonged life of this prophet, we would like to draw your attention to a hadith from Imam Sadiq (as): “… As for the servant of Allah (swt) Khidr, Allah (swt) extended his life, but not because of his prophetic mission, nor in order to reveal a book onto him, nor to nullify through him, the religion of the past prophets, nor for him to become leader to a nation following him, nor for the obedience that Allah (swt) had made obligatory upon him, but He (Allah (swt)) extended his life because He chosen to lengthen the occultation of the Qa’im (Imam Mahdi (as)) and knew that some of the people would begin doubting about him as a result, so He lengthened the life of this good servant of His in order for it to be reason for accepting the long life of the Qa’im and so that his life would be compared with the imam’s, rejecting the objection and criticism of the enemies and the bad-minded.[7]

He is, without a doubt, still alive and is currently more than six thousand years old.[8]

Prophet Idris: According to the following verse of the Holy Quran in which Allah (SWT) says about the Prophet Idris, He is still alive. “And mention in the Book Idris. Indeed he was a truthful one, a prophet”.[9]

The two Prophets who are in the Heaven, Prophet Idris and Jesus. And the two are still alive and are in the land, Prophet Khidr and Ilyas.

Prophet Idris’ name mentioned twice in the Quran, he has revered and celebrated as truthful, prophet, patient, righteous etc. Prophet Idris is among the grandsons of Prophet Seth reaching Adam (a.s.) through five intermediaries. One of his grandfathers is Prophet Noah (a.s.). Most historians have said that he lived 365 years before his ascension, or his death according to another report. Based on narrations, four of the prophets are still alive two of whom i.e. Prophet Khizr and Prophet Ilyas (Elias), peace be upon them, are living on earth and the two others i.e. Prophet Idris and Prophet Jesus, peace be upon them are in the heavens.

Allamah Tabatabai (RA) interpreting the verse 65 of Surah al-Kahf (Then they found one from among Our servants whom We had granted mercy from Us and whom We had taught knowledge from Ourselves[10]) appertained to Prophet Moses (AS) and Prophet Khidr (AS) quotes narrations from a number of Sunni and Shia sources about some prophets being alive.

Among the narrations he has quoted is a tradition from Jalaluddin in his Al-Durr al-Manthur which is narrated from Shahin from Khasif that says:[11]

«أربعة من الأنبیاء أحیاء اثنان فی السماء: عیسى و إدریس، و اثنان فی الأرض الخضر و إلیاس- فأما الخضر فإنه فی البحر و أما صاحبه فإنه فی البر»

It is noteworthy that this narration is also available in Shia sources but it is narrated from Sunni sources.[12]

Those Prophets and Imams (pbuth) who will return and accompany Imam Mahdi’s (ajtf) reappearance: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: “When the Twelfth Imam (aj) appears and leadership is passed on to him, at that time, the Prophet (pbuh) and Amir al-Muminin (as) shall appear. Amir al-Muminin will carry with him a cane and a branding iron.[13]

Upon the cane there is a figure which reads ‘bismillah’ (in the name of Allah), which he will use to mark the foreheads of those who are believers. The figure upon the branding iron reads ‘bismilkafir’ (in the name of disbelievers), which he will use to brand the foreheads of the disbelievers. This way, believers and disbelievers will once again be distinguished. At that time, all of the Imams (as) shall return to assist Amir al-Muminin (as) and Imam Mahdi (aj). Prophets who endures much hardship and strife in the way of Allah, such as Zakariyyah (Zachary), Yahya (John), Hizqil (Ezekiel), and other Prophets which were injured or killed at the hands of the disbelievers shall also return to this world. Verily, news has been given to me of their reappearance to bring about swift retribution to their killers and oppressors as well as seek justice from those who spilt the blood of Hussain (as).”[14]

Narrations pertaining to the reappearance of the Twelfth Imam (aj) state that Prophet Isa (Jesus) (as) shall be once again sent to this world at the permission of Allah. He shall appear before everyone as one of the companions of Imam Mahdi (aj) and shall stand in prayer behind the Imam. It is narrated that the Holy Prophet said: “I swear by that which has instated me as a bearer of the truth, if there remains but one day to this world, Allah shall prolong that day until my son Mahdi (aj) reappears. After his reappearance, Prophet Isa (Jesus) Ruhollah (as) will descend to this world and will stand in prayer behind the Imam. It is then that Allah shall light up the world with His Light, and the government of Imam Mahdi shall encompass everywhere from east to west.”

Imam Sadiq (as) says: The first Imam to return is Imam Hussein (as), after which he will govern [the Islamic nation] for a lengthy period of time. He will govern for so many years that his eyebrows will cover his eyes as a result of old age.[15]

[1] . Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Hussein, Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol.13, p. 353, Islamic Publications Office, Qom, fifth edition, 1417.

[2] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 157.

[3] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 55.

[4] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 2, Pg. 431.

[5] . Emad Zadeh Esfahani, Qasas Qurani, Pg. 680.

[6] . Ibid.

[7] . Kamaluddin, vol. 3, pg. 357; Biharul-Anwar, vol. 51, pg. 222.

[8] . Yawmul-Khalas, pg. 157.

[9] . Surah Maryam, verse 56.

[10] . Surah Kahf, verse 65. «فَوَجَدا عَبْداً مِنْ عِبادِنا آتَیناهُ رَحْمَةً مِنْ عِنْدِنا وَ عَلَّمْناهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا عِلْماً»

[11] . Suyuti, Jalaluddin, al-Durr al-Manthur fi Tafsir al-Ma’thur, vol.4, p. 239, Ayatollah Mar’ashi Najafi Library, Qom, 1404 A.H.

[12] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwar, vol13, p. 402, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, second dition, 1403 A.H; Ibn Tavus, Ali bin Musa, Sa’ad al-Saud Lil-Nofus Mandhud, p. 163 – 164, Dar al-Dhakhaer, Qom, first edition (date missing).

[13] . In Arabic: میسم.

[14] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharul-Anwar, translation of 13th volume by Davani, pg.1165.

[15] . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharul-Anwar, vol. 53, pg.46.

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Authenticity of traditions of the emergence of Dajjal from Isbahan

Question 488: I have often heard bakri kuffar claim that the dajjal (LA) will be aided by Jews from Isfahan wearing shawls. Many Shia Ulama claim this is untrue. Can you prove it to be wrong? Provide all kinds of evidence t disprove it’s authenticity

Answer 488: One of the signs of the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as)[1] is the coming of the “Dajjal”.  According to Arabic literature experts, any liar and trickster can be called a dajjal.

Different unusual traits have been related to him in hadiths (in which are mostly found in Sunni sources), namely: he falsely claims his lordship[2], is high in age[3], along with him is fire and water[4], he cures the blind and those suffering from leprosy[5].

As for who the dajjal really is, one can’t reach a definite conclusion, but in a nutshell, it can be said there are several possibilities regarding this matter:

1) The dajjal is a true person that does extraordinary things using witchcraft and magic that will appear at the end of time.  He will be the head of a great trouble-making that will take place for all of mankind.  As the literal meaning of dajjal suggests, he is a user of witchcraft and a trouble-making individual with many materialistic facilities and capabilities.  Some hadiths name him “the messiah of misguidance” which is the opposite of “the messiah of guidance”, meaning Prophet Isa (pbuh).

During the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as), he will begin to work against him.  He is of those who have long lives and is and will remain alive until the day he appears.  He will take over the whole world expect for Makkah (Mecca) and Madinah (Medina).[6]

2) Iblis or Satan is the dajjal.

3) The Sufyani  is the dajjal.

4) The dajjal has a symbolic and secret side to it (and isn’t a true person):

“The dajjal symbolizes the highest levels of civilization, culture and Western technology that are in conflict with Islam and its principles; a culture that tries to conquer and enslave all.  We can clearly see today how the West’s materialist culture and technology has taken over all societies today, even Muslim ones…”[7]

Is it true that Dajjal will emerge from Esfahan?

The following are some traditions narrated in this regards we need to evaluate if they are accurate or not?

First traditions: Dajjal will emerge from Jews people of Isbahan (one of the Esfahan’s villages) in a way that seventy thousands of Jews will support it.[8]

Arabic version:

یخرج الدجال من یهودیه اصبهان معه سبعون الفا من الیهود علیهم التیجان.

حَدَّثَنَا مَنْصُورُ بْنُ أَبِي مُزَاحِمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ حَمْزَةَ، عَنِ الْأَوْزَاعِيِّ، عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ، عَنْ عَمِّهِ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «يَتْبَعُ الدَّجَّالَ مِنْ يَهُودِ أَصْبَهَانَ، سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا عَلَيْهِمُ الطَّيَالِسَةُ». [9]

Evaluation: This hadith hasn’t been mentioned in Shia sources. It is just narrated (by Anas bin Malik) from the Holy Prophet (pbuh). In his musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal is the first person from ahlul sunna that quoted this hadith.[10] It is also narrated by Ibn Hamad who was in jail with Ahmad, but He didn’t attributed to the holy Prophet (pbuh).[11] Also, Ibn Hamad quoted from Yahya bin Saeed al-Attar from Salman bin Eisa this following hadith: Dajjal will emerge from an Island of which is located in the sea in Isbahan!

Esfahan hasn’t any sea to say there is an island. According to Shia and Sunni, ibn Hamad is a weak narrator that all of his works are not reliable.

The same hadith also mentioned in Musnad abi Ya’la.[12]

In Mojam Awsat, Tabarani quoted this hadith from Awzaee from Rabiah from Anas bin Malik. Awzaee was a person whom is not reliable.

This hadith is also mentioned in Mustadrak Hakim[13], history of Damascus City (Vol. 38, Pg. 10), Ibn Kathir (Vol. 1, Pg. 122). They all mentioned that this hadith is narrated by Ahmad whom is weak.

Some sunni also narrated this hadith without mentioning any Shia sources.

In Mojam al-Boldan Hamoodi explained the place where dajjal will emerge from as follows:

Isbahan is a city for Esfahan where Jey was the first city center. When Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem he captured the people of Jerusalem and took the Jews people of Jerusalem with him to Esfahan dwelled them in a place beside Jey (Esfahan city center) named it Judaea. [14]

Note: Hamoodi was a NasibiThis tradition hasn’t been mentioned in any Shia sources. Considering this issue that we approve this hadith, but it impossible that seventy thousands of Jews people live in a village. Because, most of people who live in Esfahan are Shia Muslims. Therefore, Esfahan is not the seat of Jews government.

Second tradition: Dajjal will emerge from Esfahan from a village known as Judaea.[15]

Evaluation: This hadith quoted by a narrator named Nazal bin Sabrah that his name has never mentioned in any Shia Rijali books. He is also unknown, however he has praised in Sunni sources.

Third tradition: The commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (as) was busy delivering a sermon when he repeated three times: “Ask me (all that you need) before you lose me.”  A righteous individual by the name of Sa’sa’ah ibn Sawhan stood up and asked: “Oh commander of the faithful!  Who is the Dajjal?”

In response to this question, Imam Ali (as) replied: “Be aware that the (name) of the dajjal is Sa’ed ibnul-Sa’ed.  The unfortunate one is he who acknowledges and accepts him, and the fortunate being the one who rejects him.  He will emerge from a place called “Isbahan”, from an area which is known to be the area of the Jews.  His right eye is shut, bearing no eyeball.

His other eye is in his forehead, shining so brightly that it resembles the morning star in brightness.  In his eye there is a piece of meat that seems to have mixed with some blood and on his forehead, in between the two eyes, it has been written “Kafir” in a way that every literate and illiterate person can read.  He travels over the oceans and the sun accompanies him.  In front of him, there is a mountain of smoke and behind him there is a white one that people perceive to be food.  He will appear during a very hard drought.  He will be riding a dark or green donkey.  Every step this donkey takes is equal to one mil (mile).  He will travel and go here and there on earth.  Every water source or spring that he crosses will turn and remain dry till the Day of Judgment.  He will shout with a voice heard by all in the East and the West saying: “Come to me, Oh friends and followers of mine!”  I (am a God) who has created, who has created the faces, has measured every persons portion (of sustenance), and is your guide.  I am the exalted Lord!”  He is a liar!  He is Allah’s (swt) enemy…and in the end he will eventually be killed by the one Isa (pbuh) prays behind (Imam Mahdi (as))”.[16]

Evaluation: The hadith is weak! Because, the one who narrated it from Imam Ali (as) is unknown.

Forth tradition: Dajjal will emerge from Isbahan.[17] This tradition mentioned in Tabarani from Muhammd bin Hayat al-Jawhari al-Ahwazi from Muhammad bin Mansoor al-Nahwi al-Ahwazi from Abu Hammam Muhammad bin al-Zabarqan, Thana Younis bin Abid from al-Hasan (Hasan Basri) from Omran bin Hasin that the Holy Prophet  (pbuh) has said this hadith.[18]

Evaluation: This above hadith has some problems in its Sanad even according to Ahlul Sunna. Also, this tradition has not mentioned in any shia sources.

Fifth tradition: When Imam Mahdi (ajtf) appeared He will be received an information that Dajjal emerged from Isbahan. According to this tradition, Dajjal cannot be a sign for His reappearance as Dajjal will emerge after Imam Mahdi (ajtf).[19]

Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

خرج المهدي إلى بلاد الروم، وجيشه مائة ألف فيدعو ملك الروم إلى الايمان فيأبى فيقتتلان شهرين فينصر الله تعالى المهدي… يفتح رومية بأربع تكبيرات ويقتل بها ستمائة ألف ويستخرج منها حلي بيت المقدس، والتابوت الذي فيه السكينة، ومائدة بني إسرائيل، ورضاضة الألواح، وحلة آدم وعصي موسي، ومنبر سليمان، وقفيزين من المن الذي أنزل الله عز وجل على بني إسرائيل أشد بياضا من اللبن، ثم يأتي بالمدينة (كذا) يقال لها القاطع طولها ألف ميل وعرضها خمسمائة ميل ولها ستون وثلاث مائة باب يخرج من كل باب مئة ألف مقاتل، فيكبرون عليها أربع تكبيرات فيسقط حائطها فيغنمون ما فيها، ثم يقيمون فيها سبع سنين ثم ينتقلون منها إلى بيت المقدس، فيبلغهم أن الدجال قد خرج في يهود أصبهان

Evaluation: This hadith hasn’t also been mentioned in any Shia sources.

From where Dajjal will emerge: There are some different opinions about it. Some say Dajjall will emerge from Esfahan, some say from Bajestan (Sistan), Iraq, Balkh and others say Khorasan.[20]

In Bihar al-Anwar Allamah Majlesi narrated a hadith from Imam Muhammad Baqir (as) in which He has said: Dajjal will emerge from Balkh.[21]

Ibn al-Razzaq quoted a tradition from Kaab al-Akhbar that Dajjal will emerge from Iraq.[22]

In Muntakhab al-Athar Ayatollah Safi Golpayegani said: Dajjal will emerge from Bajestan (Sistan).[23]

According to Saeed Ayyoub, Dajjal will emerge from Israel.[24]

Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

يقاتل بقيتکم المسيح الدجال علي نهر الاردن أنتم شرقي و هم غرب

[1] Of course this sign has been counted as one of the signs of the Day of Judgement (Sunan Tirmidi, vol.4, pp.507-519; Sunan Abi-Dawud, vol.4, pg.115; Sahih Muslim, vol.18, pp.46 and 81), yet in Shia hadith sources it has been counted as one of the signs of the nearness of the Day of Judgment (Biharul-Anwar, vol.6, pg.296, chapter 1 (The signs of the hour (Day of Judgment) and the story of Ya’juj) and also the signs of the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as).  There is no problem in this sign being both the sign of the Day of Judgment and the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (as), because his reappearance is one of the signs of the end of time and the Day of Judgment.

[2] Sunan Ibn Majah, vol.2, pg. 1360.

[3] Sahih Muslim, vol.8, pg. 205.

[4] Sahih Bukhari, vol.8, pg. 103.

[5] Musnad Ahmad, vol.5, pg. 13.

[6] Al-Faqih, vol.2, pg. 564, the chapter on the respect and virtue of Medinah; Tahdhib, vol.6, pg. 12, chapter 5, The respect and virtue of Medinah.

[7] Seyyid Muhammad Sadiq, Tarikh ma badal-Dhuhur, pp. 141 and 142.  Quoted and obtained from: Ali Asghar Rizvani, Maw’ud Shenasi, pg. 533.

[8] Mojam Ahadith al-Imam al-Mahdi (ajtf), Vol. 2, Pg. 96.

[9] Qashiri Neishaboori, Muslim bin al-Hajjaj, al-Musnad al-Sahih, al-Mokhtasar, researcher Abdul Baqi, Muhammad Foad. Vol. 4, Pg. 2266, Dar o Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, Bita.

[10] Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, Pg. 224.

[11] Vol. 2, Pg. 533, H 1509.

[12] Musnad abi Ya’la, Vol. 6, Pgs. 317-318, H 3639.

[13] Mustadrak Hakim, Vol. 4, Pg. 528.

[14] Yaqut Hamoodi, Mojam al-Boldan, Vol. 1, Pg. 206.

[15] Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’mat, Sheikh Saduq, Pgs. 526-527.

[16] Lotfollah Safi, Muntakhabul-Athar, Chapter 3, pg. 532, hadith 8.

In some hadiths it has been stated that he will eventually be killed by Prophet Isa (pbuh) (Biharul-Anwar, vol.14, pg.348, chapter 24) or it has been stated that he will be killed by Prophet Isa (pbuh) at a gate in Sham.  For further information, see: Biharul-Anwar, vol.52, pp. 193 and 209; Kamaluddin, 525 and 526; Kashful-Ghummah, vol.3, pg.281; Al-Masa’ilul-Ashr, printed in the works of Sheikh Tusi, vol.3, pg. 122; Irshad, vol.2, pg. 371; Kanzul-Ummal, vol.14, pp. 198-200.

Of course, there is no conflict between these two statements that Prophet Isa (pbuh) is one of those who takes orders from Imam Mahdi (as) and one can relate the doing of a soldier to his commander.

[17] Mojam Ahdith al-Imam al-Mahdi (ajtf), Vol. 2, Pg. 61.

[18] Tabarani, al-Awsat, Alaa maa fee Majma al-Zawaed; Majma al-Zawaed, Vol. 7, Pg. 339 from al-Tabarani fee al-Awsat;  Kanzul ummal, Vol. 14, Pg. 327, H 38823 from tabarani in al-Kabir.

[19] Al-Qawl al-Mokhtasar, Ibn Hajar Heitami, Pg. 14, H 61;  Mojam Ahadith al-Imam al-Mahdi (ajtf), Vol. 2, Pg. 141. This hadith mentioned in Al-Etr al-Wardi, Pg. 68 from al-Hadiyyatal Nadiyyah.

[20] . al-Malahim wa al-Fitan, Pg. 126.

[21] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 190-194.

[22] . Musannaf ibn al-Razzaq, Vol. 11, Pg. 396.

[23] . Muntakhab al-A’thar, Pg. 425.

[24] . Aqidat al-Masih al-Dajjal fee al-Adyan, Saeed Ayyoub, Pgs. 279-280.

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The Signs of the Re-Emergence, according to ibn Mahziyar Ahwazi

Question 072: I read this in the book ‘Scale of Wisdom’: Imam al-Mahdi (AS) said, when ‘Ali b. Mahzyar asked him, ‘O my master, when will this rule be?’ ‘When the way between you and the Ka’bah will close). Nur al-Thaqalayn, v. 5, p.461, no. 3. What does it mean by the way to the Ka’bah will be closed? Is it telling of a time that no one will be able to make Hajj? Does evil close the way, or is there no longer a need to go to the Ka’bah when al-Mahdi reappears?

Answer 072: Tthe hadith is regarded as one of the signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) according to the book al-Ghaybah and Kamal al-Din, but it is not actually one of the signs which will certainly occur. In short, the signs fall under two categories. One group consists of those signs which will certainly occur, foreshadowing the re-emergence: the rebellion of Sufyani, the rebellion of Yamani, the burst of a heavenly cry, the murder of an innocent soul, the sinking of the army of Sufyani into the desert ground, the rebellion of Dajjal. The remaining signs are not certain and as such might not occur. This hadith is not among those signs which will certainly occur.

The signs can be categorized into four groups:

1) The social signs: that is, to put it in a nutshell, those social phenomena whose upshot would be the downfall of the then perverted human civilization.

2) The religious and Ideological signs: which constitute the collapse and distortion of the Divine religion.

3) The Natural Signs: changes such as alterations in the constellations.

4) The individual and miraculous signs: such as the burst of a heavenly cry, and the murder of the Innocent Soul.[1]

The followings are some reasons we can come to the conclusion that why this hadith is not true or not among those signs which will certainly occur:

  1. This is the only tradition trying to say that ‘closing the way …’ is the sing of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi, but it is a Khabar al-Wahid and not considered as mutawatir hadith.[2] Because, there are other traditions in which it hasn’t mentioned as the signs which will certainly occur.
  2. This is one of the traditions that include some of the signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi with different versions mentioned in books: Kamal al-Din (by Sheikh Sadouq), Al-Ghaybah (by Sheikh Tusi) and Dalael al-Imamah (attributed to Tabari (shia)). But, the followings are some of the issues concerning its chains of narrations by which we can conclude that this hadith is weak:
  3. In these books, there are four different names related to ibn Mahziyar that both of them are not relaible. Some say: Abū Isḥāq, Ibrāhīm b. Mahzīyār al-Ahwāzī; some say: Abul Hasan Ali bin Mahziyar and other say: Ali bin Ebrahim bin Mahziyar. Whereas, the two brothers have introduced in Shia Rijal authentic books as ibn Mahziyar.
  4. According to some references, Ali bin Mahziyar died before the birth of Imam Mahdi (ajtf). If so, he was unable to visit Imam Mahdi (as). He was alive during the times of Imam Ridha, Imam Javad and Imam Hadi (pbuth).[3] Ayatollah Khuei (ra) said: there is no reason proving that Ali bin Mahziyar was alive alive till the time of Imamat of Imam Askari (as). [4]

C: As Ali bin mahziyar was a representative of Imam Javad and Imam Hadi (pbuth) and was so respectable to them (pbuth)[5], it was easy for him to see Imam Askari’s (as) family. So, it is not true to say that he was going to Hajj for several times to visit Imam Askari’s (as) family and see Imam Mahdi (as) Himself, but he couldn’t find them!

D: Kamal al-Din and Tamam al-Ne’mah is another reference in which the name of Ebrahim bin Mahziyar is mentioned has error in its chain of narration as follows: it is said that he was looking for the next Imam after the death of Imam Askari (as) and finally visited Imam Mahdi (ajtf) through an unknown man. But, according to Kafi and Kashi, Ebrahim bin Mahziyar was one of the Imam Askari’s (as) or Imam Mahdi’s (ajtf) monetary representative and also he stated in his will to give some of the properties left behind him to Amri (special deputy).[6]

  1. This tradition, as a related issue concerning Qiyamat, is mentioned under verses 1 to 40 of Surah al-Qiyamah of the Holy Quran, according to the author of Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn.

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows[7]:

في كتاب الغيبة لشيخ الطائفة قدس سره باسناده الى على بن مهزيار حديث طويل يذكر فيه دخوله على القائم عليه السلام و سؤاله إياه. و فيه: فقلت يا سيدي متى يكون هذا الأمر؟ فقال: إذا حيل‏ بينكم‏ و بين‏ سبيل‏ الكعبة و اجتمع‏ الشمس‏ و القمر، و استدار بهما الكواكب و النجوم- فقلت: متى يا ابن رسول الله؟ فقال لي: في سنة كذا و كذا تخرج دابة الأرض من بين الصفا و المروة، معه عصى موسى و خاتم سليمان يسوق الناس الى المحشر.

I said, then: My Master! When you appear? The Imam has replied: “when you are not being allowed to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and the sun and moon gather together and the stars stand around them”. I said: O son of Rasool Allah, at what time? He (as) said: on such and such year, and ‘Dabbatul Ardh’ will appear between Safa and Marwa and has Moses’ (as) rod and Suleiman’s (as) signet-ring with itself and lead people to the Gathering Place (Mahshar). Thus, there have been mentioned many signs for re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (as) that some of which are related to the Day of Judgment.

  1. The Book Kamal al-Din is the first authentic book in which quoted the tradition concerning ibn Mahziyar. But, as we refer to the historical events, the Iranian and Iraqi people haven’t been allowed to make the pilgrimage to Mecca for several times.[8]

Conclusion: Although, the hadith is regarded as one of the signs of re-emergence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) according to the book al-Ghaybah and Kamal al-Din, but it is not actually one of the signs which will certainly occur and also due to the previous mentioned reasons this hadith cannot be true or at least it is weak in its chain of narration.

For further information, please read the following answers:

Index: The Benefits of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) during His occultation, answer 026.

Index: When appear: Imam Mahdi (ajtf) brings a new order, Method or Shari’ah with Him, answer 022.

[1] . Kitab al-Ghaybah, pgs. 252 – 254; 279 – 282. Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’mah, pg. 331 – 649.

[2] . Mutawatir is a hadith which is reported numerously by different narrators and through various chains of transmission in a way that substantiates its authenticity. Mutawatir hadiths are considered opposite Khabar al-Wahid.

[3] . Rijal al-Najjashi, Pg. 253.

[4] . Mojam Rijal al-Hadith, Vol. 12, Pg. 198; For further information in this regards, please refer to: Al-Kafi, Kuleini, Vol. 4, Pg. 310; Man La Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Sadouq, Vol. 2, Pg. 444; Tahzib al-Ahkam, Sheikh Tusi, Vol. 9, Pg. 226.

[5] . Rijal al-Najjashi, Pg. 253; Al-Ghaybah, Sheikh Tusi, Pg. 349.

[6] . Rijal al-Kashi, Pg. 531; al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 518; For further information in this regards, please refer to: Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ne’mah, Vol. 2, Pgs. 446-467; Mojam Rijal al-Hadith, Vol. 1, Pg. 306, Vol. 4, Pg. 65; Ibid, Vol. 11, Pg. 193; Ibid, Vol. 12, Pg. 198.

[7] . Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 12; Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn, Vol. 5, Pg. 461; Tafsir al-Safi, Vol. 5, Pg. 255; Al-Ghaybah (by Tusi), the book Al-Ghaybah lilHujjah, al-Nass, Pg. 266.

[8] . For further information in this regards, please refer to: Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 11, Pg. 107; Ibid, Pg. 249; al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, ibn Kathir, Vol. 11, Pg. 153; Ibid, Pgs. 155-156-189; Al-Tanbih wa al-Ashraf, Masoodi, Pg. 329; Shazerat al-Zahab, ibn Emad al-Hanbali, Vol. 4, Pg. 312; ibn Jawzi, al-Muntazim, Vol. 13, Pg. 378.

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The Benefits of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) during His occultation

Question 026: What are the benefits of Imam Mahdi during occultation?

Answer 026: Imam Mahdi (ajtf) is the channels and mediators between us and Allah’s (swt) grace and mercy. If He wasn’t in this world the human beings’ dynasty would be overthrown. If He doesn’t exist Allah would not be known completely, and as a result the relation between this universe and the Creator would be broken off.

The following are some of the benefits the existence of Imam Mahdi (ajtf) bring, according to ahadith and the sayings of great scholars regarding this issue:

  1. The Imam is the mediators between us, the human beings and Divine grace: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was asked, what is the benefit of Imam Mahdi during occultation? He replied: Yes. By Allah who appointed me as a Messenger they will benefit from the rays of the light of his imamate during his occultation. [He will be useful during his occultation] just as the sun hidden behind the clouds is useful for people. O Jabir! This is one of the secrets of Allah and the remaining of His knowledge and therefore keep it secret from unworthy people. [1]

Arabic version:

إِي وَ الَّذِي بَعَثَنِي بِالنُّبُوَّةِ إِنَّهُمْ يَسْتَضِيئُونَ بِنُورِهِ وَ يَنْتَفِعُونَ بِوَلَايَتِهِ فِي غَيْبَتِهِ كَانْتِفَاعِ النَّاسِ بِالشَّمْسِ وَ إِنْ تَجَلَّلَهَا سَحَابٌ يَا جَابِرُ هَذَا مِنْ مَكْنُونِ سِرِّ اللَّهِ وَ مَخْزُونِ عِلْمِهِ فَاكْتُمْهُ إِلَّا عَنْ أَهْلِهِ

 

The same question was asked Imam Mahdi (ajtf) and His Excellency has replied: I am useful during my occultation just as the sun hidden behind the clouds is useful for people.[2] Indeed, I am the cause of Tranquility and Peace for the people of this universe as the stars are for the sky.

  1. Spiritual Guidance: The Imam’s (as) duty is not only stating the Islamic teachings or apparently guiding people, but His other responsibility is to spiritually guiding us to the Right Path.

In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “And We made them leaders guiding by Our command. And We inspired to them the doing of good deeds, establishment of prayer, and giving of zakah; and they were worshippers of Us.”[3]

Arabic version:

وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ

 

Also, Allah says: “And We made from among them leaders guiding by Our command when they were patient and [when] they were certain of Our signs.”[4]

Arabic version:

وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُوا ۖ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ

According to these verses of the holy Quran, we come to this conclusion that other than guiding people normally, the Imams (pbuth) are also responsible to spiritually guide their souls.

  1. Protecting the Divine Religion: Imam Ali (as) says: a group of people, as for the blessing of Imam Mahdi (as), will get ready to protect religion and suppress the seditions. By the holy Quran, their eyes are open, meaning and interpretation of the holy Quran will be explained to them and they will be taught Divine wisdom and sciences.[5]

Imam Sajjad (as) was asked about how the people make use of an “absent” imam; the imam answered: “The same way people benefit from the sun when it is behind the clouds.”[6]

The same way the sun gives off light and radiation behind the clouds, the imam in occultation is a source of guidance to the people (whether they know it or not).[7]

4- The upholding of clear signs and proof: No matter in occultation or amongst the people, the imams are the “proof” [hujjah] of Allah (swt) in this world [meaning that Allah (swt) has sent them to be followed, leaving no excuses for those who don’t], rising sincerely for Him with clear proof and signs.

Imam Ali (as) says: “O Kumayl!  This earth will never be without the hujjahs [proofs] who will prove the universality of truth as disclosed by Allah, they may be well-known persons, openly and fearlessly declaring the things revealed to them or they may, under fear of harm, injury or deaths hide themselves from the public gaze and may carry on their mission privately so that the reasons proving the reality of truth as preached by religion and as demonstrated by His Prophet may not totally disappear .”[8]  Other hadiths with the same theme can also be found that confirm the fact that the world never lacks Allah’s (swt) “proof” [meaning the imam].

5- Channels and mediators between us and Allah’s (swt) grace and mercy: Imam Sajjad (as) says: “We (the imams) are the means of the safekeeping of this world, we are the reason for the skies not collapsing onto the earth, the reasons why the clouds rain and the blessings of the ground emerge.  If it wasn’t for us, the earth would swallow its inhabitants…The world has never been free of a “divine proof”, the only thing is that sometimes he is present, while at other times, he is “absent” [which in reality means that he is unseen, not that he isn’t present at all].”[9]

In the famous and great ziyarah of Jame’ah Kabirah, some of these benefits and blessing have been pointed to:

“It is because of you [the imams] that Allah (swt) sends down the rain, it is because of you that the skies don’t collapse unto the earth, and it is because of you that sorrows and harms are relieved of and adverted.”[10]

It is because of the imams that Allah (swt) showers His general and special blessings upon the people and the Shiites.

3- Making use of Imam Mahdi’s existence (aj) by the people:

Imam Sajjad was asked about how the people make use of an “absent” imam; the imam answered: “The same way people benefit from the sun when it is behind the clouds.”[11]

The same way the sun gives off light and radiation behind the clouds, the imam in occultation is a source of guidance to the people (whether they know it or not).[12]

Muhaqqiq Tusi, one of the Shia’s greatest scholars says: “The existence of the imam is a divine grace, and the changes and things he does are another.  The reason why he is “absent” [not seen by us] is because of our own actions [and has nothing to do with him][13].”   What Muhaqqiq Tusi is trying to say is that him just being there and all the benefits that follow this presence of his are a great divine grace, although if he were to be seen by us as well, it would have also been another grace and other benefits would also follow.

Add to all of the above the fact that knowing the imam is present and aware of all that we do can factor greatly into many people moving towards virtuousness and righteousness [out of love and respect to the imam and because they know he is watching].

6- His aid and inspiration regarding scientific and spiritual matters which only belongs to the believers:[14] His Excellency pays great attention to the believers and Shia and prevents many calamities and disasters from taking place for them.  He also helps those who have the capacity to reach higher levels of spirituality [sometimes with them knowing it, and sometimes not].  Imam Mahdi (aj) says: “We never forget you and it is because of us that Allah (swt) averts dangers [that threaten you].”[15]

[1] . Kamal al-Din, Vol. 1, chapter 23, H. 3.

[2] . Kamal al-Din, Vol. 1, chapter 45, H. 4.

[3] . Surah Anbiya, verse 73.

[4] . Surah Sajdah, verse 34.

[5] . Ihtijaj Tabarsi, Vol. 2, Pg. 497.

[6] Farhange Mo’udnameh, pg. 529.

[7] Intizar Magazine, issue 5, pg. 130, article of Ali Rabbani Golpaygani.

[8] Nahjul-Balaghah, Saying 147; Al-Kafi, vol. 1, pg. 179.

[9] Mojtaba Tune’i, Farhange Alefbayiye Mo’udnameh, pg. 529; Biharul-Anwar, vol. 52 pg. 92.

[10] Mafatihul-Jinan, Ziyarah Jami’ah Kabirah.

[11] Farhange Mo’udnameh, pg. 529.

[12] Intizar Magazine, issue 5, pg. 130, article of Ali Rabbani Golpaygani.

[13] انحصار اللطف فيه معلوم للعقلاء و وجوده لطف و تصرفه آخر و عدمه منا  Kashful-Morad, pg. 363.

[14] Mikyalul-Makarem, vol.1, pg. 271, quoted by Farhange Mo’udnameh, pg. 593.

[15] Jum’eye Entezar, issue 5, pp. 135-142.

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When appear: Imam Mahdi (ajtf) brings a new order, Method or Shari’ah with Him

Question 022: Is Imam Mahdi (ajtf) going to bring a new Shari’ah?

Answer 022: Promoting and expanding the spiritual and material sciences is one of the important issue during the time of Imam Mahdi (ajtf). The knowledge will reach the highest level during that time, according to Imam Sadiq (as).

A great cultural revolution will occur by Imam Mahdi (ajtf). As mentioned in some Ahadith, the ratio of all the sciences known by man to the sciences which Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will discover is 2 to 27. This means that although we have made great progress, is not highly knowledgeable. This means, that Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will expand the knowledge completely. It doesn’t mean that the Shari’ah is incomplete and then Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will complete it! So, during the time of Imam Mahdi (ajtf), those who are eager and capable to learn more knowledge and participate in classes, they will reach the highest level of knowledge.[i]

The Arabic version of this hadith is as follows:

«الْعِلْمُ‏ سَبْعَةٌ وَ عِشْرُونَ‏ حَرْفاً فَجَمِیعُ مَا جَاءَتْ بِهِ الرُّسُلُ حَرْفَانِ فَلَمْ یَعْرِفِ النَّاسُ حَتَّى الْیَوْمِ غَیْرَ الْحَرْفَیْنِ فَإِذَا قَامَ قَائِمُنَا أَخْرَجَ الْخَمْسَةَ وَ الْعِشْرِینَ حَرْفاً فَبَثَّهَا فِی النَّاسِ وَ ضَمَّ إِلَیْهَا الْحَرْفَیْنِ حَتَّى یَبُثَّهَا سَبْعَةً وَ عِشْرِینَ حَرْفاً»
The following are some hadith in which mentioned that Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will bring new religion:
Imam Baqir (as) said: When Imam Mahdi (as) appears He will bring new order, new method and new judgment with Him.[ii]
یَقُومُ الْقَائِمُ بِأَمْرٍ جَدِیدٍ وَ کِتَابٍ جَدِیدٍ وَ قَضَاءٍ جَدِیدٍ

Imam Sadiq (as) said: Imam Mahdi (as) will do the same act that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) done. As the holy Prophet (pbuh) that destroyed the act of Jaheliyyah (ignorance), the Imam will destroy current innovations (bid’ah) and then rejuvenates Islam.[iii]

The Arabic version of this hadith:

قَالَ يَصْنَعُ مَا صَنَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يَهْدِمُ‏ مَا كَانَ قَبْلَهُ كَمَا هَدَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَمْرَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَ يَسْتَأْنِفُ الْإِسْلَامَ جَدِيداً

Some translators have mistakenly translated that He (ajtf) will appear with new book, a new Shari’ah. Because, the phrase “یستأنف الاسلام جدیدا” doesn’t mean new religion, it means rejuvenates Islam.

It clear that the newness of these programs, methods and judgments is not because he brings new religion with him, but exits Islam from the congestion of superstitions, distortions and incorrect interpretations and false understandings in the way that it appears like a completely new building

In the Holy Quran Allah (swt) says: “Truly, the Perfect Religion in The Sight of Allah is Islam.” Also, Allah (swt) says: “Muhammad is not the father of [any] of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets. And Allah has full knowledge of all things.” [iv]

According to the following issues, we see that Imam Mahdi (ajtf) is the leader who guides us toward the right path.

«إِذَا قَامَ الْقَائِمُ (ع) دَعَا النَّاسَ إِلَی الْإِسْلَامِ جَدِیداً وَ هَدَاهُمْ إِلَی أَمْرٍ قَدْ دَثَرَ وَ ضَلَّ عَنْهُ الْجُمْهُورُ وَ إِنَّمَا سُمِّیَ الْقَائِمُ مَهْدِیّاً لِأَنَّهُ یُهْدَی إِلَی أَمْرٍ مَضْلُولٍ عَنْهُ وَ سُمِّیَ الْقَائِمَ لِقِیَامِهِ بِالْحَقِّ»

Reasons: 1. Some traditions and rules have not been declared due to the lack of circumstances and conditions during the time of the Infallibles (pbuth). Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will explain them completely.

  1. Some rules have been removed from books of Ahadith and He (ajtf) will carry them out.
  2. Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will present the real rules as they seem unreal during the time of occultation, however, we must act based on them.
  3. Thanks to technology and other reasons which help people expand their knowledge of comprehending the Islamic teachings, they will have a lot of new questions which are required to be answered comprehensively.
  4. Mahdi (ajtf) is an imam, not a Prophet, Imam does not bring new Shari’ah.

5. Since, people have deviated Islam over time from the original message of the Prophet (saw), or have misinterpreted it, but since Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) are qualified to interpret Quran they know much more than various caliphs, scholars, individuals over time – they also know which hadith are real and which are fabricated, etc. They know the proper intent without doubt.

Therefore, Imam Mahdi (ajtf) will appear and guide us based on the above mentioned issues. People think that He (ajtf) will bring a new method or a new Shari’ah, though the only Perfect Religion in The Sight of Allah (swt) is Islam and it has been completed.

[i] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 52, Pgs. 336-364.

[ii] . Ibn abi Zaynab (Nomani), Muhammad bin Ebrahim, al-Ghibah, researcher and editor: Ghaffari, Ali Akbar, Pg. 233, Sadouq publication, Tehran, first edition, 1397 A.H.

[iii] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 52, Pg. 352, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, second edition, 1403 A.H.

[iv] . Surah Ali ‘Imran, verse 19;  Surah Al-Ahzab, verse 40

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Possibility of Establishing Relationship with Imam Mahdi

Question 513: Is meeting with the Imam before his re-appearance only spiritual or physical meetings are also possible? Please do cite the examples as well.

Brief Answer 513: A relationship with Imam Mahdi (aj) can be in one of three ways; an inner relationship, an in-person one or in dream.  Although they are possible, yet the latter calls for different “prerequisites”.  Having an inner connection with the imam and living up to this inner relationship can be considered one of the prerequisites for meeting him in person. And recognizing the Imam (aj) in dream is not possible for everyone.

When two individuals know nothing about each other, there is no way they can have a relationship, unless at least one of them knows the other sparking a two way knowledge and awareness that will finally end in a relationship.

As for having a relationship with Imam Mahdi (as), he is one end of the relationship that knows us very well and has affection for us.  What is left for us, the other end, is to know our imam well and become worthy enough to see him, as has been the case with many righteous and pious individuals.

Detailed Answer 513: There are three types of relationships one can have with Imam Mahdi (aj); a) In person b) In the heart. c) In dream. The question is, are these relationships possible?  In order to answer this question, we will analyze each of them separately:

1) Meeting the imam in person: Meaning that the two meet each other physically; this can be in one of two ways:

  1. A) To see the imam but not recognize him

According to hadiths, this is possible for all and takes place as well.  Sheikh Saduq, a great Shia scholar narrates from one of the imam’s “specific” representatives that he said: “Imam Mahdi (aj) participates in the Hajj ceremony every year; he sees the people and knows all of them, yet the people see him but don’t recognize him.”[1]  So not only isn’t seeing the imam possible, but it is also takes place, nevertheless, such a seeing can’t be called having a relationship with him, and this isn’t what your question is about.

  1. B) To see the imam and recognize him:

Is it possible for one to see the imam and recognize him?  Yes, it is possible, and the real question is, if one is righteous and pious enough to be worthy of seeing the imam, why wouldn’t the imam want to see him?!  There is no reason for Imam Mahdi (aj) not seeing anyone until the zuhur [his emergence].  He hasn’t sworn to not see anyone till then.  There is one exception though, and that is that there are sometimes other reasons that make it better for the imam not to meet a certain person who is worth [for instance, sometimes it is for the person’s own good not to the see the imam].

There are many stories of great scholars and individuals that tell us of them meeting the imam.  Some of them recognized the imam while others realized who they had met after they/he had left.

The point that needs to be made here is that meeting the imam doesn’t always have to be in person, although meeting him in person is a very extraordinary and sweet experience.  This type of meeting doesn’t take place for everyone and seldom does the imam meet someone in such a way.  What is important is for all of us to at least have an inner connection with him.

2- Having a relationship with him in the heart:

This means for one to be in touch with the imam through the soul and heart, regardless of whether he speaks and prays for the imam orally or in the heart, without ever experiencing his physical presence.

Is this type of relationship possible?  Of course it is; no matter where we are and how we speak with them, the imams hear our voices and are aware of the situations we are in.  When entering the shrines of the imams, we say: “اشهد أنک تسمع کلامی و تشهد مقامی”,[2] which means “I bear witness that you hear my words and are aware of my standing”.

There are numerous hadiths which tell us that the Prophet (pbuh) and imams (as) are aware of all of us and the situations we are in.  In the story of Uways Qarani [the person who left his old mother to travel to Medinah to see the Prophet (pbuh) with her permission, given that he would return by the end of the night, and after reaching Medinah, realized that the prophet (pbuh) was out of town, and would return at a time that if Uways was to await him, wouldn’t reach home in time, thus breaking his promise to his mother, so he left Medinah without seeing the prophet (pbuh), despite his deep love to see him], we read that he loved the prophet (pbuh) very much and although he longed to see him, he never succeeded, yet the prophet (pbuh) knew of him and his extreme affection for the prophet (pbuh).  In a hadith, the prophet (pbuh) says: “The scent of heaven blows from Qaran’s direction, O Uways, how I long to see you!  [The prophet (pbuh) was very pleased of the fact that Uways had returned to his home without succeeding in seeing him, just to fulfill his promise to his mother and for the sake of Allah (swt)] Send him my salams if you ever see him.”  He goes on to say: “He will never see me, and after me, will be martyred while fighting on Ali’s (as) side in the battle of Siffin.”[3]

So the prophet (pbuh) and imams (as) are aware of us and what we have in our hearts, regardless of whether we verbalize it or not.  Thus, we always have the chance to get in touch and speak with them anytime we want.

  1. Having a relationship with him in dream.

Generally, it is possible to see an Infallible (pbuth) in dream.

There are different types of dreams which can be divided into three categories: one, clear dreams which do not have to be interpreted. Two, dreams which do not have an interpretation due to their being difficult or to another excuse. Three, dreams where the soul uses similes; these dreams can be interpreted.[4]

After this introduction it must be stated that one, in a dream, through the mithali and intellectual existence meet one of the beloved ones. [5]

How to make sure this is one of the Infallibles (pbuth) if we see Him in our Dream? The Holy Prophet (pbuh) says: Whoever sees Me, my Ahlul Bayt or my followers in his dream has certainly seen us, because the Satan is unable to assume our form. [6]

The Arabic version of the Hadith is as follows:

مَنْ رَآنِي فِي مَنَامِهِ فَقَدْ رَآنِي لِأَنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَا يَتَمَثَّلُ فِي صُورَتِي وَ لَا فِي صُورَةِ أَحَدٍ مِنْ أَوْصِيَائِي وَ لَا فِي صُورَةِ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْ شِيعَتِهِم‏

According to Ayatollah Javadi Amoli, if one has already seen an Infallibles (pbuth) in person he would be able to recognize the Infallible in his dream. Otherwise, one cannot be able to recognize whether this is the Imam or not. There is a way to make sure if this is Imam or not is to see if He is recommending the one to do the righteous deeds, mustahab act or bid with is wrong. Thus, if the one who claims to be an Imam order his to do the bid what is right he can make sure this is the Imam.[7]

Ways for establishing a relationship with the Imam

Here, we would like to draw your attention to some advice and tips given by The Grand Ayatullah Bahjat [who is known for his high spirituality] for those who want to see and meet the imam:

In response to a question from those who want to meet the imam in person, he says: “Recite salawats frequently, [Allahumma Salli Ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad], adding the wa ajjil farajahum [which means “and hasten their aid [to us]” (aid here refers to the return of Imam Mahdi)] to the end, and offer them [their blessings and rewards] to the imam (aj), go to the Jamkaran mosque on a regular basis and pray the the special prayers there.”[8]

In another place, concerning the ways one can use to establish a relationship with the imam, he says: “Establishing a relationship with Allah (swt) is contingent upon obeying Him and Imam Zaman (aj), and in order to know that we are doing so, we need to act according to what Islam has asked us to do, which calls for us to refer to a risalah [the books in which Islamic marja’s record their verdicts on Islamic law] that can be followed [and apply all of the rules therein to our everyday lives].”[9]

In response to another question about how we can strengthen our relationship with the imams, especially Imam Mahdi (aj), he says: “Obeying Allah (swt) after understanding who He is and getting familiar with him, brings love for Him, and love for those Allah (swt) likes, who are the prophets (pbut) and their successors, in which the most beloved of all of them are the prophet of Islam (pbuh) and his progeny (as), and the closest of them to us is Imam Mahdi (aj).”[10]

Other ways for establishing a relationship with the imam have also been mentioned elsewhere:

2-1 Reciting the dua of اللهم کن لولیک … for his health and well-being.[11]

2-2 Reciting Dua Ahd[12] which Imam Sadiq (as) has said that whosoever recites this dua during the sabah [between dawn and sunrise] will be one of the companions of Imam Mahdi (aj).

3-2 Reciting Ziyarah Ale-Yasin,[13] which Imam Mahdi (aj) has said: “Whenever you want to focus on us, recite this ziyarah.”  It can be found in Mafatihul-Jinan.

4-2 Reciting Ziyarah Jame’ah Kabirah which can also be found in Mafatihul-Jinan.[14]

Therefore, it is possible to establish a relationship with Imam Zaman (aj).  It just depends on how much we want and strive for it.  It is both possible to have an inner connection with him, or, in the case of very hard struggle and effort by being pious and staying away from sins, even see and meet him.  One can even reach a level that the imam himself will come to him!  Of course, we should all keep in mind that if one does all of the things mentioned above and still doesn’t succeed in seeing the imam (aj), he/she shouldn’t lose hope, but should try harder and harder and be more careful of his/her actions.

Finally, there are always chances of a person being totally worthy of seeing the imam, yet other circumstances don’t allow such a thing to happen, such as seeing him not being to the benefit of the individual, and we should be aware of this fact and not lose hope, but continue our way, because we have been brought to this world to serve and obey Allah (swt), regardless of whether we see our imam (as) or not, and that is what being a true servant of Allah (swt) is; to serve Him sincerely, without expecting anything in return [although he never leaves our good actions without any reward].

Hadith: Deny the claims of those who say they have seen the Imam (aj):

A question might come up here which is: “If it is possible to see the Imam (aj), then how come there are hadiths that tell us to deny the claims of those who say they have seen the imam?

The answer to this question is that there are hadiths that tell us whoever claims to have seen the imam before the emergence of the Sufyani and “the cry”[15] is a liar.[16] Regarding these hadiths, our scholars have said: “What the imam means by “seeing” [when he says those who claim to have seen me], is for one to claim to have seen him and say that he is the imam’s “specific” representative, like the four representatives he had during his minor occultation.[17]  In any case, none of these hadiths reject the possibility of seeing the imam, all they say is to deny the claims of those who say they have seen him.  When we read about the lives of some of the great individuals who had seen the imam (aj), we see that none of them neither announced nor took advantage of what had taken place for them; in many cases, they had concealed it until their deaths and after that others had found out.

Without a doubt, being able to see the Imam (aj) takes a lot of hard work and effort.

The final point that needs to be made is the importance of maintaining a relationship with him for his followers, because as we all know, when one has a relationship with those higher than him in spirituality and morality, he strives to become like them or at least more like them than before.  It has been proven in psychology that every person is in need of a “role model”.  For instance, when a youth establishes an inner relationship with Imam Mahdi (aj), it has an impact on his life and he tries to do things that will please his master; this will eventually end in his spiritual progression.  Thus we can say that a relationship with the imam can play the role of an “engine” in one’s life; pushing towards good deeds and morality.

When a youth sees all of the dignity, grace and virtues of his imam, he will try to establish a relationship with him, and of course, such a matter doesn’t necessarily have to be through physically getting in contact with the imam; all people can have a relationship with him by reading about him, his characteristics, attributes, virtues and way of life, and following him in all of them and becoming more like him.  Certainly, the imam’s vast existence is to the extent that whenever one gets in touch with him through the heart, he also pays attention to the individual, as corroborated by different ziyarahs that say: “I bear witness that you hear my words and see my standing”.[18] Therefore, it isn’t our duty to see the imam in person, although it would be a great blessing for such a thing to happen, nevertheless, if one doesn’t ever see the imam, it doesn’t mean that the imam is indifferent and doesn’t care about him/her.

[1] ان صاحب هذا الامر یحضر الموسم کل سنة یری الناس و یعرفهم و یرونه و لا یعرفونه  Man La Yahdhuruhul-Faqih, vol. 2, pg. 520, hadith 3115).

[2] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 97, pg 375, chapter 5, hadith 9.

[3] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 42, pg. 155, chapter 124, hadith 22.

[4] Tafsīr al-Mīzān (Farsi edition), v.11, p.372

[5] Refer to Tafsīr al-Mīzān (Farsi edition), v.11, pgs. 366-373

[6] . Biharul Alnwar, Vol. 49, chapter 19, Pg. 283, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, 1403.

[7] . Nihad Nemayandegi of the Supreme Leader (ha) in Universities, recommendations, question and answer, Vol. 2, second edtion, Pg. 69.

[8] Seyyid Mahdi Sa’i, Beh Sooye Mahboub, pg. 59.

[9] Ibid, pg. 61.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Kafi, vol. 4, pg. 162, chapter الدعا فی العشر الاواخر (supplications for the final ten days), hadith 4.

[12] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 53, pg. 95, chapter 29, hadith 11.

[13] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 99, pg. 81, chapter 7, hadith 1.

[14] Man La Yahdhuruhul-Faqih, vol. 2, pg. 609, hadith 3213.

[15] These are two of the signs ofZuhur.

[16] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 151, chapter 23, hadith 1.

[17] Allamah Majlisi quotes this interpretation of this hadith under it in Biharul-Anwar from the book Ikmaluddin.

[18] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 97, pg. 375, chapter 5, hadith 9  “أشهد أنک تسمع کلامی و تشهد مقامی”.