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Who is Sayyid? Rules concerning Sehme Sadaat

Question 352: Assalam o alAikum. Who are syed? According the Holy Quran?

I asked this question because of the concept circling in India and Pakistan about Masoom syed and non Masoom syed. As per my understanding Imam Mehdi as is the last know syed of Hazrat Fatima as blood line.
I do not understand the concept of non Masoom syed blood line.

Regards

Answer 352: In Arabic, the word ‘Sayyid’ simply means Mister, Honorable and Head. In Islamic terminology, it is an honorific title denoting those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim through the Daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), Hadhrat Fatimah Zahra (sa) and Imam Ali (as).[1]

Those who are descendant of Imam Ali (as) through Hadhrat Abbas (as) or Muhammad Hanafiyyah are respectfully called Sayyid. The same way is for those Hashemis who are accepted as descendant of Ja’far al-Tayyar and Aqil.[2]

Although, those who are descendants of Laday Fatimah Zahra (sa) through their mothers are Sayyid, but the term Sayyid is not exclusively related to the children of Hazrat Zahra (sa), because those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim and His generations are also considered as Sayyid. What the only difference is in regards to some rules like Khums that are considered as haram to those whose mothers are Sayyida, only. This means that those children of Sayyida mothers are surely descendant of the Holy Prophet (pbuh),[3] but a non Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza.

According to this following verse of the Holy Quran “Assert their relationship to their fathers; this is more equitable with Allah” it is prevalent and customary that a childs name and race are followed by his father, however ascribing the child to his mother is certainly true as well.[4]

One of the important thing we should take into consideration is that a child whose mother is sayyida but non Sayyid father is only allowed to use Sadaqa, though Khums is not given to him.[5]

Note: Khums should be divided into two parts. One part is Sehme Sadaat, it should be given to a Sayyid who is poor, or orphan, or who has become stranded without money during his journey. The second part is Sehme Imam (A.S.), and during the present time it should be given to a Mujtahid, who fulfils all conditions, or be spent for such purposes as allowed by that Mujtahid. As an obligatory precaution, that Mujtahid must be Aalam, and well versed in public affairs.[6]

Sayyid and non-Sayyid on the Day of resurrection:  1) There is no difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid in doing their duties and canonical responsibilities as they are equal without having any superiority over each other. Because, the Holy Quran says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”.  2)  Sayyids due to their descendant ascribed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) have more responsibility toward observing their Islamic responsibilities and duties.[7]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The difference between Sayyid and Mirza, answer 562.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

Index: Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid, answer 041.

Index: Khums in the Holy Quran and Traditions / Things on which Payment of Khums is Obligatory, answer 043.

[1] . Qurashi, Sayyid Ali Akbar, Qamous Quran, Vol. 3, Pg. 350, Dar al-Kutub al-Islmaiya, Tehran, sixth edition, 1992;  Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn, majma al-Bahrain, Vol. 3, Pg. 71, Murtadhavi Bookstore, Tehran, third edition, 1996;  Arabic and Farsi Farhang Abjad, Pg. 507.

[2] . Khamenei, Sayyid Ali, Ajwabat al-Istiftaat, Pgs. 216-217;  Golpayegani, Saayid Muhammad Redha, Majma al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 392, Dar al-Quran al-Karim, Qom, eighth edition, 1409 A.H.

[3] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir Biharul Anwar, vol. 10, Pg. 349, H 9, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, 1404 A.H. Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 2, Pg. 89, Q 1009.

[4] . Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[5] . Kulayni, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 539, H. 4, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran, 1986;  Kulayni, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 539, H. 4, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran, 1986;  Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[6] . The Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Khums, issue 1843.

[7] . Surah al-Hujurat, verse 13;  Majma’ al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 393.

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Obligatory of paying Khums or Zakat upon Goldsmith

Question 328: Asalamualaikum. Dear Sheikh,If I am a goldsmith ,is it halal/haram for me to give zakat from my earning from such business(i.e.gold)? Thank you

Answer 328: This question has different assumable cases:

1- If gold meets the criterion of being made into coins, and is in currency for transactions, is in one’s possession, and reach the taxable limits, zakat will apply.[1] But if these coins are made into ornaments and used by women as ornaments, e.g., necklaces and bracelets, then zakat will no longer apply.[2]

Note: Zakaat [obligatory charity] must be paid on gold if it reaches the Nisaab [i.e. the minimum amount liable for Zakaah], which is 20 Mithqaal [a measure which equals 70 grams of pure gold, according to most of scholars], this means that one should pay ½ a Mithqaal as Zakaat, i.e., 2.5% of the value of gold. If 4 Mithqaal is added to the previous mentioned value, 2.5% of gold should be paid again as the liable amount of Zakaah.[3]

2- If gold do not meet the criteria mentioned above, like in the case where they aren’t used as currency in transactions, then zakat will not apply. [4] Based on this, since the gold used today isn’t used as currency, zakat does not apply to it.[5]

However, if a khums year passes and you have other required conditions (which have been mentioned in Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (ha)), you are just supposed to pay Khums.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

Index: How to calculate Khums on a house purchased with Sahm e Sadat, answer 046.

Index: Khums in the Holy Quran and Traditions / Things on which Payment of Khums is Obligatory, answer 043.

Index: Obligatory of paying knums on wife’s dowry, answer 042.

Index: Obligatory of paying Khums on a plot of land you have the intention to sell it, answer 567.

Index: Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid, answer 041.

Index: Khums on household items received from parents, answer 038.

Index: Obligatory of Khums on savings exceeds a person’s expenditures, answer 559.

Index: Zakat of Fitrah, Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies), answer 045.

Index: Things on which Payment of Zakàt is Obligatory or Recommended, answer 044.

Index: Zakat of Gold and Silver and its criterion, answer 039.

[1] . An inquiry from the office of the Supreme leader; Imam Khomeini, Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), researched and corrected by: Bani Hashemi Khomeini, Sayyid Mohammad Hosein, vol. 2, pp. 128-132, Islamic Publications Press, Qum, eighth edition, 1424 AH.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Vol. 2, Pg. 129.

[3] . Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pg. 131; Sistani and Saafi Golpaygani (inquiry from their offices); Zanjani: “Gold and silver coins used as currency that women use as ornaments, if are still commonly used in transactions as currency, are subject to zakat, but if they aren’t commonly used in transactions as currency, zakat will not apply, but it is still a recommended precaution to pay their zakat as well.” Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pg. 130.

[4] . Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pp. 128-132.

[5] . Makarem Shirazi (inquiry from office).

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How to calculate Khums on a house purchased with Sahm e Sadat

Question 046: A member of Ask Islam group contacted me privately about a situation that was brought to him for advice. There is a need for at least 2-3 academically credible sources, which Inshaa’Allah should include references from some of the Grand Marja’ (rulings from Sistani, Makram Shirazi and Khamenei are specifically being requested).

History: A brother, took financial responsibility for some of his extended family. He had an uncle, an aunt, three nieces, and a nephew who were financially dependent on him because his uncle (the head of the family) had a debilitating disability which left him paralyzed. This brother paid for the families expenses.

The house they lived ended up in a court dispute. The family thought the house belonged to them while some other party claimed it didn’t. After a court battle, it was found that the house did not in fact belong to the family that was living in it. The owners came to the house and told the family that they either had to immediately vacate the home or purchase the home. It would have caused great hardship for the family to move due to the uncles disability however they didn’t have any money to purchase the house either, as they were already financially dependent on the brother due to the disability.

Some family members and the uncle approached the brother and asked him to purchase the house since he had the means. The brother did not have the means but he did have some savings that he used in addition to an allocation of Sahm e Sadat that he had arranged for the family with the permission of the marja they followed. With the combination of his savings and the khums, the brother was able to purchase the home, where the family was able to live.

After some time, one of the daughters died, the uncle died, the aunt died, and the two remaining daughters were able to get married. There was only one family member left in the home, which was the teenage son.

The brother came into some financial troubles and needed to sell the house. The son is currently under the financial care of the brother as the child is an orphan.

Since, the home was originally purchase with a share of Sahm e Sadat, the brother has a few questions. He not only has concerns about the orphans well-being but he has concern about the share of Sahm e Sadat used to buy the home originally.
Questions: Should the Sahm e Sadat that was used to purchase the home be returned to the marja or should the brother give it to the orphan son that remains? The child has no inheritance as his father was financially dependent on the brother.
In addition, the home sold for a much greater price than it was purchased for. Does the brother need to add any inflation to the amount of Sahm e Sadat, when he pays it to either the marja or the orphan, in order to make things right?

Is there any other information that the brother needs to know in order to financially settle the son or the marja that he is religiously bound by fiqh? He wants to make sure that there is nothing he needs to worry about in the grave, he wants to make sure hes not being unjust.

If there is any additional information needed, please reach out for me. I know many more details and if there are details I don’t know, I can get them. Please, also see the financial breakdown below:

Brothers Personal Share – Rs 640,000

Sahm e Sadat – Rs 290,000

Buying Price of the House – Rs 930,000

Selling Price of the House – Rs 1,600,000

Profit from the Sell – Rs 670,000

Answer 046: The first order of business is to pay the amount of 498,924 to the orphan. The Sahm e Sadat that was arranged for the family to help purchase the house remains with the family. The orphan is the remaining member so, it should be paid to him. There is inflation on the original 290,000 due to the selling price of the house and the formula is as follows:

290,000 x 1,600,000 ÷ 930,000 = 498,924.

The second order of business is that khums must be paid to the brother’s marja on the remaining money of 1,101,076. The amount that he is to pay to his marja is 220,215. 1/5 or 20% is the amount that is used to figure the amount of khums and the formula is as follows:

1,600,000 – 498,924 = 1,101,076 x 20% = 220,215.

The amount must be paid to the orphan before the amount of khums is paid. The brother’s share of the selling price of the house is 880,861.

1,600,000 – 498,924 = 1,101,076 – 220,215 = 880,861.

498,924 – Orphan

220,215 – Khums

880, 861 – Profit.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Islamic Laws / Khums.

[1] . While these formulas are agreed upon among all Grand Maraja’, this particular scenario and the formulas used to reach these figures were confirmed by the Office of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (ha).

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Khums: Rules concerning Awl and Ta’sib

Question 324:  Salam sheikh…what is awl and tasib…i just asked bcs you know im not too familiare with shia beliefs

Answer 324: In the book of Islamic inheritance there has been mentioned two important issues regarding Ta`síb and Awl. Shia and Sunni have different opinion in this regards. According to some verses of the Holy Quran and narrations from Ahlul Bayt (pbuth), Shia unanimously believe that Awl and Ta’sib are null and void.[1]

If the surviving heirs of a deceased inherit by Fard, they shall inherit in one of the following ways.

Firstly, If the inheritance of the deceased is equal to the prescribe shares without any surplus or deficiency, as when the heirs are the parents and several daughters, then two-thirds shall go to the daughters and a third to both the parents, a sixth going to each of them.

Secondly (Ta’sib), if the inheritance exceeds the amount of the shares, the surplus shall return to the sharers, and it shall not go to the Asabah of the deceased, that means every male who is related to the deceased directly or indirectly through males.

If the heirs are confined to a single daughter and the mother, the daughter shall get a half by Fard and the mother a sixth by Fard, and the surplus shall revert to both of them in fourths in proportion to their shares.

If the heirs are confined to several daughters and the mother, the daughters shall get two-third by Fard, and the mother a sixth by Fard, and the surplus shall revert to the daughters and the mother in fifth in proportion to their shares, and the Asabah shall get dust (i.e. nothing).

Thirdly (Awl), if the inheritance falls short of the amount of shares, and that happens by the inclusion in the heirs of one or two or more daughters or one or two or more sisters by both subjected to Awl in proportion to all due to their inclusion. If the heirs of the deceased are confined to a daughter, husband and both parents, the prescribed shares of the husband and both the parents shall be given to them, and the deficiency, that is half of the sixth (of the deficiency, which is a fourth of the estate, shall fall on them. The same shall happen in other similar cases as well.

The surplus shall not revert to the following shares:

  1. The wife in general. So she shall be given her prescribed share, and the residue shall revert to the other classes including even the Imam (as).

The Husband, he shall be given his prescribed share, and the residue shall go to the other heirs, except when the heirs of the deceased are confined to him and the Imam (as), in which case a half of the estate shall revert to him in addition to his own prescribed share.

The mother, when there is someone excluding her from the return, as has already been mentioned.

The brothers or sisters by mother in all circumstances in the presence of anyone of the parental grandfathers or grandmothers, or anyone of the brothers or sisters by both parents or by the father, as already mentioned.

The male children or the female children accompanied by male children inherit by virtue of Qarabat. Same is the case with a father provided the deceased has left no child.

The same is the case with the grandfathers and grandmothers in general, or the brothers or sisters by both parents or by father provided there are some males among them. The same is the ease with all the groups belonging to the Third Class from among the paternal uncles and aunts and their children, who inherit by Qarabat, and net by Fard.

If an heir inheriting by Fard is combined with one inheriting by Qarabat, then the sharer shall get his prescribed share and the residue shall go to the hair inheriting by Qarabat. If both the parents are combined with the male or female children, both the parents shall get their prescribed shares, that is, two-sixths, and the residue shall go to the children by Qarabat. If both the parents are sole heirs, then the mother shall get a sixth if combined by a Hajib and a third by Fard in his absence, and the residue shall go to the father by Qarabat. If one or several sisters by both the parents combine the maternal grandfather or grandmother, then the sister or sisters shall get the prescribed share, and the residue shall go to the grandfather or grandmother by virtue of Qarabat. Similar is the case with ethers than those mentioned.[2]

Ta’sib: according to Ahlul Sunna, the six kinds of shares determined in the Qur’an at times equal the whole estate, such as two daughters along with parents (2/3 + 1/6 + 1/6). Here the question of ‘awl and ta’sib does not arise, because the two daughters will take two-thirds and the parents one-third.

At times the total of the shares does not exhaust the whole estate, such as the case of a single daughter, whose share is half, or two daughters, whose share is two-thirds. This (in Sunni schools) results in ta`sib.

When the total shares exceed unity—such as when the husband, the parents and the daughter inherit together, the share of the husband, the daughter and the parents being one-fourth, one-half and one-third respectively—the estate cannot cover all the three shares together. This results in `awl. `Awl will be discussed in the second chapter.

Awl: According to Ahlul Sunna, `awl is applied where the shares exceed the heritage, such as where the deceased leaves behind a wife, parents and two daughters (the shares being, the wife’s one-eighth, the parents’ one-third, the two daughters’ two-thirds; here the estate falls short of the sum of one-eighth, one third and two-thirds 127/24]). Similarly, if a woman dies and leaves behind her husband and two agnate sisters, the share of the husband is one-half, and that of the sisters two-thirds; here the estate falls short of the sum of half and two-thirds (7/6). ‘Awl occurs only if the husband or the wife is present.

The schools differ regarding the issue. Will the deficit, in such a case, be diminished proportionately from the shares of all the sharers, or will it be diminished from the shares of only some of them?

The four Sunni schools accept the doctrine of ‘awl, the rule that all the shares will be diminished proportionately, exactly like the creditors’ claims when the assets fall short of meeting them. Hence if the heirs are wife, parents and two daughters, according to these schools it will be an instance of ‘awl. The obligation is met by dividing the heritage into 27 parts, though it earlier comprised 24 parts. The wife will take 3/27 (i.e. her share becomes 1/9 instead of 1/8), the parents take 8/27 and the daughter 16/27.

[1] . Al-Kafi, Vol. 7, Page 79, Chapter: Ibtalel Awl; Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 26, Pgs. 73-75, Publisher Alul Bayt; Oyoun Akhbar al-Ridha (as), Vol. 2, Pg. 165; Elalul Sharae’, Vol. 2, Pgs. 567-569; Man La Yahdhurul Faqih, Vol. 6, Pg. 123-124; Ibid, Vol. 4, Pg. 256.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 4, Pgs. 44-46 (English version)

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Khums in the Holy Quran and Traditions / Things on which Payment of Khums is Obligatory

Question 043: What is khums and what is it paid on? Please give examples of things on which Khums is payable?

Answer 043: Khums literally means “one-fifth or 20% (1/5)”. In Islamic legal terminology, it means “one-fifth of certain items which a person earns by means of trade, industry, agricultural work, research or any other ways of earning, like, if he earns some money by working in a government department, and if it exceeds the annual expenses for maintaining himself and his family, he should pay Khums (i.e. 1/5) from the surplus, in accordance with the rules. Read More

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Obligatory of paying Khums on a plot of land you have the intention to sell it

Question 567: I am Muqallid of Ayatullah Khamenei. I purchased 03 plots of land with some years installments from housing schemes to save money and for good return of savings or for my own house because I have no house.

I paid installments with the money on which khums was not paid. Many years has been passed after the completion of installments.
For example; I paid installments for one plot from my yearly savings from 2007 to 2010 and paid Rs. 1200,000 to purchase the plot. Until now I have not paid khums on it, now I want to pay. My questions are as follows:

  1. I have to pay only on purchase price Rs. 1200,000?
  2. Should I pay on current price which is more than three times now from purchase price; have to pay immediately or I should wait for year completion after selling?
  3. If I have to pay khums on plot price which was in 2007 or 2010 (Rs. 1200,000), but kindly note that due to inflation, now in 2017 currency rate has been dropped. Should I calculate currency rate difference also? If yes then which standard have to follow USD or gold rate etc?
  4. What is ruling if I sell them and use amount to make or purchase my house because I don’t have house and I need it in future (currently I am in my employer provided residence).
  5. Out of 03 plots one plot I am purchasing in installments (2-3 years savings) with pure intention of constructing my own house and no intention to sell it, what about its khums? I cannot make house with one year savings.

Answer 567: 1. According to Ayatollah Khamenei (ha), if a person purchases a plot of lands with the profit earned by him, to sell it later in order to buy or build a house, it is obligatory on him to pay Khums on it at the end of the year. And if he does not pay Khums, and the value of the property increases, he should pay Khums on its current value.[1]

  1. Since, the khums year had already passed in which the items were purchased, by money which was subject to khums and you didn’t pay Khums on them, and their values of them increased, you should pay Khums on their current values, immediately.[2]
  2. Khums should be calculated with the current price at the time of paying khums. For example, if the estimated value of the plot is now about 10000,000 though you had already paid 1200,000, you have to calculate its khums (i.e. 1/5) based on the current estimated value (10000,000).[3]
  3. You have to pay khums on the plots first then buy a house. Because, many years has been passed and you purchased the plots with the money on which khums was not paid.
  4. Ayatollah Khamenei says in this regards, if a person who has no house but a plot of land that he bought it with the profit earned during a year and with the intention to construct a house on it, paying khums is not obligatory on him, unless he sells it. But, if he bought it with the intention to sell it later for buying a house, it is obligatory on him to pay its khums. In this regards, there is no difference if it is a plot of land or two and more, because the importance is the need for building a house on it (that shouldn’t exceed his social statutes), and without having the intention to sell it. [4]

Conclusion: if you bought a plot with the profit earned during a year and have the intention to construct a house on it, paying khums is not obligatory on you, unless you sell it. Otherwise, if you bought it with having the intention to sell it later for making more profit by which you can buy a house you are recommended to pay its khums based on the current value.[5]

[1] . Refer to: The official website of Ayatollah Khamenei, rules regarding Khums.

[2] . For more information in this regards, please refer to the official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Khums: Profit from earning.

[3] . The official website of the office of Ayatollah Bahjat (ra), Istiftaat, Khums, Q. 314.

[4] . The official website of Ayatollah Khamenei, rules regarding Khums; Ajwabat al-Istiftaat (available in Farsi language), Pg. 198, Q. 937; Ibid, Pg. 209, Q. 976.

[5] . For more information, please refer to: Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’, Vol. 2, Pg. 101, Q. 1026; Tawzih al-Masael, Ayatollah Makarem, Q. 1502.

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Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid

Question 041: Can the Sadaat portion of khums be given to a non-Ithna Ashari? For example, can it be given to a Sunni Sayyid?

Answer 041: According to all maraja’ point of view, it is impermissible to give the Sadaat portion of Khums to a non-Ithnā’ ashariyyah Sayyid.[1]

Khums can be given to a Sayyid who may not be A’dil, but it should not be given to a Sayyid who is not Ithna ‘Ashari.

If a person claims that he is a Sayyid, Khums cannot be given to him unless two just (A’dil) persons confirm that he is a Sayyid, or if he is so well-known among the people, (as Sayyid) that one is sure and satisfied about him being a Sayyid. [2]

Sahme (portion) Sadat should be given, as an obligatory precaution, to the Marja whom he follows or be given to poor Seyyeds (Athnā‘ ashariyyah) with the permission of the Mujtahid, according to most of maraja’.[3]

Note: Khums should be divided into two parts. One part is Sahme (share of) Imam (a.s.), and the other is Sahme Sadat. When it comes to paying Sahme Sadat, Grand jurists such as Sistani, Tabrizi (r.a) and Saafi do not consider the Mujtahid’s permission to be necessary; [thus, he can pay it to poor and faithful Sayyids (Twelver) without obtaining their permission.] Ayatollah Bahjat (ra) and Makarem (ha) said: obtaining your mujtahid’s permission is necessary, according to an obligatory precaution.[4]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masiel al-mohasha (with connotation), Vol. 2. Pg. 61,question 1837.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Disposal of Khums.

[3] . Grand Ayatollahs Fazel Lankarani (r.a), Noori Hamedani, Makarem Shirazi, Bahjat (r.a) and Wahid Khurasani.

[4] . For further information refer to: Portal Anhar Website & Official website of Ayatollah Bahjat (ra).

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Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms

Question 040: What is the relevance of differentiating between Sayed holms and Non-Sayyed holms. I have never seen or heard of it until recently? Is one supposed to pay more than the other? There were two holms boxes at Eid prayer. One for Non-Sayyed and the other for Sayyed.

Answer 040: The only difference is that, a person, who is not a Sayyid, cannot give fitra to a Sayyid, and if that Sayyid is his dependent, he cannot give to another Sayyid either.

Whoever is adult, sane and is neither unconscious, nor poor, nor the slave of another. He should give, on his own behalf, as well as on behalf of all those who are his dependents.

The cost is about three kilos per head of Wheat, Barley, Dates, Raisins, Coined Gold & Silver, Camel, Cow, Sheep (including goat).

It is also sufficient if he pays the price of one of these items in cash (it depends on where he lives). This is because the price of such items differ in each country or city you live or which such items we mostly use. As per obligatory precaution, he should not give from that food which is not staple in his place, even if it be wheat, barley, dates or raisins.

“In fact, there are two boxes: Khums box and Zakat box. Each poor person has the right to use only one of the two boxes for his annual expenses.” The Non-Sayyid indigents uses the Zakat box and the Sayyid indigents use the Khums box. The Sayyid indigents do not have the right to use anything from the Zakat property.[1]

According to Sayyid Sistani, it is permissible for a Hashimi to give his sadaqa to another Hashimi or to a non-Hashimi. This includes both Zakat of property and zakat of Fitra. But it is not permissible for a non-Hashimi to give his Sadaqa to a Hashimi. If a Hashimi receives Zakat of property or fitra from a non-Hashimi, it would be forbidden for him to use it, and he who gives it (zakat), his “Zimma” (obligation) would not be discharged. In cases other than those mentioned above it is permissible for a non-Hashimi to give his Sadaqa, atonement, or Fidya of fast (kaffara) or any desirable charity to a Hashimi. Yes, if charity given to a Hashimi is too little an amount of property and it is given with the intention of repulsing calamity and evil, there is Ishkaal (objection) in its being permissible.

Difference between Khums and Zakat: Both are obligatory, but Khums is on gains after exception of expenses of the year and Zakat is on cattle, crops, gold and silver.[2]

[1] . Tafsir Nomouneh, vol.7, pg.183.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding Zakat.

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Zakat of Gold and Silver and its criterion

Question 039: In Sunni tradition, any pure gold a person possesses, even as given as a gift, one must pay a yearly zakat based on its weight. Does the same tradition apply to the Shia?

Answer 039: If gold or silver meet the criterion of being made into coins, and are in currency for transactions, are in one’s possession, and reach the taxable limits, zakat will apply. If these coins are made into ornaments and used by women as ornaments, (E.g., necklaces and bracelets) then zakat will no longer apply.

If gold or silver do not meet the criteria mentioned above, like in the case where they aren’t used as currency in transactions, then zakat will not apply. Based on this, since the gold used today isn’t used as currency, zakat does not apply to it.

If the gold or jewelry being used isn’t for the woman’s ornamental needs, or exceeds their social status, and a khums year passes, it will be subject to khums.[1]

[1] . An inquiry from the office of the Supreme leader; Imam Khomeini, Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), researched and corrected by: Bani Hashemi Khomeini, Sayyid Mohammad Hosein, vol. 2, pp.128-132, Islamic Publications Press, Qum, eighth edition, 1424 AH. Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pg. 131; Sistani and Saafi Golpaygani (inquiry from their offices); Zanjani: “Gold and silver coins used as currency that women use as ornaments, if are still commonly used in transactions as currency, are subject to zakat, but if they aren’t commonly used in transactions as currency, zakat will not apply, but it is still a recommended precaution to pay their zakat as well.” Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pg. 130. Tawdih al-Masa’il (annotated), vol. 2, pp. 128-132. Makarem Shirazi (inquiry from office). Makrem Shirazi, Sistani, and Saafi Golpaygani (inquiries from offices).

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Khums on household items received from parents

Question 038: Am I obligated to pay khums on household items, such as: clothes and gold jewelry that I have received from my parents at the time I got married? Is the literal term called jahaiz, considering the fact that I know khums of that money was not paid?

Answer 038: If you are sure that the khums year has passed in which the items were purchased, by money which was subject to khums, and khums was not given, it would fall to you to give khums on such items. Otherwise, there would be no problem to use them.

Note: No Khums is payable on what one spends from his profit during the year on dowry on daughter. If a person cannot prepare all the dowry for his daughter at the time of her marriage, and has to do so over a few years, and if it is deemed unbecoming for him not to give away any dowry, Khums will not be liable on what he purchases during the year, provided it is within his means. But if he exceeds his means, or spends the profit of one year to buy the dowry in the following year, he will pay its Khums.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index:  Obligatory of paying knums on wife’s dowry, answer 042.

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding Khums: Profit from earning.