Question 543: Salam. Sea of knowledge. Please, give me great information about DAR’s e kharijh or most hank rank class in hawza. Tell me the name of first marjhe in shiat history, who delivered this class firstly. In past whose marjhe great famous of DAR’s e kharijh in hawza?
What is the specific duration of that great class? Becase, this class grown of shait? Why in ahle sunnat not existing this type of class. Plz make a brief article on that topic
Answer 543: This is the current curriculum that the Hawzah follows:
1- The introductory level or Level 1 of the Hawzah (Islamic Seminary) which takes about six years to be completed. The first three years are usually spent for studying Arabic literature and other lessons, Islamic rules, Principles of faith, and the next three years are spent for studying general fiqh (Islamic Law) using the book Sharhul-Lum’ah and the principles of fiqh using the book usulul-fiqh of Mudhaffar.
2- Level 2 of the Hawzah (Bachelors): In this level, in addition to studying fiqh and usul in a more detailed way using the books Rasael and Makasib, Hawzah students can also major in other subjects such as theology, tafsir, philosophy, propagation etc.
3- Level 3 of the Hawzah (Masters): In this period, one must complete the level using the books Kifayat al-Ususl, Makasib, Nihayat al-Hikmat, Rijal, etc. and must also write a thesis too.
- Level 4 of the Hawzah (Ph.D): One must complete the level and have at least two years of kharij experience and must also write a thesis too.
In short, these stages take ten years altogether in which can also be completed in shorter periods.
After these ten years, which are called the sat’h period, the kharij period of study begins. This period doesn’t have a specific amount of years and its time differs with each of the maraji’ and teachers. Some of the Ulema might end their usul class in five years while others might take fifteen years to finish. Fiqh usually takes a long time too, because there are more than forty fiqh subjects that need to be covered which naturally takes a long time. A faqih needs to spend a lifetime to be able to cover all of these different subjects.
Becoming a mujtahid also depends on one’s potential and skills. One individual might be able to become a mujtahid in only five years of kharij studies through hard work and effort, while another might not be able to accomplish this goal for fifty years!
It should be noted that Ijtihad is the power and ability of being able to derive Islamic law from its sources and that one who studies his introductory courses in the first ten years or the sat’h period better, is better off in the kharij period which is in reality a course of getting familiar with the method of ijtihad. The rest all depends on the student’s effort and Allah’s help in gaining the ability of ijtihad.
Mujtahid is a jurist competent enough to deduce precise inferences regarding the commandments from the holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the holy Prophet by the process of Ijtihad. Ijtihad literally means striving and exerting. Technically as a term of jurisprudence it signifies the application by a jurist of all his faculties to the consideration of the authorities of law with a view to finding out what in all probability is the law. The laws derived from the sources are normally gathered in a book called “Tawzih al-Masail” (Islamic Laws). The religious authority who is a source of emulation must meet other conditions also such as piety, continence and awareness of the issues of the Islamic world and Shi’ism.
As stated earlier, taqlid in Shia religion began from the time of the Imams (AS) who referred their followers to the narrators of traditions as well as to their close companions. Sometimes they even encouraged their companions to sit in the mosques and public places to give verdicts and guide people which was due, mainly, to the fact that the people did not have access to the infallibles as they lived in other cities or in faraway places. During the period of minor occultation, there was a greater need for religious laws and, as per the narration which was related from Imam Mahdi (AS), during this time, people are supposed to know Islamic rules through the jurists who meet certain requirements. Thus, they should follow them and following such jurists is not confined to a particular time or era.
In the fourth Islamic century, taqlid was introduced as a technical term in the books concerning the principles of jurisprudence. The first person to be known as a religious authority for elites and common people was Sheikh Tusi in the fifth Islamic century. That was why he was then called Sheikh al-Taefah (the scholar of the people). His juridical views drew attention from all other scholars. There were some other prominent scholars before him in the fourth hegira century like his teacher Sheikh Mufid to whom people turned for advice in religious and spiritual matters. Also people like Ibn Abi Aqil Ummani, Ibn Wali and Sheikh Saduq wrote verdict –based books with reliance on narrations. They wrote fatwa books by mentioning the text of the traditions. Sheikh Saduq wrote a book emulating a book titled “The Doctor of One Who Does not Have Access to any Doctor”. His book was titled “Faqih man La Yahzuruhu al-Faqih” which means “A Jurisprudent of Someone Who Does not Have Access to any Jurisprudent”.
Shiite scholars always considered themselves responsible and committed to deal with questions raised by Shia Muslims and even people from other Islamic sects. This practice never stopped at any period of time but it culminated in the time of Sheikh Tusi (ra). Because although answering people’s questions was something routine and normal, the governments generally subscribed to Sunni beliefs and religion. Their books not only touched on general devotional practices and deeds but also they also dealt with particular and new issues until the opponents accused Shia of not having anything to say about particular and specific issues which caused Sheikh Tusi to write ‘al-Mabsut’. To respond to the blames and objections, he himself embarked on writing ‘al-Mabsut’ which deals with secondary jurisprudential issues. Given the prominence and greatness of Sheikh Tusi, for many centuries, the Shiite scholars benefited from his thoughts and views and no one ever wrote anything in opposition to him until Ibn Idris Hilli (ra) emerged in the scholarly circle. He and the scholars after him showed the guts to challenged Sheikh Tusi’s juridical notions.
Nevertheless, at the same time a book titled Sharaye’ al-Islam was written and which is unique in its beauty and how it has separated secondary issues from main general topics. After him, the First and Second Martyrs (Shahidayn) emerged in the Shiite world. They wrote books like “The Gleam” (Lum’ah) and its “Annotation” in which they mixed the demonstrative jurisprudence with verdicts and made them available for the laity. In every period of time, there have been prominent jurisprudents who undertook the leadership of the Shiite community. There haven’t been any time in which people may not have had access to general religious authority ranging from Sheikh Saduq, Sheikh Mufid, Sheikh Tusi and Ibn Idris to Allamah Hilli, Shahidayn (Two Martyrs), Muqaddas Ardabili, Sheikh Bahai, Mjlisi, the First, and Majlisi, the Second to the scholars in the last few centuries such as Sheikh Ansari, Muhammad Hasan (the author of Jawaher al-Kalam) and many other scholars who like strong and formidable mountains served as refuge and shelter for Shiites across.
Indeed, during the Safavid period, there were some migrant scholars in the Safavid court. These scholars including Sheikh Bahai’s father, Hussein bin Abdus Samad Amili (918 – 985), were from Jabil Amil and who helped form a centrality in the clerical institution. Thus, scholars emerged whose reputation surpassed their region. It is not true to say that the Shiite marja’eyyah started in the Safavid era because, as stated, this is something rejected both textually and rationally.
Indeed, in the same way that the harmony and close ties of Sunni scholars with the governments of their time helped strengthen their position, the same is true with Shiite scholars who enjoyed an opportunity to strengthen themselves in the Safavid era. There was no such opportunity before this time and it does not mean that the scholars were affiliated to the government. A look at what history tells us in this regard will make clear everything. A proof of that is the flourishing and emergence of Shiite scholars in every era especially during the stay of Ayatollah Boroujardi in the Islamic seminary of Qom.
For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:
Index: Conditions for non-Iranian ladies who want to study in Hawzah (Islamic seminary), answer 152.
Index: The First Shia Mujtahid, answer 503.
 . Vide: The Principles for Issuing Verdicts.
 . Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Behar al-Anwar, vol.101, p.268, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, second edition, 1403 A.H.
«وَ اجْلِسْ لَهُمُ الْعَصْرَيْنِ فَأَفْتِ لِلْمُسْتَفْتِي وَ عَلِّمِ الْجَاهِلَ وَ ذَاكِرِ الْعَالِمَ»؛
 . Gurji, Abul Qasim, The Periods of Usul al-Fiqh, p.38, Mizan Publications, Tehran, first edition, 1385 (solar calendar).
 . Vide: Sheikh Tusi, Abu Ja’far bin Hasan, al-Mabsut fi Fiqh al-Imamiyah, researcher and editor, Kashfi, Sayyid Muhammad Taqi, vol.1, p.2, al-Maktabah al-Murtazawiyah Le- Ihya al-Turath al-Ja’fariyah, Tehran, third edition, 1387 A.H.
 . Husseini Jalali, Sayed Muhammad Hussein, Fehres al-Turath, vol.1, p. 811, Dalil Maa Publications, Qom, 1422 A.H.
 . Vide: Allamah Majlisi, The Eulogist of the Safavid Government or the Preacher of Religious Teachings, Answer 13396.