post

Who is Sayyid? Rules concerning Sehme Sadaat

Question 352: Assalam o alAikum. Who are syed? According the Holy Quran?

I asked this question because of the concept circling in India and Pakistan about Masoom syed and non Masoom syed. As per my understanding Imam Mehdi as is the last know syed of Hazrat Fatima as blood line.
I do not understand the concept of non Masoom syed blood line.

Regards

Answer 352: In Arabic, the word ‘Sayyid’ simply means Mister, Honorable and Head. In Islamic terminology, it is an honorific title denoting those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim through the Daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), Hadhrat Fatimah Zahra (sa) and Imam Ali (as).[1]

Those who are descendant of Imam Ali (as) through Hadhrat Abbas (as) or Muhammad Hanafiyyah are respectfully called Sayyid. The same way is for those Hashemis who are accepted as descendant of Ja’far al-Tayyar and Aqil.[2]

Although, those who are descendants of Laday Fatimah Zahra (sa) through their mothers are Sayyid, but the term Sayyid is not exclusively related to the children of Hazrat Zahra (sa), because those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim and His generations are also considered as Sayyid. What the only difference is in regards to some rules like Khums that are considered as haram to those whose mothers are Sayyida, only. This means that those children of Sayyida mothers are surely descendant of the Holy Prophet (pbuh),[3] but a non Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza.

According to this following verse of the Holy Quran “Assert their relationship to their fathers; this is more equitable with Allah” it is prevalent and customary that a childs name and race are followed by his father, however ascribing the child to his mother is certainly true as well.[4]

One of the important thing we should take into consideration is that a child whose mother is sayyida but non Sayyid father is only allowed to use Sadaqa, though Khums is not given to him.[5]

Note: Khums should be divided into two parts. One part is Sehme Sadaat, it should be given to a Sayyid who is poor, or orphan, or who has become stranded without money during his journey. The second part is Sehme Imam (A.S.), and during the present time it should be given to a Mujtahid, who fulfils all conditions, or be spent for such purposes as allowed by that Mujtahid. As an obligatory precaution, that Mujtahid must be Aalam, and well versed in public affairs.[6]

Sayyid and non-Sayyid on the Day of resurrection:  1) There is no difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid in doing their duties and canonical responsibilities as they are equal without having any superiority over each other. Because, the Holy Quran says: “Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty) Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”.  2)  Sayyids due to their descendant ascribed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) have more responsibility toward observing their Islamic responsibilities and duties.[7]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The difference between Sayyid and Mirza, answer 562.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

Index: Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid, answer 041.

Index: Khums in the Holy Quran and Traditions / Things on which Payment of Khums is Obligatory, answer 043.

[1] . Qurashi, Sayyid Ali Akbar, Qamous Quran, Vol. 3, Pg. 350, Dar al-Kutub al-Islmaiya, Tehran, sixth edition, 1992;  Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn, majma al-Bahrain, Vol. 3, Pg. 71, Murtadhavi Bookstore, Tehran, third edition, 1996;  Arabic and Farsi Farhang Abjad, Pg. 507.

[2] . Khamenei, Sayyid Ali, Ajwabat al-Istiftaat, Pgs. 216-217;  Golpayegani, Saayid Muhammad Redha, Majma al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 392, Dar al-Quran al-Karim, Qom, eighth edition, 1409 A.H.

[3] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir Biharul Anwar, vol. 10, Pg. 349, H 9, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, 1404 A.H. Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 2, Pg. 89, Q 1009.

[4] . Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[5] . Kulayni, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 539, H. 4, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran, 1986;  Kulayni, Muhammad bin Yaqoub, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 539, H. 4, Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiya, Tehran, 1986;  Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[6] . The Official Website of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Rules concerning Khums, issue 1843.

[7] . Surah al-Hujurat, verse 13;  Majma’ al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 393.

post

Ancestry of Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz to the Imams

Question 183: Is there an ancestry connection of Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz to the Holy Imams (as)?

Answer 183: Moinuddin Chishti (Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz. Benefactor of the Poor), introduced and established the Chishti Order of Sufism in the Indian subcontinent. The initial spiritual chain (silsila) of the Chishti order in India, comprising Chishti, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, Fariduddin Ganjshakar and Nizamuddin Auliya—each successive person being the disciple of the previous—includes the great Sufi saints of Indian history. Various Mughal emperors were followers of Chishti.

There is no reliable information available regarding his early life and background before he settled in Ajmer.

According to some books regarding Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz’s life and works, he is said to have been born in Chisht in a city between Afghanistan and Iran and is thought to be a “Sayyid”, and with some mediators’ descendant connected to Imam Hasan (as).[1]

[1] . Moin al-Awliya, Pgs. 37 – 38; For further information in this regards, please refer to Book Majales al-Nafaes.

post

Siyadat of Abdul-Qadir Al-Gilani

Question 281: Salaam to everyone! Can u plz answer the following question? From which imam (as) do the Galani sayeds descend from? Jzk everyone.

Answer 281: Abdul-Qadir ibn Abi Salih Musa ibn Abdullah ibn Al-Gilani titled Muhyiddin (the Reviver of the Religion)[1] was born in the north of Iran. He grew up in Baghdad and was buried there.[2] According to Qamoos al-A’laam wa Tabaqat of Sha’rani, Abdul Qadir Gilani was a descendant of Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s), thus he was a Hasani Sayed.[3] He is one of the sixth century mystics and a controversial personality of the Islamic world. He was born on a Wednesday the 10th Rabi at-Thani in 471 AH, 1077 AD, and died on Saturday night 1166 (8th Rabi’ al-Awwal 561AH) at the age of ninety years (by the Islamic calendar), and was entombed in a shrine within his Madrassa in Baghdad.[4]

At the youth age he went to Baghdad (488 A.H.),[5] where he pursued the study of Arabic with Abu Zakariya Razi.[6] Al-Gilani received lessons on Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Sa’d al-Mubarak bin Ali bin al-Hussain al-Mukharrimi al-Baghdadi.[7]

He also learned the mystical order from him.[8]

Some works in jurisprudence and legal theories are ascribed to him namel: “Bashaerul Khairat (Glad-tidings of Good Deeds)”; “Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of Truth and Religion)”, “Al-Fath ar-Rabbani (The Sublime Revelation)”, “Malfuzat (Utterances)”, “Futuh al-Ghaib (Revelations of the Unseen)”, “Al-Fuyuzat al-Rabbaniyah fil Awrad al-Qaderiyah”, “Adab al-Suluk wat-Tawassul ela manzil al-Muluk” and a “Collection” of his poems which is known as “A Collection of Ghaus-e A’azam’s Poems”.[9]

Ibn-e Arabi has made mention of Abdul Qadir Gilani’s name in many of his works with respect and dignity.

His Sufi order named after him is generally thought to be one of the most renowned Sufi orders of the Islamic world. He himself enjoyed a special place in the chain of Sufi orders.

Finally, in reply to your question about his relation with Imam Sadiq (a.s.), we must say that historically there is a huge time gap between him and the Imam; he lived very much after the period of the Imam (a.s.). Therefore, the allegation that he opposed Imam Sadiq (a.s) is untrue and baseless.

Note: Unfortunately, there is not enough reliable sources about Abdul Qader Gilani! That’s why we see many different opinions about Him.

According to the Book History of Sufism (Vol. 1, Pg. 168), He was a follower of Ashari Aqeedah (opinion) in Usul al-Deen and a follower of Hanbali and Shafi’i in Furu al-Deen.

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The difference between Sayyid and Mirza, answer 562.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

[1] . Ali Akbar Dehkhuda, Dehkhuda Dictionary, Vol.10, (Shams Abad, Ali), p.15713, Tehran University Printing and Publication Institute, 2nd edition of new edition, 1998.

[2] . Martyr Mutahhari Collection of Works, vol.14, pg.570, vol.23, pg.57, Noor Software Program.

[3] . Dehkhuda Dictonary, vol.10 (Shams Abad Ali) p.15713.

[4] . Muhammad Ma’sum Shirazi, Taraequl Haqeq, (edited by Muhammad Ja’far Mahboob), vol.2, pg.32, Sinai Publications, 2nd edition.

[5] . Abdul Qadir Gilani, Futuhul Ghaib, pg.10, Darul Hadi Publications, Beirut, 1428 A.H. – 2007.

[6] . Dehkhuda Dictionary, vol.10, (Shams Abad ali), pg.15713.

[7] . Futuhul Ghaib, pg.10. ibid.

[8] . Taraequl Haqaeq, vol.2, pg.362, ibid.

[9] . Dehkhuda dictionary, vol.10 (Shams Abad Ali) p.15713.

post

How to calculate Khums on a house purchased with Sahm e Sadat

Question 046: A member of Ask Islam group contacted me privately about a situation that was brought to him for advice. There is a need for at least 2-3 academically credible sources, which Inshaa’Allah should include references from some of the Grand Marja’ (rulings from Sistani, Makram Shirazi and Khamenei are specifically being requested).

History: A brother, took financial responsibility for some of his extended family. He had an uncle, an aunt, three nieces, and a nephew who were financially dependent on him because his uncle (the head of the family) had a debilitating disability which left him paralyzed. This brother paid for the families expenses.

The house they lived ended up in a court dispute. The family thought the house belonged to them while some other party claimed it didn’t. After a court battle, it was found that the house did not in fact belong to the family that was living in it. The owners came to the house and told the family that they either had to immediately vacate the home or purchase the home. It would have caused great hardship for the family to move due to the uncles disability however they didn’t have any money to purchase the house either, as they were already financially dependent on the brother due to the disability.

Some family members and the uncle approached the brother and asked him to purchase the house since he had the means. The brother did not have the means but he did have some savings that he used in addition to an allocation of Sahm e Sadat that he had arranged for the family with the permission of the marja they followed. With the combination of his savings and the khums, the brother was able to purchase the home, where the family was able to live.

After some time, one of the daughters died, the uncle died, the aunt died, and the two remaining daughters were able to get married. There was only one family member left in the home, which was the teenage son.

The brother came into some financial troubles and needed to sell the house. The son is currently under the financial care of the brother as the child is an orphan.

Since, the home was originally purchase with a share of Sahm e Sadat, the brother has a few questions. He not only has concerns about the orphans well-being but he has concern about the share of Sahm e Sadat used to buy the home originally.
Questions: Should the Sahm e Sadat that was used to purchase the home be returned to the marja or should the brother give it to the orphan son that remains? The child has no inheritance as his father was financially dependent on the brother.
In addition, the home sold for a much greater price than it was purchased for. Does the brother need to add any inflation to the amount of Sahm e Sadat, when he pays it to either the marja or the orphan, in order to make things right?

Is there any other information that the brother needs to know in order to financially settle the son or the marja that he is religiously bound by fiqh? He wants to make sure that there is nothing he needs to worry about in the grave, he wants to make sure hes not being unjust.

If there is any additional information needed, please reach out for me. I know many more details and if there are details I don’t know, I can get them. Please, also see the financial breakdown below:

Brothers Personal Share – Rs 640,000

Sahm e Sadat – Rs 290,000

Buying Price of the House – Rs 930,000

Selling Price of the House – Rs 1,600,000

Profit from the Sell – Rs 670,000

Answer 046: The first order of business is to pay the amount of 498,924 to the orphan. The Sahm e Sadat that was arranged for the family to help purchase the house remains with the family. The orphan is the remaining member so, it should be paid to him. There is inflation on the original 290,000 due to the selling price of the house and the formula is as follows:

290,000 x 1,600,000 ÷ 930,000 = 498,924.

The second order of business is that khums must be paid to the brother’s marja on the remaining money of 1,101,076. The amount that he is to pay to his marja is 220,215. 1/5 or 20% is the amount that is used to figure the amount of khums and the formula is as follows:

1,600,000 – 498,924 = 1,101,076 x 20% = 220,215.

The amount must be paid to the orphan before the amount of khums is paid. The brother’s share of the selling price of the house is 880,861.

1,600,000 – 498,924 = 1,101,076 – 220,215 = 880,861.

498,924 – Orphan

220,215 – Khums

880, 861 – Profit.[1]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Islamic Laws / Khums.

[1] . While these formulas are agreed upon among all Grand Maraja’, this particular scenario and the formulas used to reach these figures were confirmed by the Office of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi (ha).

post

Impermissibility of giving Sadat portion of Khums to a non-Ithna Ashari Sayyid

Question 041: Can the Sadaat portion of khums be given to a non-Ithna Ashari? For example, can it be given to a Sunni Sayyid?

Answer 041: According to all maraja’ point of view, it is impermissible to give the Sadaat portion of Khums to a non-Ithnā’ ashariyyah Sayyid.[1]

Khums can be given to a Sayyid who may not be A’dil, but it should not be given to a Sayyid who is not Ithna ‘Ashari.

If a person claims that he is a Sayyid, Khums cannot be given to him unless two just (A’dil) persons confirm that he is a Sayyid, or if he is so well-known among the people, (as Sayyid) that one is sure and satisfied about him being a Sayyid. [2]

Sahme (portion) Sadat should be given, as an obligatory precaution, to the Marja whom he follows or be given to poor Seyyeds (Athnā‘ ashariyyah) with the permission of the Mujtahid, according to most of maraja’.[3]

Note: Khums should be divided into two parts. One part is Sahme (share of) Imam (a.s.), and the other is Sahme Sadat. When it comes to paying Sahme Sadat, Grand jurists such as Sistani, Tabrizi (r.a) and Saafi do not consider the Mujtahid’s permission to be necessary; [thus, he can pay it to poor and faithful Sayyids (Twelver) without obtaining their permission.] Ayatollah Bahjat (ra) and Makarem (ha) said: obtaining your mujtahid’s permission is necessary, according to an obligatory precaution.[4]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masiel al-mohasha (with connotation), Vol. 2. Pg. 61,question 1837.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules concerning Disposal of Khums.

[3] . Grand Ayatollahs Fazel Lankarani (r.a), Noori Hamedani, Makarem Shirazi, Bahjat (r.a) and Wahid Khurasani.

[4] . For further information refer to: Portal Anhar Website & Official website of Ayatollah Bahjat (ra).

post

Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms

Question 040: What is the relevance of differentiating between Sayed holms and Non-Sayyed holms. I have never seen or heard of it until recently? Is one supposed to pay more than the other? There were two holms boxes at Eid prayer. One for Non-Sayyed and the other for Sayyed.

Answer 040: The only difference is that, a person, who is not a Sayyid, cannot give fitra to a Sayyid, and if that Sayyid is his dependent, he cannot give to another Sayyid either.

Whoever is adult, sane and is neither unconscious, nor poor, nor the slave of another. He should give, on his own behalf, as well as on behalf of all those who are his dependents.

The cost is about three kilos per head of Wheat, Barley, Dates, Raisins, Coined Gold & Silver, Camel, Cow, Sheep (including goat).

It is also sufficient if he pays the price of one of these items in cash (it depends on where he lives). This is because the price of such items differ in each country or city you live or which such items we mostly use. As per obligatory precaution, he should not give from that food which is not staple in his place, even if it be wheat, barley, dates or raisins.

“In fact, there are two boxes: Khums box and Zakat box. Each poor person has the right to use only one of the two boxes for his annual expenses.” The Non-Sayyid indigents uses the Zakat box and the Sayyid indigents use the Khums box. The Sayyid indigents do not have the right to use anything from the Zakat property.[1]

According to Sayyid Sistani, it is permissible for a Hashimi to give his sadaqa to another Hashimi or to a non-Hashimi. This includes both Zakat of property and zakat of Fitra. But it is not permissible for a non-Hashimi to give his Sadaqa to a Hashimi. If a Hashimi receives Zakat of property or fitra from a non-Hashimi, it would be forbidden for him to use it, and he who gives it (zakat), his “Zimma” (obligation) would not be discharged. In cases other than those mentioned above it is permissible for a non-Hashimi to give his Sadaqa, atonement, or Fidya of fast (kaffara) or any desirable charity to a Hashimi. Yes, if charity given to a Hashimi is too little an amount of property and it is given with the intention of repulsing calamity and evil, there is Ishkaal (objection) in its being permissible.

Difference between Khums and Zakat: Both are obligatory, but Khums is on gains after exception of expenses of the year and Zakat is on cattle, crops, gold and silver.[2]

[1] . Tafsir Nomouneh, vol.7, pg.183.

[2] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), rules regarding Zakat.

post

The unmarried daughters of Imam Kadhim as / Fatima Masumah sa

Question 027: I have a question regarding Imam Musa Kadhims (as) unmarried daughters. I was recently in conversation with some of my Shia family about the fact that our Imam (as) had 18 daughters, but they never married. Is this true? If it is true, please give an explanation as to the reason(s) why the daughters never married. I was told that one reason is that there were no Sadat around to marry them, is this true?

Answer 027: There have been mentioned some different opinions regarding the daughters of Imam Musa Kadhim (as) and why his daughters never married. We need to evaluate the reasons to see which are considered sahih.

First Theory – The will of Imam Musa Kadhim (as): It is said that Imam Musa Kadhim (as) has expressed a will to his daughters to not get married! This opinion is supported by Ibn Wadih Ya’qui, as he has said, “Imam Musa Kadhim (as) had eighty sons and twenty three daughters. His sons were: Ali Ridha, Abraham, Abbas, Qasim, Ismael, Jafar, Aaron, Hasan, Ahmad, Muhammad, Ubaid allah, Hamzah, Zaid, Abdullah, Isaac, Hussain, Fadhl and Solomon.”

Imam Musa Kadhim (as) has expressed a will to his daughters not to get married. None of them got married except Umm Salama as she got married to Qasim bin Muhammad bin Jafar bin Muhammad in Egypt. This presented a severe problem between Qasim and his family. Qasim took an oath that he only recited a temporary marriage contract in order to become mahram to her, in order to go to Hajj and never had any sexual relations with her.[1]

Critique: It should be said in reply to Yaqoubi’s opinion: This will is contrary to the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (saws) and the way of Infallibles (pbuth) as they have never issued such a ruling. The text of the Imams (as) will is in regards to other thing than Yaqoubi has asserted. In order to judge about it we need to at first review this will as follows:
اُشْهِدُ هُمْ اَنّ هَذِهِ وَصِيَّتي … اَوصَيْتُ بها اِلي عَلَيٍٍّ اِبْني … و اِنْ اَرادَ رَجَلٌ مِنْهَم اَنْ يُزَوِّجَ أختَهُ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ اَنْ يُزَوِّجَها الاّ بِاِذْنِهِ وَ اَمْرِهِ … وَ لا يُزَوِّجَ بَناتي اَحَدٌ مِنْ اِخْوتِهِنَّ وَ مِنْ اُمّهاتِهِنَّ وَ لا سُلْطانٌ وَ لا عَمِلَ لَهُنّ اِلاّ بِرأيِهِ وَ مَشْوَرتهِ ، فَاِنْ فَعْلُوا ذلِکَ فَقَدْ خالَفُوا الله تَعالي وَ رَسُولَهُ (ص) وَ حادُّوهُ في مُلْکِهِ وَ هُوَ اَعْرَفُ بِمنالحِ قَوْمِهِ اِنْ اَرادَ اَنْ يَزَوِّجَ زَوَّجَ، وَ اِنْ اَرادَ اَنْ يَتْرَکَ تَرَکَ.

I call to witness that this is my will to my son Ali (Imam Ridha (as)). If one of your sisters want to get married they can’t do it without your (Ali) permission and consultation. If one of them got married without your permission, indeed she would oppose Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saws) and dispute in the kingdom of Allah (swt). Imam Ridha (as) is well aware of the interests of his family regarding the marriage affair. If he wants to marry his sister to anyone he deems it advisable, he would do it and if not, he would refuse.[2] It is clearly mentioned in this will that Ali bin Musa al-Ridha (as) is Allah’s (swt) HUjjat after him, (Imam Kadhim (as)). The sisters must obey him in everything including getting married. Imam Ridha (as) is well aware of the interest of his family. It never spoke of not getting married at all. This means that their marriage must be done under the supervision of Imam Ridha (as).

Therefore, Yaqoubi’s opinion is baseless and unreliable, according to some of scholars.[3]

Second Theory – Matchless: This means that Imam Musa bin Jafar’s (as) daughters, especially Lady Masoomah (sa) were at the highest level of scientific and spiritual perfection that nobody were equal to them. Equality is one of the marriage conditions, in which both the man and woman are supposed be at such equal level to one another; they have never got married.

Critique: This theory is unreliable as well, because this is not the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (saws) to not allow their daughters to get married for such a reason. They always said that a believing man and woman are equal in rank. There is a hadith from the Holy Prophet (saws) where he has said, “Whenever a suitor comes to marry your daughter and you approve of his piety and trustworthiness, let her get married to him, even if he is not equal to your daughter. If you don’t do that, it will cause corruption in the land”.[4]

Note: There were many decent young men, such as Imam Hasans and Hussains (pbuth) children, and also among the Shia Muslims who could be well suited for the Imams (as) daughters as potential husbands.

Third Theory – Repression/Political Problems: The violent repression had been used by Haroun al-Rashid to restrict Imam Kadhim (as) was on high level that nobody dared to refer to the Imam (as) in order to ask about canonical problems. How is it possible for those who wanted to get married to the Imams (as) daughters and be continuously in touch with the Imam (as)? The Imam (as) would be tortured by Haroun al-Rashid if he had established such a simple relationship. Haroun was a cruel and oppressive, although he pretended to be religious. A historian has said, “Haroun shed many tears while he was listening to sermons, but when he became angry he was such a tyrant.[5] It is said that Haroun had 2000 female slaves and that 200 of them were dancing and singing for him.[6]The Shia at that time were oppressed by Harun, such as Ali bin Yaqtin, who had to do Taqiyya. All his movements were controlled.[7]

When the Imam was imprisoned, the suitors’ motivation have been decreased. A dreadful condition was obtained there after the Imam (as) had been killed and nobody dared to establish communication with Imam Ridha (as) as he was also under control at that time. Therefore, it seems that the third theory is the real answer of this question, however we are not completely sure about it.

[1] . Yaqoubi History, Ahmad bin Abi Yaqoub (ibn Wadheh), Wezarat Farhang wa Amoozesh Aali, translated by Muhmmah Ibrahim Ayati, Vol. 2, Pg. 421.

[2] . Biharul Anwar, Dar e Ihya al-Torath al-Arabi, Vol. 48, Pg. 276 – 280; Oyoun al-Akhbar, Vol. 1, Pg. 26; Awalem, Vol. 21, Pg. 475; Usul al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg. 317.

[3] . Hayat (the Life) al-Imam Musa bin Jafar), Qorashi, Vol. 2, Pg. 497.

[4] . Montakhab (selected) Mizan al-Hikmat, Pg. 234; Biharul Anwar, Darel Kutub al-Islamiyah, Vol. 103, Pg. 237, Hadith 25.

[5] . Al-Aghani, Abul Faraj Esfahani, Beirut, Dare Ihya al-Torath al-Arabi, Vol. 5, Pg. 241).

[6] . Tarikh Tamaddon Islam (History of Islamic Civilization), Jurji Zaydan, translated by Ali Jawahir Halam, Amir Kabir Institution, Pg. 162).

[7] . al-Irshad, Sheikh Mufid, Basirati Qom, Pg. 293; Sheblanji, Noor al-Anwar, Pg. 150.

post

The difference between Sayyid and Mirza

Question 562: Assalamu alaikum dear brothers and sisters. I was curious about the difference between Sayyid and Mirza, coz I read that both titles indicate the holy lineage.

Thank you

Answer 562: In Arabic, the word ‘Sayyid’ simply means Mister, Honorable and Head. In Islamic terminology, it is an honorific title denoting those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim through the Daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), Hadhrat Fatimah Zahra (sa) and Imam Ali (as).[1]

Those who are descendant of Imam Ali (as) through Hadhrat Abbas (as) or Muhammad Hanafiyyah are respectfully called Sayyid. The same way is for those Hashemis who are accepted as descendant of Ja’far al-Tayyar and Aqil.[2]

Although, those who are descendants of Laday Fatimah Zahra (sa) through their mothers are Sayyid, but the term Sayyid is not exclusively related to the children of Hazrat Zahra (sa), because those who are accepted as descendants of Hashim and His generations are also considered as Sayyid. What the only difference is in regards to some rules like Khums that are considered as haram to those whose mothers are Sayyida, only. This means that those children of Sayyida mothers are surely descendant of the Holy Prophet (pbuh),[3] but a non Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza.

According to this following verse of the Holy Quran “Assert their relationship to their fathers; this is more equitable with Allah” it is prevalent and customary that a childs name and race are followed by his father, however ascribing the child to his mother is certainly true as well[4].[5]

[1] . Qurashi, Sayyid Ali Akbar, Qamous Quran, Vol. 3, Pg. 350, Dar al-Kutub al-Islmaiya, Tehran, sixth edition, 1992;  Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn, majma al-Bahrain, Vol. 3, Pg. 71, Murtadhavi Bookstore, Tehran, third edition, 1996;  Arabic and Farsi Farhang Abjad, Pg. 507.

[2] . Khamenei, Sayyid Ali, Ajwabat al-Istiftaat, Pgs. 216-217;  Golpayegani, Saayid Muhammad Redha, Majma al-Masael, Vol. 1, Pg. 392, Dar al-Quran al-Karim, Qom, eighth edition, 1409 A.H.

[3] . Majlesi, Muhammad Baqir Biharul Anwar, vol. 10, Pg. 349, H 9, Al-Wafa Institution, Beirut, 1404 A.H; Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 2, Pg. 89, Q 1009.

[4] . Surah, al-Ahzab, verse 5.

[5] . Adopted from answer 352.

post

Permissibility of getting Divorce when your partner has lied

Question 295: Salam, I am a shia- asnashari recently as per islamic gudielines I married a girl who claimed to be a syed, (had seen isteqara based on the name as given in profile but her name was different) after marriage I found that neither the girl is a syed, was married earlier and there is no compatablity and as this marriage is based on falsehood I want to divorce her, (dowry is not a issue as I have not demanded any thing before or after marriage I am financially well off and dont need any thing) I have paid the mehar at the time of marriage. what is the procedure of initiating a divorce. the marriage lasted less then a week and I have sent her home to her family. I had based this marriage on truth and had not hidden any facts with respect to my age, qualifications, family, income, etc. marriage from my side was based on facts and from her side was based on falsehood. please inform me how to get myself out of this mess.

Answer 295: The biggest capital in a couple’s life is truthfulness and honesty. If there is honesty in a family there would be no ground for any misunderstanding and misconception. The biggest problem can be ironed out through honesty and honest relationships.

On the other hand, wives and husbands must be kind to each other, have forgiveness and overlook the mistakes of one another in order to have a lovely and healthy living.

If the characteristics you’ve mentioned truly exist in their immoral sense in your wife, you should make her recognize such actions with soft, loving and kind words.

If she accepts her faults and truly ask forgiveness of Allah (SWT), then turn to Him you are recommended to forgive her, overlook [her ignorance] and live with each other, as in the holy Quran Allah, the Almighty says: “So pardon them and turn away Surely Allah loves those who do good (to others)”.[1]

Also, we as Muslim are supposed to follow what has been stated by the holy Prophet (pbuh). He (s) says: “The best of you is the one who is best among his family and I am the best to my family among you”.[2] So, you can overlook her ignorance and live together.

If you think it is impossible to live together in any way you are able to divorce her, because divorce is despised when it is done without an acceptable excuse, but if there is a good excuse for divorce, it will no longer be hated, and that is what divorce is for; for when there is no other way out.

How to get divorce:

Divorce is a one-sided contract (which is one of the unilateral obligationsiqa’at“) and it is carried out by the husband unilaterally even though the woman may not consent to it.” Therefore, a man can divorce his wife one-sidedly in accordance with the rules prescribed by the religion.

Divorce contract must be recited with the correct Arabic words in a way such that two just men listen to it. If the man wants to recite it by himself and his wife’s name is Fatimah, he should say:
“زَوْجَتِى فٰاطِمَةُ طالِقٌ”

Which means, my wife Fatimah is freed. If he appoints someone to recite it, the attorney should say[3]:[4]
“زَوْجَةُ مُوكِّلى فٰاطِمَةُ طٰالِقٌ”

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answers:

Index: Living away from home for a long time is not considered as the reason for Divorce, answer 468.

Index: Conditions of divorce and Validity of getting divorce by SMS, answer 423.

[1] . Surah al-Maedah, verse 13.

[2] . Sheikh Saduq, Man la Yahduruhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, pg. 555, Jame’eh Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 AH.

[3] . Imam Khomeini, Tawzih al-Masaeil (al-mohasha), ibid, p 522, question 2508, compiler: Bani Hashemi Khomeini, Syed Muhammad Hussain, the office of Islamic propagation, Qom, eighth edition, 1424 AH.

[4] . Adopted from answer 468 (Index: Living away from home for a long time is not considered as the reason for Divorce).