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Receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Quran

Question 126: Is it allowed to make money off of teaching Qur’an?

Answer 126: There would be no problem to receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Qur’an, except those Surahs that we recite in our prayers like Surah al-Fatiha and Ikhlas, according to Ayatollah Bahjat and Fazel Lankarani[1].

Some scholars have issued a fatwa that it is abnormal (makrooh)[2].

The following is ahadith that blames us if we want to receive wages for training the Holy Qur’an: Imam Ali (a.s) has said, “Those who want to receive wages for training of the Holy Qur’an they will be given on the Day of Judgment as whatever they have received in this world[3].”

According to the above mentioned hadith, receiving wage for training the Holy Qur’an is abnormal[4].

Imam Ali (a.s) didn’t say you are not allowed to receive a wage in this regards, he said, “You will reward on the Day of Judgment as whatever you are given in this world. This means, you will never be rewarded on that Day! As a result, it is suited with abnormal! We can figure out from other traditions in which there would be no problem to receive a wage for providing training of the Holy Qur’an as the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, “The lawful wage you can ever be given is the wage for training the Holy Qur’an[5].”

In conclusion, it is appropriate to provide training of the Holy Qur’an with the intention of gaining proximity to Allah (SWT). We should consider the spiritual and heavenly remuneration if we want to provide training of the Holy Qur’an, instead of receiving a worldly wage, however, there would be no problem to receive it. The wages we are given in this regards should be considered as gift.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Taking wage for reciting holy Quran or eulogy, answer 451.

[1] . Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi, Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 411, Question 1447; Fazel Lankarani, Muhammad, book of Jemeul Masail, Vol. 1, Pg. 591, Question 2211.

[2] . Makarem Shirazi, Nase, new Isteftaat, Vol. 1, Pg. 521, second edition.

[3] . Sheikh Sadouq, Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh, Vol. 3, Pg. 178, second edition, 1413 AH.

[4] . Hilli, Hasan bin Yousef, Tadkiratul Foqaha, vol. 12, Pg. 136, first edition; Ardabili, Ahmad bin Muhammad, Majmaul Faidah walburhan fi, Sharhe Ershadel Adhan, Vol. 8, Pg. 18, first edition, 1403 AH; Majlesi, Muhammad Taqi, Rawzatul Muttaqin Fi Sharh e Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh, reasercher Moosavi Kermani, Sayyid Hussain & Estehardi, Ali Panah and Tabatabaee, Sayyid Fadhlulllah, Vol. 6, Pgs. 511 and 512.

[5] . Ibn Abi Jomhoor Ihsaee, Muhammad bin Ali, Awalial Layali al-Azizah Fi al-Ahadith al-Diniyah, Vol. 1, Pg. 176, Dar e Sayyid al-Shohada LialNashr, Qom, first edition, 1405 AH. «إِنَّ أَحَقَ مَا أَخَذْتُمْ عَلَیهِ أَجْراً كِتَابُ اللَّه»

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Wisdom of placing the Holy Quran on our head

Question 112: What is the wisdom and narrations of placing the Holy Qur’an on top of your head? When are the appropriate times during the year to do this?

Answer 112: As we Shia follow the traditions of the Infallibles (as), we all follow whatever they have been told us in this regards.
Ali bin Yaqteen narrated from Imam Kadhim (as) that the Imam (as) said: “Take the holy Quran in your hand and place it on top of your head and then say:

اللَّهُمَّ بِحَقِّ مَنْ أَرْسَلْتَهُ إِلَى خَلْقِكَ وَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ هِيَ فِيهِ وَ بِحَقِّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مَدَحْتَهُ فِيهِ وَ بِحَقِّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَ لَا أَحَدَ أَعْرَفُ بِحَقِّهِ مِنْكَ يَا سَيِّدِي يَا سَيِّدِي يَا سَيِّدِي

Then say “یا الله” (O Allah) for ten times, “بحق محمد” (by the right of Muhammad (pbuh)) ten times, and then continue saying each name of the Infallible Imams (pbuth) ten times. After all has been mentioned ten times, beg Allah whatever you want. So, Allah, the Almighty will grant all your wishes.

It is said (in traditional resources) that whenever you face any problems try to offer two Rakats, place the holy Quran on top of your head and mention the name of Allah (SWT), Holy Prophet (pbuh) and ahlul bayt (pbuth) ten times, so Allah. The Almighty will grant your wishes. [1]

While placing the qur’an on the head. Remind yourself that true salvation can only be achieved by always keeping the rules of qur’an ahead of us to follow. The fact that we put the Qur’an on our head is a sign of respect and reverence. We beseech Allah by the thaqalayn – the speaking and the silent Qur’an.[2] Pray for Aql/Intelligence to be Kamil (complete), it is Kashe (submits) to quran & acquires Noor (light) from it.

O Allah! I appeal to Thee in the name of this Qur’an and the Rooh that was sent along with it, and in the name of the Momin (believer) whose praise is contained in this Book and The obligation that is on them. No one else recognizes the right and truth more than Thee

Transliteration:

“Allaahumma be haqqe haazal Qur’an we be haqqe man arsaltahoo beh, Wa be haqqe kulle momenin madahtahoo feeh, we be haqqeka alaihim fa-laa ahada a’arafo be haqqeka mink”[3]

Note: There are no restrictions limiting the times of placing the holy Quran on top of our head. However, it is more recommended to do so during these holy Nights of Power (19th, 21st or 23rd or 27th night of Ramadan / or 15th night of Shaban).

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The sign of Laylatul Qadr, the Night of Power, answer 065.

Index: Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession, answer 148.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

[1] . Sheikh Hurr Ameli, Wasail al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 125-126; Sayid bin Tawoos, Radhi al-Din Ali, al- Al-Iqbāl bi l-aʿmāl al-hasanah, Vol. 1, Pg. 186-187.

[2] . Holy Qur’an (39:56).

[3] .Refer to: http://duas.org/.

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Definition of Dua, Means and Intercession

Question 148: Sometimes when I’m looking up or finding dua’as to be said for special reasons, I get frustrated. I don’t get why shia dua’as are so different than Sunni dua’as. They aren’t including caliphates or anything, they are all just supplications to God. Like I was looking up dua’as to remove worry and anxiety. There was no common one between Sunni and Shias. The Sunni dua’as are said to be told by the Prophet (SWT) and some Shia dua’as are said to be done by the Imams (AS). Does it really matter if its a supplication just between you and Allah?

Answer 148: Dua or supplication is a relationship out of need between the servant and his lord, for worldly and otherworldly needs. Just like every other phenomenon, the answering of one’s supplication has conditions and formalities that when met and observed, will result in the answering of the dua, and in the case of the dua lacking them, or in the case of other barriers not allowing the dua to be answered that we aren’t aware of, even the best duas known for being answered quickly and certainly can be ineffective.

Means: When it comes to the meaning of ‘means’ in the holy verse “O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek means of nearness to Him” Allamah Tabatabai explains the term as such, “The reality of the means of nearness to Allah is to comply with demands of His path with knowledge and worship, pursuit of virtues and fulfillment of recommended acts. It is a sort of joining together, (i.e.) a spiritual joining which connects the slave with his master; there is no link that connects man with his Lord except the submissiveness of worship and veneration. Therefore, the means of nearness means ensuring the reality of veneration and turning the face of humility and poverty to His direction – therefore, Wasilah (means) in the above verse refers to the link that joins the servant to his Lord.

Intercession: The concept of imploring or interceding with the Prophet (SWT) or Imams (AS) or Allah’s saints is to make recourse to the high position of these great people because they are dear and near to God and if their intercession is sought, God will, for their sake, grant His servants the position of proximity.

We can’t bring the text of the duas here, but here we will only list them without mentioning their texts:

(1) The dua of Tawassul. (2) The dua of Faraj. (3) The dua of Ism A’dham. (4) The dua of Muqatil bin Suleyman from Imam Sajjad (AS). (5) A dua with the name of “Sari’ul-Ijabah” (which literally means ‘quickly answered’) by Imam Kadhim (AS) which reads, “اللهم انی اطعتک فی احب الاشیاء الیک و …”

(6) A dua from Imam Sadiq (AS); the imam (AS) says whosoever says “Ya Allah” (یا الله) ten times, will be told [by Allah (SWT)]: “Here I am! What is your wish?” (7) Imam Sadiq (AS) has been narrated saying: “Whosoever repeatedly says “Ya Rabb Ya Allah” until he runs out of breath, will be told: “Yes! What is your wish?!”

These duas have been mentioned in the book of Mafatihul-Jinan, under the title of “Quickly Answered Duas” or “Sari’ul-Ijabah Duas”.

It is said we can make dua without interceding with the Holy Prophet (SAWS) and the infallible Imams (AS) (i.e.) just between us and Allah (SWT).

How to make Dua: There are some conditions for one who wishes to make dua’a should observe, in order that Allah (SWT) will grant his\her dua as follows: things we ask God mustn’t be haram; recite salawat before and after each dua’a, we shouldn’t hurry up, so that Allah (SWT) grant our duas anytime He wants; all dua’as that are not in contrary with the Shia belief, are considered as valid.

We ought not to accept all Sunni dua’as nor to reject them. There is a rule which says those dua’as that aren’t in contrary to the Shia belief are accepted, whether or not it is narrated or not. This means, if it doesn’t include haram things and other conditions that have been mentioned above, there would be no problem to apply it.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer and link:

Index: Evaluating the chain of narration of Dua Muqatil bin Sulaiman, answer 150.

Index: Reciting Dua or Dikr in any language during the Prayer, answer 579.

Index: Seeking one’s need from someone other than Allah, answer 005.

Index: Intercession and calling Imam Musa al Kadhim Bab al Hawaij, answer 159.

http://duas.org/

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Marriage of Imam Ali and Fatimah Zahra (pbuth) in Quran

Question 275: salam and jum’ah mubarak to all i have a question about imam ali and fatima zahra a.s. imam is a cousin of prophet muhammad s.a.w and he was also the uncle of fatima, right? so my question how prophet s.a.w agree to marry her daughter to imam ali? and what is a sign that allah agree to marry his daughter? and what hadith in sunni narrated about the aproval of allah s.w.t to marry imam ali and fatima?

Answer 275: Imam Ali (sa) was the cousin of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). His father was Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib and His mother was Fatima bint Asad.

The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) father was Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib and His mother was Āmina.

Fatima Zahra (sa) was the daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Her mother was Khadīja bint Khuwaylid (sa).

There has not directly mentioned in any verse of the Holy Quran an issue related to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa), however there are verses of the holy Quran that somehow related to this issue, as follows:

  1. Sura al-Kawthar: “Surely We have given you Kawthar. Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice.  Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity.”

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) had two sons were born of the Lady Khadijah namely; Ghasem and Taher (also called ‘Abdullah) who died in Mecca and so, there was no live male issue from the holy Prophet (pbuh), so, the Arabs used to call the one who had no son (abtar). Hence after, the holy Quran applied this name to the enemies of the Prophet.

Note: The Messenger of Allah (S) had another son by the name of Ibraheem, was born of Mariyah Qibtiyyah in 8 AH. He also died before he was 2 years old.

Therefore, as the abundance of goodness and blessing the Kawthar has granted to the Holy Prophet by Allah, the Almighty. This verse refers to the marriage of Imam Ali (as) and Lady Fatimah Zahra (sa).

According to Sheikh Mufid, Imam Ali (as) has asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh) regarding the meaning of Kawthar? The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said to him (as): “It is a stream that Allah (swt) granted to me, … the Holy Prophet then said to him: This stream is for me and you….”[1] Kawthar is Fatimah Zahra (sa).[2]

The Arabic version of this Hadith:

قال له علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلام): «ما هو الكوثر يا رسول الله؟». قال: «نهر أكرمني الله به»… ثم ضرب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) يده على جنب أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) و قال: «يا علي، إن هذا النهر لي، و لك، …».

  1. Surah al-Rahman verses 19-22: “He has made the two seas to flow freely (so that) they meet together Between them is a barrier which they cannot pass. There come forth from them pearls, both large and small.”

Imam Sadiq (as) has said: the word “Marajal­baḥ­ray­ni  yal­taqiyān” refers to Imam Ali (as) and Fatimah Zahra (sa) and “Yakh­ruju  min­humallu­lu­u  wal­mar­jān” refer to Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth).[3]

The Arabic version of this Hadith is as follows:

علي بن إبراهيم، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن يحيى بن سعيد القطان، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول في قول الله عز و جل: مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيانِ بَيْنَهُما بَرْزَخٌ لا يَبْغِيانِ قال: «علي و فاطمة (عليهما السلام)، [بحران عميقان لا يبغي أحدهما على صاحبه‏] يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَ الْمَرْجانُ، الحسن و الحسين (عليهما السلام)».

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The exact date on birth or Martyrdom of Lady Fatima and Infallibles, answer 254.

Index: Who were behind the Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa), answer 486.

Index: Hijab of Sayeda Fatima al-Zahra (sa), answer 492.

Index: Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib / He was born in Kaaba, answer 069.

[1] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 772, H 11936.

[2] . Tafsir Nemooneh, Vol. 6, Pg. 599; Anwar Derakhshan, Vol. 18, Pg. 310.

[3] . Al-Burhan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 5, Pg. 233.

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Shia answers: Tafsir of Imam Al-Askari A.S

Question 243:  Asslaoalakum! I need to know about the book called “Tafsir Imam Alaskari A.S”, is it an authentic book? I came to know about this book by a “whabi” Shia type person, so i want to make sure if it’s safe for me to go through this book because I’m but a learner.

Answer 243: Despite Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) being martyred in the year 260 A.H, there hasn’t been any mention that this Tafsir was attributed to the Imam (as) among prominent scholars such as Sheikh Kulaini, Ali bin Abraham Qomi, Ahmad Barqi, Ahmad bin Edris, Ibn Qulawayh, Muhammad bin Hamam Baghdadi or Muhammad bin Abraham Nomani.

In the middle of the fourth century, Muhammd bin Qasim Jorjani Astar Abadi, who was known by some nicknames such as Mufasser (interpreter) and Khatib (orator), has quoted some content of this Tafsir to Sheikh Tawhid Sadouq. Sheikh Sadouq in some of his books like Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, Amali and Man lā yahduruhu al-Faqīh mentioned some parts of this Tafsir, but some of the Shia prominent scholars don’t mention any of this tafsir.

At the beginning of the fifth century, Ahmad bin Hussain Ghadayeri mentioned this tafsir and its author, but considered the author (Jorjani) as a liar and introduced his book as a fake book.[1]

During the age of Safawi, Fakhr al-Din Ali bin Hasan Zawarei, the student of Ghiyath al-Din, translated this Tafsir from the Arabic language into Farsi, as Shah Tahmasib Safawi had ordered him to do so.

He has chosen “Athar al-Akhyar” as the name of this tafsir when it was translated into the Farsi language. This Tafsir is now available at the library of Shahid Mutahari Schools.

Those who accepted this Tafsir and quoted many parts of it, are as follows: Sheikh Tousi and Sheikh Mufid have narrated this tafsir from Sheikh Sadouq and Muhammad bin Qasim Jorjani AstarAbadi.[2]

Abu Mansour Tabarsi, in the book al-Ihtijaj, mentioned some topics from Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) with Sanad. He also added some traditions from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) concerning this tafsir.[3] In the book Monyatul Morid Shahid Thani, it has been narrated many traditions from this tafsir.

According to Ibn Shahrashoub, “This tafsir is certainly attributed to Imam Hasan al-Askari (as).”[4]

According to Allamah Hasan Zadeh Amoli, “This tafeer was attributed to Imam Hasan Askari (as) and became available in Tehran in 1268 A.H. It contains 309 pages and I have it in my library.”[5]

According to Mohaqiq Karaki, Ali bin Hasan Zawari’s professor, “This is one of the most authentic tafsir.”[6]

Sheikh Al-Hurr al-Aamili said, “Although this tafsir contains some traditions that are against the Shia belief, Ibn Babawayh trusted it; in his books was narrated many traditions from this tafsir.”. [7]

Mirza Hussain Noori, Mirdamad, and Ibn Ghadayeri are some of those scholars who criticized this book and didn’t accept that this tafsir is attributed to Imam Hasan al-Askari (as). [8]

It should be noted that until now the Farsi translation of this book hasn’t been published yet. Athar al-Akhyar is the only version of this tafsir available in some famous Iranian libraries and other countries libraries.

[1] . Biharul Anwar, Vol. 107, Pg. 123.

[2] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 59.

[3] . Al-Ihtijaj, Tabarsi, Pgs. 14 & 55.

[4] . Manaqib A’ale Abi Talib (as), Ibn Shahrashoub Mazandarani, Vol. 2, Pgs. 300, 313 and 339.

[5] . Sahifeh Mobin Magazine, 1994, Pg. 7.

[6] . Mostadrak al-Wasel, Vol. 3, Pg. 661.

[7] . Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 20, Pg. 59.

[8] . Mostadrak al-Wasael, Vol. 3, Pg. 661; Majma al-Rijal, Qahpaee, Vol. 6, Pg. 25.

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Reasoning for believing Imamat of the Infallible Imams

Question 619: Aselam akeyikum werahmetullah. Is believing in Imamiya part of an Aqida for Shi’ism? Meaning, any Muslim who doesn’t believe in Imamiya knowngly a Kaffir, otherwise a Fasiq?

Thanks a lot!

Answer 619: Imamate plays a crucial role in Islam. From the Holy Quran’s point of view, imamate is the final stage of human evolution, to which only Messengers of God have reached. The Holy Quran says about Prophet Abraham (a): ”Remember when Abraham’s God examined him with different means, and he successfully passed all those tests, so that God told him that he was appointed as the people’s Imam and leader, and Abraham (a) asked God to appoint his descendents as Imams as well, but God replied that imamate could not be handed over to tyrants, and only those of his offspring who were pure and sinless would deserve such a grace.”.[1]

This verse shows that imamate has a very high status and rank, since Prophet Abraham (a) was appointed as an Imam while he was already a Prophet. This happened only after he passed many difficult tests and trials.

The position of Imamate is sometimes combined with Prophethood, so that an eminent Prophet such as Abraham (a) becomes an Imam. Another evident reason is the combination of Prophethood and Imamate in the Prophet of Islam (s).

It also occurs that Imamate is separated from a Prophetic mission, such as what occurred in the case of the Shia Imams (a) who were only Imams, without being subject to direct divine revelation.

Reasoning for the Imamate of the Infallible Imams

Since the Imams are appointed by God, there is a need of rational reasoning to recognize the individuals who are actually imam. For instance, human logic can distinguish between an Imam and other people by witnessing characteristics such as knowledge, justice, courage, sinlessness and so forth in the Imam, and a lack of such characteristics in others. In addition, Quranic verses and authentic traditions also prove the imamate of an individual.

The following are some verses and their interpretations which are about the issue of imamate:

  • [2]«انما انت منذر و لکل قوم هاد», which means, “Your duty is to advise people, and there is a leader for every group.”

Shia interpreters and some Sunni ones, including Imam Fakhr Razi, says, “Here the term advisor refers to the Holy Prophet (s) and the leader to Imam Ali (a), since Ibn Abbas said that the Holy Prophet (s) put his hands on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added «و انت الهادی یا علی…» that means Ali (a) was the leader and shall continue to lead people after the Prophet (s).”[3]

In Al-Durrul-Manthur, one of the famous Sunni commentaries, several interpretations of the above verse are introduced, in which it is written that upon the revelation of this verse, the Holy Prophet (s) put his hand on his chest and said that he was the advisor, and then pointed to Ali (a) and added that Ali was the leader.[4]

Other similar traditions from other theologians can be found in various other sources such as from Hakem Neyshabouri in “Mostadrak”, Dhahabi in “Talkhis”, Fakhr Razi and Ibn Kathir in their commentaries and Ibn Sabagh Maleki in “Alfusulul-Muhimmah” and Ganji Shafei in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, and Tabari in his commentary, and Ibn Hayan Andolosi in “Al-Bahrul-Muhit” and Neyshabouri in his commentary and Hamvini in “Faraed Olsamtin” and as well as many others. To become familiar with the sources of such traditions and their evidences, see the book Ihghagh Olhagh, Vol. 3, pp 88-92.

  • «با ایها الذین آمنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین[5] Which reads, “O, believers, avoid antagonism (toward God’s commands) and be with the loyal people.”

Imam Fakhr Razi interpreted the phrase ‘loyal people’ as meaning infallibles. He also added, “By infallible the verse refers to the whole nation in its entirety.”[6] This is while no Arab speaker, at the date of revelation of this verse, was using this phrase to refer to the nation; therefore, such an interpretation does not seem to be valid.

We should accept that in every era, there are loyal people who do not make any mistakes in their deeds and speeches, whom we should follow.

Moreover, many Sunni interpreters have quoted Ibn Abbas as saying that the above-mentioned verse is referring to Imam Ali (a). Allamah Tha’alabi in his book of commentary, Ganji in “Kifayatul-Taleb”, Allamah Sibt Jowzi in “Tadhkirah”, all interpret this verse as referring to Imam Ali (a) and his household. Ibn Abbas added, “Ali (a) is the most loyal man.”[7]

Many other traditions quoted from the members of the prophetic household confirm this same interpretation.[8]

  • «اطیعواالله و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم»,[9] Says: “Obey God and obey the Messenger of God and the Holders of Authority.”

Shia interpreters unanimously believe that by the ‘Holders of Authority’, the verse is referring to the Infallible Imams (a).

In addition, the Hanafi Sheikh Soleiman Qanduzi in his book “Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah” quoted the book “Mujahid” as saying that the verse refers to Ali (a) when the Holy Prophet (s) appointed him as his substitute in Madinah when he himself was involved in the Tabuk war.

It is also quoted from Imam Ali (a) as referring to this verse in a debate with the Mohajerin and Ansar, so that they admitted to the legitimacy of his rule.[10]

In “Shawahidul-Tanzil” of Hakem Haskani, a Sunni scholar, the interpretation of the same verse includes a quotation from Imam Ali (a) as saying that he once asked the Holy Prophet (s) about the meaning of “ruler”, to which the Holy Prophet (s) replied, “You are the first of them.”

Islamic beliefs are like a connected chain, such that if one part is missing, then the whole chain will be useless and have no benefit.  In other words, believing in Allah has its entailments; belief in these entailments is what makes the difference and brings about Allah’s satisfaction.  If you examine the story of Satan being expelled from heaven, you will find that he asked Allah for the chance to live until the Day of Judgment to deviate man.[11]  Therefore, it is understood that Satan believed in Allah and the Day of Judgment but Allah still names him a Kāfir.[12]  So just believing in Allah is not enough for one’s belief to be accepted, but one must also stay firm in regard to the results and implications of this belief.  One of the results of one’s belief in Allah is belief in His messengers meaning the prophets, in such a way that denying them would be like denying Allah.  Also, believing in the Imams, meaning the prophets’ successors, is the inevitable result and reflection of one’s belief in the prophet, because the Imams are the prophet’s successors that were appointed by himself and denying them is like denying the prophet himself.  Therefore, one cannot believe in the prophet and not believe in the imams.  It is the same between each one of the imams, meaning that denying one of them is like denying all of them, for the reason that proves the Imamate of each one of them is the same and applies to all of them; all of them are the successors of the prophet and each Imam has been approved of by the previous one and has introduced the next Imam.  Therefore, denying one of them leads to the denial of the previous one and because all of them were appointed by the prophet, denying them is denial of the prophet.

Finally, we will mention a few ahadith in this regard: Imam Sadiq narrates from his great ancestors, meaning the previous Imams, that they narrated from the prophet that he said: “My successors are twelve individuals, the first is Ali bin Abi Talib and the last is the ‘Ghā’im’, they are my successors, vicegerents, the leaders after me and my Hujjats (reasons) over my Ummah, whoever bears witness to their imamate is a Mu’min (Believer), and whoever denies their Imamate is a kāfir (disbeliever).”[13]

It is narrated in another hadith by Imam Sadiq that: “One who does not follow our words has rejected Allah’s words, and one who rejects Allah’s words is a polytheist”.[14]

Also, it is mentioned in another hadith by Imam Kadhim that: “One who has hate for us resents the prophet of Allah and he actually has hate for Allah, and one who has hate for Allah deserves the hellfire and will not receive help from anyone.”[15]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

Index: “Ashhadu anna aliyyan waliyyullah” in Adhan and Iqamah, answer 276.

Index: Shia Ithna Ashari is Jafari school of thought, answer 111.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran, answer 129.

Index: Shia Believe Ahlus Sunnah are Muslim not Kafir!

[1] Surah Baqarah, Verse 124

7 Surah Ra’ad, Verse 7

[3] Tafsir Kabir, Fakhr Razi, Volume 19, Page 14

[4] Al-Durrul-Manthur, Jalaladdin Suyuti, Volume. 4 Page 45

[5] Surah Bara’at, Verse 119

[6] Commentary of Fakhre Razi, volume 16, Page 221

[7] Ihqaqul-Haqq Volume. 3 Page 297

[8] Commentary of Noor Al Thaqalain Volume 2 Page 280,

[9] Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah, Page 114 – 115 – 116

[10] Shawahidul-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 148

[11] “قالَ رَبِّ فَاَنظِرنِي ِالَي َيوِم يُبعَثُون …” Hijr:36; Sād:79.

[12] Baqarah:34; Sād:74.

[13] “عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ص قَالَ الْأَئِمَّةُ بَعْدِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَوَّلُهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ آخِرُهُمُ الْقَائِمُ فَهُم خُلَفَائِي و أَوصِيَائِي و أَولِيَائِي وَ حُجَجُ اللَّه عَلَي اُمّتِي بَعدِي الْمُقِرُّ بِهِمْ مُؤْمِنٌ وَ الْمُنْكِرُ لَهُمْ كَافِرٌ”، Sheikh Saduq, Man lā Yahduruhū al-Faqīh, vol. 4, book of wasiyyah (i.e., making a will), the chapter on the will of Adam (as), pg. 180,…hadith 5406, Jame’eye Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH. Of course, the term ‘kufr here is to be taken in its literal sense, which is to hide and conceal the truth, and not in its common usage.

[14] “الرَّادُّ عَلَينَا الرَّادّ عَلَى الله وَ هُوَ عَلَى حَدِّ الشَّركِ بِاللهِ…” Kuleini, vol. 1, chapter of difference in hadith, pg. 68, Dār al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah Publication, Tehran, 1365 (solar calendar).

[15] “ألا يا عبد الرحمن من أبغضنا فقد أبغض محمدا و من أبغض محمدا فقد أبغض الله جل و علا، و من أبغض الله جل و علا كان حقا على الله أن يصليه النار و ماله من نصير” Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 97, pg. 122, Al-Wafā’ Institute, Lebanon, 1404 AH.

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The difference between Mumin and Muslim

Question 506: Salaamun Alaikum. What is the difference between MOMIN and MUSLIM? Jazak’Allah Khayr.

Brief Answer 506: Muslim: According to the Quran a Muslim is one who has absolutely surrendered to Allah and his commands and believes in pure Tawhid (the oneness of God) that isn’t tainted with any Shirk and this is why the Almighty has introduced Prophet Abraham as a true Muslim in the Quran.

According to the Quran the true religion is Islam (surrender) (ان الدین عندالله الاسلام) and therefore all who have accepted religions of their time and have obeyed it’s commands are considered Muslims.

Momin: The Believers are that group of people who acknowledge the existence of God and surrender to Him, and who believe in His Prophets and follow their footsteps.

It is important to acknowledge that believing in the Wilayat of the Prophet’s family, according to the verses of the Quran and the narrations of the Holy Prophet is counted as one of the pillars of Imaan (Faith), and this quality is found in no other sect than the Shias. Also, with the emphasis regarding the deliverance of the Shias as being the rightful ones, and by comparing the thoughts and beliefs of the Shias, with the Holy Quran it becomes obvious that the verses of the Quran which talk about the “Believers” refer to none other than the Shias.

Detailed Answer 506:  In order to understand the meaning of “Muslim” in the Quran it is necessary to understand the meaning of “Islam”.

The word “Islam” is an infinitive with the root letters of “س ل م”, the root letters mean healthy and devoid of an defects and corruption, but the infinitive means surrendering and obeying one’s commands with no opposition. [1]

The Quran has used the term in its broad sense as well: “All of those who are in the heavens and the earth or all of the creatures in the heavens and the earth are Muslims and have (willingly or unwillingly) submitted to Allah’s  generative (takwini) or legislative (tashri’i) will.”[2]

In the Quran, not only those who were among the companions of prophet Mohammad are considered Muslims, but rather all people throughout history who have surrendered and submitted to Allah and rejected paganism are Muslims and this is why the Quran introduces Prophet Abraham as a Muslim even though he lived before prophet Mohammad.[3]

It can be understood from verse 85 of Surah Ale Imran (Whosoever chooses a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him) and verse 3 from Surah Al Ma’edah (Today I have perfected your religion and am happy with Islam as your religion) that Muslims are only those who follow the religion of the prophet (pbuh), because by choosing Islam as their religion and believing in all previous prophets and divine religions, they have proven their submission to Allah (swt).  According to this definition, today people of other religions are not Muslims because they have not surrendered to Allah by accepting the new religion that was revealed to the seal of prophets.

The verse commands the prophet to tell them to say that they have become Muslims and not Mu’mins. Of course, although practicing does not change the fact that one is Muslim or not, but to be a true Muslim not only should one believe in Islam but he must also act according to his belief and the teachings and laws of his religion, let those laws be social ones such as haqqul-nas or personal ones such as prayer and fasting.

Mu’min, or Believer, is derived from the word “Amn”, which means to testify, to believe, and have humility and tranquility of the soul.(4)[4] Therefore, the word Mu’min is used to describe the acknowledgers.

The term “Believers” refers to those who acknowledge the existence of the Almighty, surrender to Him and are humble and obedient towards Him. They acknowledge and accept the prophethood of all of the divine prophets and their message. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) has said: “Belief is understanding in your heart, saying with your tongue, and acting with your body.[5]

Some of the signs of a Believer that are mentioned in the Holy Quran are:

  1. Prayers and recognizing its importance.
  2. Giving Zakat, and donating to charity in the way of Allah.
  3. Relying and placing complete trust in Allah.
  4. Enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil.
  5. Staying away from frivolous and idle acts.
  6. Maintaining chastity and virtue.
  7. Obeying Allah and the Prophet.
  8. Obedience towards them.[6]

The signs of a believer as described in the Quran are not limited to the signs that were mentioned. In fact, the true Believers are those who surrender totally to the orders and command of Allah and the Prophet.[7]

One of the pillars of Imaan(Faith) is the belief in the Authority of the Ahlul-Bait. What it is understood from the Quran, the Holy Prophet and his family is that being obedient towards the Prophet’s family plays an essential role in the concept of faith, and if a person does not lead his life according to their teachings, his Beliefs are incomplete.

As an example, here are a few traditions and verses of the Quran which we will mention:

  1. The verse of “Tableegh” says: “O Apostle! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.”[8]
  2. The verse of “Wilayat”: “Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and give Zakat to the poor while they bow.”[9]

Sunni books of Tafsir and Narrations state that this verse was revealed with regards to the status and position of Imam Ali (a.s).[10]

Therefore, if a person does not believe in the Wilayat of Imam Ali (a.s), he has not accepted one of the most important and essential part of Allah’s Commands; so how can he be classified as a Believer? In this verse, the Wilayat of Imam Ali has been mentioned, alongside the Wilayat of Allah and the Wilayat of His Prophet, and we know that the accepting the Wilayat of God and His Messenger are the bases of Imaan (Faith), which means the Wilayat of Imam Ali, is an essential pillar of faith as well. There are several other verses as well, but for the sake of brevity these two will suffice.

According to Imam Baqir (as), Faith is something which is existed in our heart that connect us to Allah, the Almighty. By submission to Allah (SWT) we would be able to prove our faith in action. Islam is related to our words and deeds.[11]

We can conclude that every Mumin is a Muslim, but it is not true to say that every Muslim who doesn’t believe in the Wilayat of the holy Prophet’s family can be a real Mumin. This means that everyone can be a Muslim by testifying that there is no God but Allah, the Almighty and the holy Prophet (pbuh) is the messenger of Allah (SWT), however if one, in addition to the previous conditions of being a Muslim, doesn’t believe in the holy Quran and Ahlul Bayt (pbuth) and Wilayat of Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) he is not considered as real believer.

From all of the aforesaid, it is obvious and clear that the only group of Muslims which is completely in coordination with the teachings of the Holy Quran, and the beliefs, actions and morals synchronized with it, are the Shias, who, by obeying and following the Prophet’s progeny have been able to understand the proper meanings of the verses of the Holy Quran and the teachings of the Holy Prophet, and have protected themselves from the darkness of the wrong path.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Ask Islam: How to become a Muslim, answer 527.

Index: The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran, answer 129.

Index: Shia Ithna Ashari is Jafari school of thought, answer 111.

Index: Principles of Religion: Usul al-Din in Quran, answer 230.

Index: Islam and Democracy / Khilafat is Appointed by Allah’s order, answer 592.

Index: The Wilayah of Imam Ali (as) / Political Authority in Ghadir Khumm, answer 470.

Related Link: Glossary 506.

[1]Al-Nokat wal-Uyun, (Tafsir Maverdi), vol1, p 379-380

[2] Tafsir Nemooneh, vol2, p 643

[3] Ale Imran:67.

[4] Ma’jam Muqais al Lughah, Aqrab Almawaarid, Farhange Jami’, term: “Amn”.

[5] Kanzul Amaal, pg 95.

[6] Anfaal, ayah 2-4; Taubah ayah 71; Muminoon ayah 1-11.

[7] Nisaa, ayah 65 and 150.

[8] Maidah ayah 67.

[9] Maidah ayah 55

[10] Waahidi dar Asbaabe Nuzool, pg 133; Zamkhishri dar Kishaaf, Vol 1, pg 649; Abu Bakr Jisaas in Quranic Laws, Vol 2, pg 446

[11] . Kafi, Vol. 2, Pg. 26.

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Taking wages for reciting holy Quran or eulogy

Question 451: Most of the Zakirs, Ulama are taking handsome amount of reciting majalis and noha. Is taking wages for reciting holy Quran or eulogy  permissible in our fiqh?

Answer 451: There would be no problem for a Maddah, Zakir (eulogist) or a Qari (reader) to take wage for eulogizing (Maddahi) or reciting the holy Quran, though it is better for him/her not to take any.[1]

Sayyid Sistani (ha) says: Taking wages for teaching Mustahab things is permissible. Taking wages for teaching obligatory acts of prayers is haraam.[2]

[1] . Majma al-Masael, by Golpayegani, Vol. 2, Pg. 56;  Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 2, Pg. 9331, Q 76;  The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Job, question 12.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani, Obligatory acts relating to Namaz » Qir’at (reciting the Surah Al-Hamd and other Surah of Holy Qur’an), issue 1008.

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Meaning of Jihad in Islam and the holy Quran

Question 296: I want to ask what’s the actually meaning of Jihad? Give me references too.

Answer 296: Jihad means to strive or struggle. It is divided into two divisions: Jihad Akbar (major) and Jihad Asghar (miner). Jihad Asghar means to confront and strive hard against unbelievers and hypocrites whom they are Islam’s enemies.[1]

Jihad Akbar means to strive hard only for our own soul and purify our soul from sin (i.e. the soul that forces us to commit sin. This kind of soul is called Nafs Ammarah). We don’t have to despair of the mercy of Allah and withhold our soul and bear patiently that which befalls us.[2]

According to the Holy Quran, Jihad means to strive and endure difficulties and hardships, however the higher level of Jihad is for those who strive hard with their property and their persons in the way of Allah, the Almighty.[3]

Some say it is divided into some divisions as follows:

  1. Jihad in general: “Allah shall grant to the strivers above the holders back a mighty reward”[4]
  2. Jihad in the way of Allah: “Surely those who believed and those who fled (their home) and strove hard in the Way of Allah, these hope for the mercy of Allah And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”[5] Also, “And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways And Allah is most surely with the doers of good”
  3. Higher Jihad: “And strive hard in (the way of) Allah”.[6]
  4. According to practical mysticism, Jihad means to persuade ourselves to endure hardships and difficulties which are the cause of effectiveness on health and create bodily exhaustion.[7]
  5. Jihad for soul in the way Allah’s orders: the Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said: Striver is one who strives hard for his own soul in the way of Allah.[8]
  6. Striving for providing livelihood. Striving for providing livelihood is one of the most important tasks and struggles as it is narrated: Whomever strive for providing livelihood for his own family is like one who strive in the way of Allah.[9]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu, answer 274.

[1] . Surah Tahrim, verse 9; Surah Tawbah, verse 73.

[2] . Surah, Ankabout, verse 6.

[3] . Surah Baqarah, verse 218

[4] . Surah Nisa, verse 95.

[5] . Surah Baqarah, verse 218.

[6] . Surah Hajj, verse 78.

[7] . Ibn Arabi, Al-Fotouhat al-Makiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 132, Dar e Sader, Beirut.

[8] . Nahj al-Fasahah, Pg. 778, Donyae Danish Publication.

[9] . Sadr al-Din Shirazi, Shrhe Usul al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 433.

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Quran says: Every Soul Shall Taste Death

Question 461: Salamualekum. Please, what is the Ahlul bayt view on the fact that every soul shall taste death?

Answer 461: In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “Every soul shall taste death. Then you shall be brought back to Us”.[1] According to the Holy Quran and traditions, before the judgment day, all of creatures will die. The holy Quran says: “And the trumpet shall be blown, so all those who are in the heavens and those who are in the earth shall swoon, except those who Allah pleases.”[2]

At first, this verse says that all those who are in skies and earth will die including all of the angels, and then there are some exceptions. So, we realize by this verse that some creatures will not die at sound of the trumpet. Who are they? There is a talk among commentators; some groups believe that there is a group of great angles such as: Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Israel.

In another narration when the Holy Prophet Mohammad (s) recites this verse, people asked him who the exceptions are. He answered: Gabriel, Israfil and the angel of death and when all spirits was taken, they will die by order of Allah.[3] Another narration adds the carriers of Allah’s throne besides these angels[4].

In any case, by these narrations[5] and others that said: When the time of first horn comes, Israfil will blow on the trumpet and all creatures that have a soul will die except Israfil who will die later by Allah`s order.[6] And also by some verses like: “All things will die except His face,”[7] It is generally said that all things will die except Allah’s face. We can use this verse to show that this rest group will eventually die as there is not any creatures that will remain alive in any part of the world, except Almighty Allah.

How do angels die? It must be said that what we call death (the spirit leaving the body and the material world) does not have any meaning for angels because they do not have bodies for their soul to leave. For this, there are some possibilities about what the essence of their death is:

The first possibility means death by breaking the relationship between their soul and their mithali existence .[8] The second possibility means, ending their continuous activities and losing their perceptual ability.

Therefore, every soul shall taste death, and you will indeed be paid your full rewards on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever is delivered from the Fire and admitted to paradise has certainly succeeded. The life of this world is nothing but the wares of delusion.[9] Everyone on it must pass away, and yet lasting is the Face of your Lord, majestic and munificent.[10]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Satan Taste Death / Every Soul Must Taste of Death, answer 217.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/596059397212038/)

Index: Delaying Death and Called before its Time, answer 505.

(https://www.facebook.com/Ask-Shia-1593139984261577/?ref=bookmarks)

[1] . Surah al—Ankaboot, verse 57.

[2] . Zumar (the companies) verse 68

[3] . Bihar al Anvar, volume 79, page 184

[4] . Ibid, volume 6, page 329

[5]. Ibid, volume 6, page329

[6]. Ibid, volume 6, page 324

[7]. Qasas, verse 88

[8]. Refer to Tafsir Namoneh volume 19 page 541

[9] . Surah Aal Emran, verse 185.

[10] . Surah al-Rahman, verses 26-27.

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Usul al-Din and Furu al-Din in Islam

Question 223: Dear Shaykh, would you know when in time the five usul al-din were formalized? When I read the ahadith of the Imams on beliefs or read the reports where the disciples of the Imams discuss or ask the Imams for the constituents of sound belief or present their beliefs to the Imams, I have yet to see a neat five-fold categorization!

Then, I wonder when and how the furu’ al-din became ten in number?! The furu’ al-din refers to the acts – fiqh which are so many in number!

I wonder what happened! I’ll be very grateful for any suggestions. Thank you!

Answer 223: Usul al-Din (Principles of Religion) is a theological term and the set of beliefs that formalize the basis of Islamic religion, and by believing in them we are considered as Muslim, according to scholars.

The reason why scholars named these terms as Usul al-Din is that some of the Islamic sciences like Hadith, Fiqh and Tafsir are based on it. In other words, Islamic sciences are based on accepting the Holy Prophet (pbuh), and accepting Him is based on knowing these Usul al-Din.

There hasn’t been mentioned the name of Usul al-Din and Furu al-Din in the Holy Quran and Traditions. It has came into existence by theologians.[1]

Usul al-Din in Ahadith: It has been mentioned in some ahadith that Islam has some basic Principles, as follows:

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) has said: Islam has been built on five [pillars]: 1) Testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. 2) Performing the prayers. 3) Paying the Zakah. 4) Making the pilgrimage to the House (kaaba). 5) Fasting in Ramadan.[2]

Imam Sadiq (as) has been asked what are the Basic Principles of Islam and what kind of affairs we as Muslim must get knowledge of them, and if a person is shortcoming in perceiving them, his religion and beliefs would be worthless, so that Allah (SWT) would not accept his deeds? The Imam (as) has replied: These are as follows: 1&2) Testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. 3) Admitting what has been sent down from Allah (swt). 4) Paying the Zakah. 5) Wilaya of Aale Muhammad (pbuth) that this one has a special place among them.[3]

Imam Baqer (as) has said: Islam has been built on five pillars: 1) Prayer. 2) Zakah. 3) Fasting. 4) Hajj 5) Wilaya. The Wilaya is more important than the others.[4]

Considering that the above mentioned ahadith are Sahih in Sanad, we can at least conclude that the term Usul al-Din has come into existence during the second century of the Hegira.

When exactly the Term of Usul al-Din came into existence:  When the term Usul al-Khamsa (The Explication of the Five Principles) apparently being applied by Abul Huzail Alaf, the Mu’tazila theologian for the first time, the term of Usul al-Din has probably came into existence. It is said that this term had become more familiar as such term during the earlier third century of Hegira. Because, Ibn Nadeem had attributed a dissertation with the name of Usul al-Din to Abu Musa Mordar.[5]

The Fundamentals and Principles of Islam:  Like all other divine religions, Islam consists of three main domains e.g. beliefs, codes of practice and moral rules. The difference between Islam and other religion is that Islam incorporates all these domains in the most comprehensive and most exhaustive manner as compared to the religions before it. That is because Islam is the only religion that has been sent by God on all the prophets from Adam to the Last Prophet – peace be upon them. All what have been presented in Abraham’s scripture, Dawood’s Psalms, Moses’ Torah and Jesus’ Gospel have been presented in the most comprehensive way in Prophet Muhammad’s Holy Quran.[6] Unlike the previous scriptures which have been tampered with, the religion of Islam is immune to any kind of distortions and alterations.

The Islamic beliefs are the fundamentals of Islam and the roots of Islamic faith. They are Divine Unity (oneness of God), justice (God as the Just Creator), prophethood (guidance of humanity through a prophet), imamate and resurrection.

When it comes to the beliefs, a Muslim must in addition to admitting wholeheartedly the oneness of God, should also testify to the prophethood and messengership of Prophet Muhammad (s); otherwise he will not be a Muslim. There is no doubt that testifying to the oneness of God and prophethood of Muhammad (s) also requires, by extension, believing in the prophethood of other prophets, believing in the Day of Resurrection (Day of Judgment), finality of the religion of Islam, believing in the angels, the unseen and in the truthfulness of the claims of the Prophet of Islam. In addition, it is necessary that one should believe in the conspicuous and self-evident doctrines of Islam. If one does not believe in any of the above, he will go out of the pale of Islam. Since Islam is the religion of fitra (God-gifted nature) and reason, it does not accept imitation in the fundamentals of faith. Therefore, everyone is required in Islam to believe in the fundamentals of the religion with his own insight and understanding.[7]

When it comes to the practical laws of Islam or what is known as “ahkaam” in Arabic terminology, we must say that every act that a duty-bound (mukallaf) does is either wajib (obligatory), or haram (prohibited), or mustahab (recommended) or makrooh (abominable) or mubah (allowable). This part of the religion is also termed or described as the branches or rites of the religion which include the prayers, fasting, Hajj, Zakat, Khums, Jihad, bidding the good and forbidding the evil, Tawalla (loving the Ahlul-Bayt) and Tabarra (detaching oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul-Bayt). Acting upon these and adhering to them guarantee man’s eternal felicity.

The reason judges that either the person himself should be an expert to act according to his own insight and understanding or he should turn to an expert e.g. a qualified Mujtahid to seek his advice and act according to his verdicts.

When it comes to ethical and moral rules also, Islam – as was stated above – has some of the most humane moral instructions. Morality in Islam is so important that the Prophet of Islam (s) announced that the object of his prophetic mission was to perfect the moral virtues.

Furu al-Din:  It is a term versus Usul al-Din that consist Islamic Practical Laws. As Usul al-Din is related to knowledge along with certainty the Furu al-Din is preceded by it. This means, when there is no belief and knowledge (i.e. Usul al-Din), practice (Furu al-Din) doesn’t make sense. That’s why these Islamic Laws have been named Furu al-Din. According to Feyz Kashani, Usul al-Din is like a tree and Furu al-Din is its fruits.[8]

What the reason the Furu al-Din became eight or ten in number is due to the importance of these Islamic Laws in Ibadat (acts of worship), however, there are many rules related to transactions and etc. which are completely related to Islamic Laws, but the following are the most famous ten branches of religion (Furu al-Din). 1) Prayer. 2) Fasting. 3) Khums. 4) Zakah. 5) Hajj. 6) Jihad. 7) Amr bil Maroof (bidding what is right). 8) Nahi Anil Munkar (forbidding what is wrong). 9) Tawalla. 10) Tabarra.[9]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Principles of Religion: Usul al-Din in Quran, answer 230.

Index: Ask Islam: How to become a Muslim, answer 527.

[1] . Allamah Helli, Hasan, Sharh e Bab Hadi Ashar, Vol. 1, Pgs. 4-6, Tehran 1991.

[2] . Bukhari, Muhammad, Sahih, Vol. 1, Pg. 8, Istanbul, 1981.

[3] . Kuleini, Muhammad, al-Usul min al-Kafi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 19-20, with effort Ali Akbar Ghifari, Tehran, 1388 A.H.

[4] . Ibid, Pg. 18.

[5] . Ta’ligh Sharh al-Usul al-Khamsa, Pgs. 122-123, with effort Abdul Karim Uthman, Najaf, 1383 A.H; Ibn Nadim, al-Fehrest (contents), Vol. 1, Pg. 207.

[6] – The difference among divine religions in the methods and shari’ah which the Holy Quran describes them as one: “Surely, the religion with Allah is Islam.”; Aal-e Imran, 19, See: Javadi, Amuli, Abdullah, Man’s Expectations from the Religion, pg. 178.

[7] – Tawzih al-Masail of Maraaje’, issue No.1.

[8] . Fayz Kashani, Mulla Musen, Ilmul Yaqin fee Usul al-Din, Vol. 1, Pgs. 4-5, Bidar Publication.

[9] . Majmoe Asar Shahid Motahari, Vol. 17, Pg. 220;  Maaref and Maareef, Vol. 4, Pg. 1715.

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Physiological Motivation in Quran / Kinds of Motivations

Question 606: Can you please mention some verses of the holy Quran in which mentioned about physiological motivations?

Answer 606: Motivation is the reason for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation is also one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior.

Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior. The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency.

Motivations are divided into two different divisions, according to new psychologists.

  1. Physiological Motivation. 2. Psychological Motivation.

Those motivations that are natural and related to the physiologic needs for our body can guide a person’s behavior toward the way that provide physiologic needs for body.

Psychological motivations can be attained through learning for a person during his social growth.

The followings are some verses of the holy Quran in which Allah (swt) provide these physiological motivations for the human beings in order to be guided on the right path. Some of them are related to those motivations that keep their nature safe and some are related to breathing motivations.

A: Motivations for Keeping Nature safe: Those verses in which mentioned some motivations that keep our nature safe are as follows:

  1. “He said: Our Lord is He Who gave to everything its creation, then guided it to its goal”[1]
  2. “Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High; Who creates, then makes complete; And Who makes (things) according to a measure, then guides them to their goal.[2]
  3. “And the earth We have spread it forth and made in it firm mountains and caused to grow in it of every suitable thing”.[3]
  4. “…and Who created everything, then ordained for it a measure”.[4]
  5. “…And there is a measure with Him of everything”.[5]
  6. “Surely We have created everything according to a measure”.[6]
  7. ” So We said: O Adam! This is an enemy to you and to your wife; therefore let him not drive you both forth from the garden so that you should be unhappy”.[7]
  8. Allah points to some motivations like cold, heat, fatigue: And Allah has given you a place to abide in your houses, and He has given you tents of the skins of cattle which you find light to carry on the day of your march and on the day of your halting and of their wool and their fur and their hair (He has given you) household stuff and a provision for a time.[8]
  9. If we tolerate thirst, fatigue or hunger in Allah’s Way: “It did not beseem the people of Medina and those round about them of the Dwellers of the Desert to remain behind the Messenger of Allah, nor should they desire (anything) for themselves in preference to him This is because there afflicts them not thirst or fatigue or hunger in Allah’s Way, nor do they tread a path which enrages the unbelievers, nor do they attain from the enemy what they attain, but a good work is written down to them on account of it Surely Allah does not waste the reward of the doers of good”[9]
  10. And his hosts of the Jinn and the men and the birds were gathered to him, and they were formed into groups; Until when they came to the Valley of the Ants, one of the ants said: O Ants! enter your houses, (that) Sulaiman and his hosts may not crush you while they do not know.[10]
  11. And We will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits And give good news to the patient.[11]
  12. ” And Allah sets forth a parable: (Consider) a town safe and secure to which its means of subsistence come in abundance from every quarter; but it became ungrateful for Allah’s favors, therefore Allah made it to taste the utmost degree of hunger and fear because of what they wrought”.[12]
  13. So let them serve the Lord of this House; Who feeds them against hunger and gives them security against fear.[13]
  14. And reward them, because they were patient, with garden and silk; Reclining therein on raised couches They shall find therein neither (the severe heat of) the sun nor intense cold.[14]
  15. And they shall say: (All) praise is due to Allah, Who has made grief to depart from us Most surely our Lord is Forgiving, Multiplier of rewards.[15]
  16. Toil shall not afflict them (those who are in the Heaven) in it, nor shall they be ever ejected from it.[16]
  17. And one of His signs is your sleeping and your seeking of His grace by night and) by (day Most surely there are signs in this for a people who would hear.[17]
  18. He it is Who made for you the night that you might rest in it, and the day giving light Most surely there are signs in it for a people who would hear.[18]
  19. Allah is He Who made for you the night that you may rest therein and the day to see Most surely Allah is Gracious to men, but most men do not give thanks.[19]
  20. And We made your sleep to be rest (to you).[20]
  21. And He it is Who made the night a covering for you, and the sleep a rest, and He made the day to rise up again.[21]
  22. And He it is Who takes your souls at night (in sleep), and He knows what you acquire in the day, then He raises you up therein that an appointed term may be fulfilled Then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you were doing.[22]
  23. When He caused calm to fall on you as a security from Him and sent down upon you water from the cloud that He might thereby purify you, and take away from you the uncleanness of the Shaitan, and that He might fortify your hearts and steady (your) footsteps thereby. [23]

B: Breathing Motivation:

  1. And a sign to them is that We bear their offspring in the laden ship; And We have created for them the like of it what they will ride on; And if We please, We can drown them, then there shall be no succorer for them, nor shall they be rescued.[24]
  2. He it is Who makes you travel by land and sea Until when you are in the ships, and they sail on with them in a pleasant breeze, and they rejoice, a violent wind overtakes them and the billows surge in on them from all sides, and they become certain that they are encompassed about, they pray to Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience: If Thou dost deliver us from this, we will most certainly be of the grateful ones.[25]
  3. So each We punished for his sin Of them was he on whom We sent down a violent storm, and of them was he whom the rumbling overtook, and of them was he whom We made to be swallowed up by the earth, and of them was he whom We drowned And it did not beseem Allah that He should be unjust to them, but they were unjust to their own souls.[26]
  4. Therefore (for) whomsoever Allah intends that He would guide him right, He expands his breast for Islam And (for) whomsoever He intends that He should cause him err, He makes his breast strait and narrow as though he were ascending upwards.[27]
  5. And the morning when it brightens.[28]

In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty mention two different motivations that are necessary for surviving the human beings.

A: Sexual Motivation:

  1. “O you men! surely We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”.[29]
  2. “O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women And be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship Surely Allah ever watches over you”.[30]
  3. “And Allah has made wives for you from among yourselves (to rest in them), and has given you sons and grandchildren from your wives, and has given you of the good things Is it then in the falsehood that they believe while it is in the favor of Allah that they disbelieve?”.[31]
  4. “The Originator of the heavens and the earth He made mates for you from among yourselves, and mates of the cattle too, Multiplying you thereby Nothing like a likeness of Him And He is the Hearing, the Seeing”.[32]
  5. “And of everything We have created pairs that you may be mindful”.[33]
  6. “Glory be to Him Who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows, and of their kind and of what they do not know”.[34]

B: Motherly motivation: Allah, the Almighty created an important nature motivation for women by which they can do their duties and keep their children safe. E.g. they tolerate the pregnancy periods with love and feeding, taking care of and upbringing their kids.

  1. “And We have enjoined on man doing of good to his parents With trouble did his mother bear him and with trouble did she bring him forth And the bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months”.[35]
  2. “” And We have enjoined man in respect of his parents his mother bears him with faintings upon faintings and his weaning takes two years saying: Be grateful to Me and to both your parents; to Me is the eventual coming””.[36]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Good behavior? Refraining from a bad suspicion, answer 580.

Index: Psychology in Qurah / Psychological Defense Mechanisms, answer 584.

[1] . Surah Taha, verse 50.

[2] . Surah Aala, verses 1-2-3.

[3] . Surah al-Hijr, verse 19.

[4] . Surah al-Furqan, verse 2.

[5] . Surah al-Ra’d, verse 8.

[6] . Surah al-Qamar, verse 49.

[7] . Surah Taha, verse 117.

[8] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 80.

[9] . Surah al-Tawbah, verse 120.

[10] . Surah al-Naml, verse 18.

[11] . Surah al-Baqarah, verse 155.

[12] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 112.

[13] . Surah Quraysh, verses 3-4.

[14] . Surah al-Insan, verses 12-13.

[15] . Surah Fatir, verse 34.

[16] . Surah al-Hijr, verse 48.

[17] . Surah al-Room, verse 23.

[18] . Surah Younus, verse 67.

[19] . Surah Ghafir, verse 61.

[20] . Surah al-Naba’, verse 9.

[21] . Surah al-Furqan, verse 47.

[22] . Surah al-An’am, verse 60.

[23] . Surah al-Anfal, verse 11.

[24] . Surah Yasin, verse 43.

[25] . Surah Younus, verse 22.

[26] . Surah al-Ankabout, verse 40.

[27] . Surah al-An’am, verse 125.

[28] . Surah al-Takvir, verse 18.

[29] . Surah al-Hujurat, verse 13.

[30] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 1.

[31] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 72.

[32] . Surah al-Shura, verse 11.

[33] . Surah al-Zariyat, verse 49.

[34] . Surah Yasin, verse 36.

[35] . Surah al-Ahqaf, verse 15.

[36] . Surah Luqman, verse 14.

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Principles of Religion: Usul al-Din in Quran

Question 230: Should pillars of Islam be evidently apparent in the scripture or hidden? If apparent, then why is the Imamah pillar explained in form of ‘batin’ zone? Can you prove this from Prophetic sayings and create a base that is sensible? I have not yet received a proper answer for this.

Answer 230: Although, there hasn’t been clearly mentioned the names of Usul al-Din and Furu al-Din in the Holy Quran and Traditions, but there are many verses of the Holy Quran and traditions in which we can find out the pillars of Islam as follows:

Surah al-Hamd: This Surah includes the three pillars of Islam:

1) Tawhid (Testifying that there is no god but Allah):  Verse 1: “All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds”. This verse of Surah al-Hamd indicates the Dhati (Essence), Sifati (Attributes) and Af’ali (Action) Tawhid.  Verse 5: “Thee do we serve and Thee do we beseech for help”. This verse indicates the Tawhid in Ebadat (monotheism in worship) and Af’ali.

2) Nubuwwat: Verses 6 and 7: “Keep us on the right path. The path of those upon whom Thou hast bestowed favors”. According to the holy Quran itself, the real meaning of the word (an­’am­ta  ‘alay­him) is the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the good.[1]

3) Resurrection:  Verse 4: “Master of the Day of Judgment”. This verse indicates the third pillar of Islam called Ma’ad (Resurrection).

Note: There are other verses in which the three pillars of Islam are mentioned as the criterion of faith as follows:

Baqarah, verse 4:  “And who believe in that which has been revealed to you and that which was revealed before you and they are sure of the hereafter”.

Yousef, verse 37: “He said: there shall not come to you the food with which you are fed, but I will inform you both of its interpretation before it comes to you This is of what my Lord has taught me Surely I have forsaken the religion of a people who do not believe in Allah, and they are deniers of the hereafter”

Nahl, verse 22:  “Your God is One God So) as for (those who do not believe in the hereafter, their hearts are ignorant and they are proud”.

Nisa, verses 150 and 151: “Surely those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and (those who) desire to make a distinction between Allah and His messengers and say: We believe in some and disbelieve in others; and desire to take a course between (this and) that. These it is that are truly unbelievers And We have prepared for the unbelievers a disgraceful chastisement. And those who believe in Allah and His messengers and do not make a distinction between any of them Allah will grant them their rewards And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”

The Quran mainly addresses issues, especially ahkam, from a general perspective, leaving the specifics to the Prophet (sa) and his successors, the true interpreters (as); such as prayer, fasting, zakat, hajj etc…Imamate is also one of these issues which have been generally reflected.

The sha’n nuzul (the circumstances of revelation) of numerous verses in the Quran, such as Ayah of Tabligh[2], Ayah of Wilayah[3], Ayah of Ulul Amr[4], Ayah of Sadeqeen[5] revolve around the issue of Imamate.

It is necessary to mention that Allameh Hilli (ra) has written a book titled Alfain[6], that consists of a thousand reasons in favor of the Imamate of Imam Ali (as) and a thousand answers to the objections made against his Imamate, among which a great number of these reasons are from the Quran and can be referred to if needed.

Also, the eighth section of the seventh volume of Bihar al- Anwar of Imamate has listed the ayahs revealed regarding Imamate under the title “Ayahs regarding revealed about the Imams (as)”.[7]

How to understand the meaning of the verses of the holy Quran:  The majority of the verses of the Quran were revealed for the understanding of the general masses.  From this perspective, the understanding that the masses have from the literal and apparent meaning of the Quranic verses are a proof and it is for this same reason that the ‘Usulis’ believe in the external meaning of the verses.

Of course there are also select verses in the Quran whose understanding and the helping of others to understand was the responsibility of the Prophet (s) and the ‘Rasikhoon Fil Ilm’ (those deeply endowed with knowledge). Without this group’s assistance and help, the understanding of these verses would have been impossible to attain.

In the Quran there are verses with meanings of general and specific, absolute and particular, abrogated and abrogating; in order to understand the Quran it is necessary to have a comprehensive knowledge of all Quranic verses to prevent mistakenly ruling according to the absolute without considering the other verses that might narrow its scope.

There are some sciences, which although they don’t have a direct connection with interpretation of the Holy Quran, have a prerequisitational relationship. Without understanding these sciences it is not possible to interpret and analyze the verses of the Quran. Examples of these sciences are ‘Sarf and Nahw’, Ma’aani and Bayan’, and ‘Luqat’. The commentator must have mastery over all of the sciences which relate to the understanding of the Holy Quran.

Considering the above mentioned reasons, we can figure it out why the five pillars of Islam have not clearly mentioned in the holy Quran, but many verses of it prove them, completely.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Usul al-Din and Furu al-Din, answer 223.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/AskShia/permalink/608324169318894/)

Index: Shia View of the Mutazilah and Wasil ibn Ata, answer 095.

(https://www.facebook.com/groups/510247479126564/permalink/550397965111515/)

[1] . Surah al-Nisa, verse 69.

[2] . Surah Maeda, verse 67.

[3] . Surah Maeda, verse 55.

[4] . Surah Nisa, verse 59.

[5] . Surah Tobeh, 119.

[6] . Hilli, Hasan bin Yusuf, Al-Alfain, Dar al-Hijrah, Qom, 1409 (AH).

[7] . Allamah Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, (the section on imamate, Farsi translation of the seventh volume), Khosravi, Musa, publisher: Islamiyyah.

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Shia answers: The Term Shia in Quran

Question 129: Could anyone please give me the surahs and ayahs where the term Shia is mentioned by the Almighty Allah (swt), in the Holy Qur’an?

Answer 129: Those verses of the Holy Qur’an in which the word “Shia” has been mentioned are as follows:

Say, “He is able to send upon you a punishment from above you or from under your feet, or confound you as [hostile factions], and make you taste one anothers violence. “Look, how we paraphrase the signs variously so that they may understand!”[1]

قُلْ هُوَ الْقادِرُ عَلى أَنْ يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذاباً مِنْ فَوْقِكُمْ أَوْ مِنْ تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعاً وَ يُذيقَ بَعْضَكُمْ بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآياتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ.

“Indeed those who split up their religion and became sects, you will not have anything to do with them. Their matter rests only with Allah; then He will inform them concerning what they used to do”.[2]

إِنَّ الَّذينَ فَرَّقُوا دينَهُمْ وَ كانُوا شِيَعاً لَسْتَ مِنْهُمْ في شَيْءٍ إِنَّما أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِما كانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

“[One day] he entered the city at a time when its people dwelt in distraction. He found there two men fighting, this one from among his followers, and that one from his enemies. The one who was from his followers sought his help against him who was from his enemies. So Moses hit him with his fist, whereupon he expired. He said,” This is of Satan’s doing. Indeed he is an enemy, manifestly misguiding”.[3]

إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ عَلا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَ جَعَلَ أَهْلَها شِيَعاً يَسْتَضْعِفُ طائِفَةً مِنْهُمْ يُذَبِّحُ أَبْناءَهُمْ وَ يَسْتَحْيي نِساءَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كانَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدين

“Indeed Pharaoh tyrannized over the land, reducing its people to factions, abasing one group of them, slaughtering their sons and sparing their women. Indeed he was one of the agents of corruption”[4]

وَ دَخَلَ الْمَدينَةَ عَلى حينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِنْ أَهْلِها فَوَجَدَ فيها رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلانِ هذا مِنْ شيعَتِهِ وَ هذا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَاسْتَغاثَهُ الَّذي مِنْ شيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسى فَقَضى عَلَيْهِ قالَ هذا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطانِ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُضِلٌّ مُبين

“Of those who split up their religion and became sects: each faction exulting in what it possessed”[5]

مِنَ الَّذينَ فَرَّقُوا دينَهُمْ وَ كانُوا شِيَعاً كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِما لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ

“Indeed Abraham was among his followers”[6]

وَ إِنَّ مِنْ شيعَتِهِ لَإِبْراهيمَ

In technical term, every group of Muslims is called “Shia” (followers) and the term Shia is not exclusively applied to Imamiyah Shia.
For example: The followers of Mu’awiyah (la) and Yazid (la) are called the Shia of Aal-e Abi Sufyan. We are the Shia of the Ahlul-Bayt (pbuth), which includes the Holy Prophet (saws) and His household and we thank Allah (swt) the Almighty, for not being the followers of Aal-e Abu Sufyan.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index:  The differences and similarities between Shia and Sunni, answer 187.

Index: Ifk, the Slander / Shia Beliefs about Aisha, answer 180.

[1]. Surah An’am, Ayah 65.

[2] . Surah An’am, Ayah 159.

[3] . Surah Qasas, Ayah 15.

[4] . Surah Qasas, Ayah 4.

[5] . Surah Room, Ayah 32.

[6] . Surah Safat, Ayah 83.

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Jesus is Alive / Crucifixion of Jesus

Question 599: I was confronted with a question about what Islamic beliefs are about crucifixion of Jesus (asked by a female student in school). I told her that Jesus did not actually die on the stake but God transformed Judas into the appearance of Jesus, with the fake Jesus being killed on the stake, and that the real Jesus did not tell anyone about the truth of who actually died. The girl then asked me “But doesn’t that give God a deceptive character for he is tricking the people of the time by making them think that Jesus died on the cross, thereby resulting in the rise of Christianity?” I did not have a complete answer to this question regarding Allah’s character so I told her to wait. Thank you.

Answer 599: According to the following verses of the holy Quran, their saying: Surely we have killed the Messiah, Isa son of Mary, the messenger of Allah, but Allah (SWT) says: they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them so (looks like Isa).

In this verse of the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “And most surely those who differ therein are only in a doubt about it. They have no knowledge respecting it, but only follow a conjecture And they killed him not for sure”.[1]

وَ قَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسيحَ عيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَ ما قَتَلُوهُ وَ ما صَلَبُوهُ وَ لكِنْ شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ وَ إِنَّ الَّذينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فيهِ لَفي‏ شَكٍّ مِنْهُ ما لَهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلاَّ اتِّباعَ الظَّنِّ وَ ما قَتَلُوهُ يَقينا

Note: the word “Rasool Allah” is not their saying. Because, if they believed in his Risalat (prophethood) they would never kill Jesus. It is the saying of Allah, the Almighty.

Q: How it appeared to them so (looks like Isa)?

A: Ibn Abbas narrated: Allah (SWT) has metamorphosed those who cursed prophet Isa and his Mother. When Judah, the head of Jews realized, he afraid that Isa would make dua for him (Judah) too. Thus, Judah gathered all the Jews together and they came to an agreement to kill Isa. As the holy Quran says, Allah has sent Gabriel to help the Prophet: “We gave Jesus, the son of Mary, manifest proofs, and confirmed him with the Holy Spirit.”[2]

When the Jews surrounded and asked the Prophet Jesus, He said: Allah antagonizes you, the Jews. So, they made attack on the Prophet with the intention to kill him, but the Gabriel gave him a shelter where there was a whole in the roof and then raised him to the heaven.

Judah assigned one of his collaborator to enter the house where Jesus was, with a treacherous intention, but couldn’t find him, so that the man became confused for a short period of time. Those who were outside of the house thought that the collaborator is fighting with Isa. At that moment, Allah changed the man into a form similar to Jesus, and when the man came outside people thought he was Isa and then seized and crucified him.

Some say the man was facially look like Isa, but not physically. Some say his face was look like Isa and body was like Titanus’s body. Other say if he was Titanus, so where is Jesus? And if he was Jesus where was Titanus?[3]  That’s why it appeared to them so (looks like Isa).

Vahab bin Munabbah said: Jesus along with seven apostles were in a house where they had been surrounded. When they (the Jews) entered the house Allah changed the apostles into a form similar to Jesus. They said: we are bewitched! Show us Jesus or we would kill you all. Jesus said: which one of you give his life to Paradise? A man named Sirjis said: Me! He then came outside and introduced himself ‘Jesus’ and then they seized and crucified him and Allah raised Jesus to heaven on that time. Mujahid and Qatadah said: All of the apostles had not changed into a form look like Jesus, but one of them.

According to Tabari, what Vahab has been said is strongly considered as Sahih than the other narration related in this issue. Because, considering that Jesus told them, if one of you become look like me you will go to the Heaven, so that Allah changed all of them into the form similar to Jesus and then when the Jews killed one of the apostles it appeared to them (the Jews) so look like Isa.[4]

In Tafsir al-Mizan it is said that those who wanted to kill Jesus were Roman armies who didn’t know him exactly. So, they may killed a person other than the prophet Jesus. It is also said that there were two persons named Messiah, but five hundred years apart from each other. The first Messiah was the real and didn’t crucify, but the second who was false crucified instead. As a result, the Jews are in doubt which of the Christian Calendar is correct.[5]

Now, we should answer the question why Allah changed the man into a form similar to Jesus that since they intended to kill him Allah, the Almighty has devised a plot (Makr) in order to save the Prophet’s life from the plotting of the Jews. In this regards, there is a verse of the holy Quran in which mentioned: “Then they plotted [against Jesus], and Allah also devised, and Allah is the best of devisers.”[6]

The Arabic version of this verse:

وَ مَكَرُوا وَ مَكَرَ اللَّهُ وَ اللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْماكِرين‏

The meaning of “Makr”: The literal meaning of “Makr” is devising and planning.  It can be good or evil[7] as well as it being capable for being for good or for evil.  However, some believe “Makr” to mean tricking and when attributed to Allah, to refer to the punishment of tricking and deception.[8]

The “Makr of Allah”: When examining the verses in which the word “Makr” has been used,[9] we realize that the meaning of “Makr” is simply devising and planning and that it could be good or evil.  For example in the verse “وَ يمكرون و يكمر اللَّه واللَّه خَير الماكِرين”,[10] the word “يَمكُرُون” refers to the plotting of the Mushrikin (Pagans) that intended to kill the prophet or imprison him and the phrase “يَمكُرُ اللَّهُ” refers to Allah’s devising and commanding the prophet to immigrate.  The very fact that the word “مكر” is used along with the adjective “السَّيِئّى” (evil) in the Quran[11] proves that “Makr” can be good or evil.

Therefore, the many verses that attribute Makr to Allah refer to his supreme regulation and management of matters, because He is the true owner of all devising and there is no devising separate from his. As a result, Allah has supremacy over all planners[12], and the verse from Surah Ra’d[13] clearly states that Allah is the supreme deviser and that the plotting of others is nothing compared to His[14]. [15]

Another question which now arises is why does the holy Quran use the term “mutawaffik” –for the prophet Jesus- which means “I will cause you to die”?

The verse of the Holy Quran in which Allah, the Almighty use the term is as follows:

“O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection: Then shall ye all return unto me…”

What has given rise to this question is that a few translators of the Quran have translated the term “mutawaffika” in the verse as “causing to die”, yet there are some other translations of the Quran which are not in conflict with Prophet Jesus being alive: “(And remember) when Allah said: “O Jesus! Lo! I am gathering thee (from amongst people) and causing thee to ascend unto Me, and am cleansing thee of those who disbelieve.”[16] It is necessary to know that the word “tawaffa” is derived from the root word “wafa” which has been used in different meanings including death, taking, completing, etc.[17] In this connection, fulfilling a promise or a vow is also considered “wafa” which is in fact completing and accomplishing it. Hence, if a person takes back completely what he has lent to someone, it is said in Arabic, “tawaffa daynahu”.

Majma’ul Bahrain being one of the lexical works explains the foregoing verses as such:

“أي مستوف أجلك، و معناه إني عاصمك من أن تصلبك الكفار و مؤخرك إلى أجل أكتبه لك و مميتك حتف أنفك لا قتلا بأيديهم و رافعك إلى سمائي”.

That is to say, “O Jesus, I terminate your period of stay” and that means I am going to protect you against the infidels so that they are unable to crucify you and I delay your death until a natural death is prescribed for you.[18]

Thus, although the term “tawaffa” also means death as also used in the same meaning in some other verses[19], it does not necessarily mean ‘death’. In fact, there are verses in which the same term has been used in other meanings. One of those verses is the following:

“وَ هُوَ الَّذي يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَ يَعْلَمُ ما جَرَحْتُمْ بِالنَّهارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فيهِ لِيُقْضى‏ أَجَلٌ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِما كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُون”[20]

“And He it is Who takes your souls at night (in sleep), and He knows what you acquire in the day, then He raises you up therein that an appointed term may be fulfilled; then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you were doing.”

Certainly, the word “yatawaffakum” in this verse does not mean “death”; rather it means nightly sleep which is repeated every twenty four hours.  This is another form of taking the soul which is not death. Therefore, the verse in question should not be interpreted as a definite sign of Jesus’ death. When it comes to the fate of Prophet of Jesus, peace be upon him, here are a few points to mention:

  1. Christians are of the view that he was crucified to death but the Quran explicitly denies this saying:

“وَ ما قَتَلُوهُ وَ ما صَلَبُوهُ وَ لكِنْ شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ….وَ ما قَتَلُوهُ يَقينا”[21]

“That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah”;- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not.”

  1. Although the Quran denies Jesus’ killing or crucifixion, there is not any verse to indicate clearly that he has not died in any other form or that he is alive.
  2. Verses such as verse 55 of Surah Aal-e Imran (the verse in question) and verse 117 of Surah al-Maedah do not clearly indicate the death of this great prophet but they do indicate clearly that the Prophet’s existing relationship with the material world is different from when he lived among his followers.
  3. There are many narrations in Shias’ and Sunnis’ authentic books which denote that Prophet Jesus, peace be upon him, is alive. With reliance on these narrations, we can come to know that he is alive, even if we do not find a straight verse in this regard. We shall draw your attention to two instances of these narrations:

1-4. The Messenger of Allah said to Jews:

“أن عيسى لم يمت و أنه راجع إليكم قبل يوم القيامة”

“Jesus has not died and he will return to you before the Day of Judgment.”[22]

2 – 4. The Messenger of Allah (S) said:

“و من ذريتي المهدي إذا خرج نزل عيسى ابن مريم لنصرته فقدمه و صلى خلفه”

“And of my descendant is Mahdi; when he reappears, Jesus son of Mary will descend to help him. Mahdi will lead the prayer and he will pray behind him.”[23]

  1. Even if, unlike the existing narrations, we ignore the other meanings of “tawaffa” and believe on the basis of the above-mentioned verses that he is dead, yet still this meaning is not in conflict with his being alive in the present time. That is because, according to some verses in the Quran, there was a person who was revived one hundred years after his death.[24] Therefore, it is possible that the same incident may have occurred with Prophet Jesus (AS).[25]

[1] . Surah Nisa, verse 157.

[2] . Surah Baqarah, verse 87.

[3] . Majma al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 6, Pg. 133.

[4] . Translation of the book Majma’ al-Bayan fee Tafsit al-Quran, Vol. 6, Pgs. 133-137.

[5] . Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 5, Pg. 216.

[6] . Surah Ale Emran, verse 54; Majma’ al-Bayan fee Tafsir al-Quran, Vol. 4, Pgs. 89-90; Tafsir al-Mizan, Vol. 3, Pg. 323.

[7] Qurashi, Seyyed Ali Akbar, Qamuse Quran, vol. 6, pg. 265.

[8] Al-Munjid, translation, Muhammad Bandar Riki, vol. 2, pg. 1820.

[9] A’raf:99 and 123; Fater:10 and 43; Ra’d:33 and 42; Saba’:33; Yunus:21; Ale Imran:54; Nahl:26 and 45; Naml:50 and 51; Nuh:22; Ibrahim:46; Yusuf:13; Ghafir:45.

[10] Anfal:30.

[11] Fater:43.

[12] Ale Imran:54.

[13] Ra’d:42.

[14] Tabatabai, Seyyed Muhammad Husein, Al-Mizan, Farsi translation, Musavi Hamedani, vol. 12, pg. 355, 20 volume version, Entesharate Eslami Publications.

[15] . Adopted from answer 062 IQ.

[16] Aal-e Imran, 54: (Pickthal translation).

[17] Ibn Manzur, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, p. 398 and 399, first edition, Adab Publications, Qom Seminary, 1405.

[18] Majma’ul Bayan, vol.1, p. 444, term “Wafa”, Murtazawi Library, Tehran, 1375 (Persian calendar).

[19] Nisa, 97; Muhammad, 27; Yunus, 46; Sajda, 11.

[20] An’am, 60.

[21] Nisa, 157.

[22] Ibn Abi Hatam, Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, vol.4, p. 1110, hadith 6232, Maktabat Nazar al-Mustafa al-Baz, Saudi Arabia, 1419 A.H.

[23] Sheikh Saduq, al-Amali, vol.1, p. 218, Islamic Library Publications, Tehran, 1362 (Persian calendar).

[24] Baqarah, 259 ” فَأَماتَهُ اللَّهُ مِائَةَ عامٍ ثُمَّ بَعَثَه‏”.

[25] . Adopted from answer 6595 IQ.

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Psychology in Quran / Psychological Defense Mechanisms

Question 584: Define Psychology in Quran? What kind of Psychological Defense Mechanisms have mentioned in the holy Quran?

Answer 584: We believe that the Holy Quran is a guidance and mercy for a people who have faith. The final purpose that the Holy Quran has been sent down for is to continuously nurture the human being to evolve it from a lower to a higher stage of existence. This means that the holy Quran nurture the human being unto perfection.

In the Holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “We have sent down the Book to you as a clarification of all things and as a guidance and mercy and good news for the Muslims”[1] The meaning of ‘All Things’ is every affairs that a human needs it to reach at the highest level of perfection. These affairs can be of the following: Material, Spiritual, Social and Individual aspects.

In psychology, ‘How to think’ is one of the things which is considered as the most important guidelines aspects of human life that has been explained completely in the Holy Quran.

According to Quran, there are three different kinds of characteristics can be imagined for the human beings: Momen (believer), Kafir (disbeliever) and Munafiq (hypocrite).[2]

A believer has the three following characteristics: Some of them are those who wrong themselves, and some of them are average, and some of them are those who take the lead in all the good works by Allah’s will.[3]

The characteristic by which we can recognize a Kafir is that they are deaf, dumb, and Blind; thus, they do not understand Anything, due to their shortage of Wisdom.[4]

What the tangible characteristic for the Munafiqs is that there is a sickness in their hearts and when they are told Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say,” We are only reformers!  These are they who buy error for the right direction, so their bargain shall bring no gain, nor are they the followers of the right direction.  Their parable is like the parable of one who kindled a fire, but when it had illumined all around him, Allah took away their light, and left them in utter darkness they do not see.

The Quran has also talked about kinds of grief, sorrows and its solutions in order to get rid of it, two types of fears:

Acceptable fear:  “The faithful are only those whose hearts tremble] with awe [when Allah is mentioned, and when His signs are recited to them, they increase their faith, and who put their trust in their Lord”.[5]

Unacceptable Fear: “When they came at you from above and below you, and when the eyes rolled] with fear [and the hearts leapt to the throats, and you entertained misgivings about Allah; It was there that the faithful were tested and jolted with a severe agitation.”[6]
Kinds of anger in the holy Quran:

Useful rage: “As for him who endures patiently and forgives that is indeed the steadiest of courses.”[7]

Balanced rage: “Good and evil] conduct [are not equal. Repel] evil [with what is best.] If you do so, [behold, he between whom and you was enmity, will be as though he were a sympathetic friend.”[8]

Destructive rage: 1. “And hasten towards your Lord’s forgiveness and a paradise as vast as the heavens and the earth, prepared for the God wary”. [9] 2. “Certainly you were longing for death before you had encountered it. Then certainly you saw it, as you looked on”.[10]

The best solution when you are angry can be found in the following verses of the holy Quran:

  1. “Those who avoid major sins and indecencies, and forgive when angered”.[11]
  2. “Let the well-off and the opulent among you not vow not to give to the relatives and the needy, and to those who have migrated in the way of Allah, and let them excuse and forbear. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful”.[12]

In the Holy Quran there has been mentioned three kinds of Psychological Defense Mechanisms as follows:

Psychological projection: “There is certainly a good exemplar for you in Abraham and those who were with him, when they said to their own people,” Indeed we repudiate you and whatever you worship besides Allah. We disavow you, and between you and us there has appeared enmity and hate for ever, unless you come to have faith in Allah alone,” except for Abraham’s saying to his father,” I will surely plead forgiveness for you, though I cannot avail you anything against Allah.”” Our Lord! In You do we put our trust, and to You do we turn penitently, and toward You is the destination”.[13]

Rationalization (making excuses): ”When they are told,” Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say,” We are only reformers!”; Look! They are themselves the agents of corruption, but they are not aware.”.[14]

Reaction formation:

  1. “Among the people is he whose talk about worldly life impresses you, and he holds Allah witness to what is in his heart, though he is the staunchest of enemies”; “And if he were to wield authority, he would try to cause corruption in the land, and to ruin the crop and the stock, and Allah does not like corruption”[15]
  2. “When you see them, their bodies impress you, and if they speak, you listen to their speech. Yet they are like dry logs set reclining] against a wall [. They suppose every cry is directed against them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. May Allah assail them, where do they stray?!”.[16]

Psychotherapy in Quran: One of the Useful Psychotherapy has been mentioned in the holy Quran is: “O mankind! There has certainly come to you an advice from your Lord, and a cure for what is in the breasts, and a guidance and mercy for the faithful.”[17]

In the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) introduces a Quranic Psychotherapy as follows: “Those who have faith and do not taint their faith with wrongdoing for such there shall be safety, and they are the [rightly] guided.[18]

Also, Allah, the Almighty introduces another Psychotherapy: “Those who have faith, and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah.” Look! The hearts find rest in Allah’s remembrance!”.[19]

Note: The previous mentioned verses are a few psychological examples have been explained in the Holy Quran.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Good behavior? Refraining from a bad suspicion, answer 580.

[1] . Surah al-Nahl, verse 89.

[2] . Verses 2 to 20 of Surah Baqarah.

[3] . Surah Fatir, verse 32.

[4] . Surah Baqara, verse 171.

[5] . Surah Anfal, verse 2.

[6] . Surah Ahzab, verses 10 and 11.

[7] . Surah Shura, verse 43.

[8] . Surah Fussilat verse 34.

[9] . Surah al-Emran, verses 133.

[10] . Ibid, verse 143.

[11] . Surah Shura, verse 37.

[12] . Surah Noor, verse  22.

[13] . Surah Munafiqun, verse 4.

[14] . Sura Baqara, verses 11 and 12.

[15] . Surahs Baqarah, verses 204 and 205.

[16] . Surah Munafiqun, verse 4.

[17] . Surah Younes, verse 57.

[18] . Surah An’am, verse 82.

[19] . Surah al-Ra’d, verse 28.