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Direction of Qibla: Offering prayers on a plane

Question 327: Question : If someone is traveling on a plane & time of prayer falls within his/her travel time, what will be the direction of Qibla he/she should turn his/her face for salat? According to me, usually Qibla will be downwards (but not east, west, north or south) when you are on a flight….so do you know what is the ruling of major marja-e-keram about this? How offering prayers on a plane should be toward Qibla?

Answer 327: Under no circumstances or conditions is it permissible to discard Salah, as it is wajib. Salah must be offered in any possible situation. If possible, a person who is in flight, space, or any other means of travel should try to settle in a fixed location using the available means in order to complete salah. If a person cannot do that, then they should offer their salah in any way possible, even if they can only use motions.

If the one stands facing towards earth, then they are facing the Qibla and they should pray in that direction, but if they could not distinguish the earth’s position, then they must pray in all four directions (if possible). If all directions are not possible, then they must pray in as many directions as possible.[1]

As far as wudhu goes, if they can or if it is possible then they should make wudhu. If it is not possible to make wudhu then they should make tayamum. If making tayamum is also not possible, then they should take precaution and make salah without wudhu or tayamum, but later they should make up the Qaza prayers for the salah which was performed without wudhu or tayamum.[2]

In addition, regarding complete salah vs. traveler’s salah: if an astronaut were to know that they were going to stay in one area of space for at least ten days then they should make his salah complete. In any other instance, they should shorten their salah. If being an astronaut is a persons occupation, then as long as after the first trip, they don’t stay in his hometown or outside of his hometown for more than ten days, then on their second trip their his salah will be complete. If however, they were to stay in his hometown or other than his hometown for ten days or more, then if they traveled to space again, they would have to shorten their salah.[3]

In reply to this question that how can we say our obligatory prayers in an aircraft, especially if we do not know the direction of the qiblah taking into consideration the instability of the floor [because the plane is in motion]? Sayyid Sistani (ha) answers: As for the qiblah, it is possible to identify its direction by asking the captain or the airhostesses because their answers usually carry validity and are a source of assurance. One should therefore act accordingly.

As for the stability of the floor where salat is to be performed, that condition will be waived when it is not possible to achieve it. However, other conditions of prayers should, wherever possible, be observed. Under no circumstance should the prayer be delayed beyond its appropriate time span.[4]

[1] . Imam Khomeini (May Allah have mercy on his soul), Istiftaat, Questions: 28&29; Tawzihul Masael of maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 434, Question 784.

[2] . Tawzihul Masael of maraja (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 381, Question 686; Ibid, Question 339.

[3] . Ibid, Vol. 1, Pg. 705, Question 1312.

[4] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A: Qibla.

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Makeup after wudu doesn’t void prayer

Question 157: Salaam to everyone. I have a question and I hope someone can shed some light or answer my question. Recently my teenage daughter asked me “mum if someone did their ablution before They go college and read the salah there and then put on muscara after their ablution would that salah be void or would it be accepted”? Now I was kind of confused as to what answer do I give. Because as the ablution was done with no mascara on but then the salah would be read WITH muscara on. Please, guys would appreciate the answer. Jzk to all.

Answer 157: According to maraja’, her wudu and prayer are treated as valid as it is not among those unclean things which invalidate wudu (ablution)[1]. However, for a matter of precaution, she should not perform her prayer in a place, where non-mahrams can see her makeup, but it doesn’t void her prayers.

The wudu is accepted because the mascara was applied after. There is not really a problem with the salah being offered with the mascara as its the ablation that is important and the wudu was accepted. What I would focus on next is what your marje says about makeup. Sayyid Sistani (ha) says it is fine to wear khol/mascara as long as it’s not done with the intention to attract attention and if it does then to remove it.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Number of things which invalidate Wudu (ablution), answer 556.

Index: Doubts during prayer whether wudu was performed or not, answer 036.

Index: Wiping performed on socks invalidates Wudu, answer 037.

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

Index: Philosophy of Hijab during prayer, answer 020.

Index: Men and Women: Covering body in prayers, answer 594.

Index: The validity of Ghusl even a barrier finds out after a week, answer 031.

The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha), Q&A, Wudhu.

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 188.

[2] . Refer to: http://www.sistani.org/english/qa/01265/

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Spiritual and Material Beauty and the Light of Faith

Question 245: There are hadith that state that you can recognize a mumin by characteristics of his face. Are these physical characteristics or more of the metaphysical realm that only one on the same level could recognize? I have heard that praying fajr prayer on time causes a light/glow to emit from one’s face. Is this referring to the energetic attraction we feel towards others as their spirit uplifts ours?

Answer 245: According to Islam, beauty is divided into two divisions: Spiritual and material. Getting the spiritual beauty has been more emphasized by Islam, though the material beauty has also been recommended.

An important thing that should be taken into consideration is that the spiritual beauty can be accessible by spiritual affairs like prayers and the material beauty would be available by some material affairs.

The following are some recommendations our Infallibles (pbuth) have suggested us to observe:

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “The beauty of a man can be seen in his patience, because, the patience gives our soul tranquility by which our ethics and behavior would become beautiful and brilliant if it is faced with afflictions and difficulties.”[1]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “The beauty of a believer is his\her self-restraint, virtue and piety.”[2]

– The Holy Prophet of Islam (saws) has said, “Whomever offers Salatul Tahajjod, his\her face would become brilliant in the day.”[3]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “Night prayer (salatul tahajjod) makes the face brilliant.”[4]

– Imam Sadiq (as) has said, “The night prayer can make our face look bright.”[5]

– Imam Sadiq (as) has said, “The repetition of performing wudu, upon the last wudu is like the light (noor) upon light.”[6]

– Imam Ali (as) has said, “If you sleep less at night and worship Allah (swt) the Almighty during the night, your face would become brilliant.”[7]

– The Imam (as) has also said, “The believers brilliant face is because of the kindness that Allah (swt) has given him. If you seek Allahs (swt) goodness, you have to worship Him by doing the righteous deeds and avoiding forbidden acts.”[8]

Note: The Holy Qur’an says, “Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly [white] star lit from [the oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by fire. Light upon light. Allah guides to His light to whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is knowing of all things.”[9]

There is a special light that Allah (swt) gives believers in order to become brilliant if they do the righteous deeds. This light is the light of knowledge. The method in which we can get such divine light, is to do what Allah (swt), the Almighty bids us and avoid of what Allah (swt) forbids us.[10]

When Muslims want to describe the spiritual characteristics of a believer, they say we see the light of faith in his face. According to this definition, it doesn’t matter which color your skin is, if you are white or black, red or yellow, if you act based on the above recommendations, your face would get the light of faith.

This is not physical light that we can see easily. This is the light of knowledge that anyone with any skin color can have, if given by Allah (swt), the Almighty. Anyone, even those who have the lowest level of faith, can recognize it.

As you know, Hazrat Adam and the Holy Prophet (pbuth) had tawny skin. Luqman Hakeem from Ethiopia was a black man and Imam Jawad (as) had dark-colored skin, however all people became captivated when they saw them. It’s because of the light of faith.

Let’s mention some recommendations of Practical Irfan that Imam Ali (as) has suggested us to observe:

– Imam Ali (as) explained the concept of spiritual wayfaring with such words, “The true arif is the one who has enlivened his intellect and who has mortified his desires, till the point where his coarseness has become broken and his severity has been softened. A luminous light is lit for him which illuminates the path towards God for him and under its guidance he goes forward…”[11]

– Imam Ali (as) has also said, “O’ creatures of Allah! The most of Allah is he whom Allah has given power (to act) against his passions, so that his inner side is (submerged in) grief and the outer side is covered with fear. The lamp of guidance is burning in his heart. He has provided provisions for the day that is to befall him.”[12]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: The night prayer or Salat al-Layl (Tahajjud, Night Prayer), answer 234.

Index: Whoever knows himself knows his Lord / Man Arafa Nafsahu, Faqad Arafa Rabbahu, answer 274.

Index: Making Wudu when you are going to bed, answer 032.

[1] . Tamimi Amedi, Abdul Wahed bin Muhammad, Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 285, H. 6392, office of Tablighat publication, Qom, 1987.

[2] . Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 269, Hadith 5862.

[3] . Toosi, Abu Jafar, Muhammad bin Hasan, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, Vol. 2, Pg. 119, Hadith 217, Darel Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 A.H. «مَنْ صَلَّى بِاللَّيْلِ حَسُنَ وَجْهُهُ بِالنَّهَارِ».

[4] . Shaeeri, Tajuddeen, Jame’ al-Akhbar, Pg. 72, Radhi Publication, Qom, 1984.

[5] . Hurr Ameli, Muhammad bin Hasan, Wasael al-Shia, Vol. 8, Pgs. 151 – 152, Hadith 10278.

[6] . Ibn Babawayh, Muhammad bin Ali, Man la Yahdhuruhul Faqih, Vol. 1, Pg. 41, Office of Islamic Publication, Qom, second edition, 1413 A.H.

[7] . Mustadrak al-Wasael, Vol. 6, Pg. 340.

[8] . Ghurarul Hikam, Pg. 346.

[9] . Surah Noor, verse 35.

[10] . Tafseer al-Mizan, Vol. 15, Pg. 168.

[11] . Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 210.

[12] . Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 86.

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Ziyarat Ghusl: Performing Ghusl for the Ziyarat of Masoomin (as)

Question 596: In terms of ablution, is it then mandatory to do Ziyarat Ghusl or tayammum before entering sacred places or doing salat?

Answer 596: The Fuqaha have mentioned many more Mustahab Ghusls, one of which is Ghusl for the Ziyarat of the Masoomen (A.S.)

The followings are some fatawa of our maraja regarding visiting the holy Shrines of our Infallible Imams (pbuth).

Imam Khomeini (ra): You are supposed to perform Ghusl for the Ziyarat of the holy Shrines of the Imams (as) with the Niyyat of ‘Raja’.

Sayyid Sistani (ha): Performing Ghusl for the Ziyarat of Masoomin (as) has not proved as a Mustahab act, but if one wants to do it, he/she should, as a precaution, perform it with the Niyyat of ‘Raja’, (i.e. with a hope that it might be a desirable act).

Makarem Shirazi (ha), Safi Golpayegani (ha) and the late Bahjat (ra): It is mustahab to perform Ghusl for Ziyarat of Masoomin (as).[1]

Note: If you want to offer the five daily obligatory prayers you have to perform Wudu first. And if there is a barrier preventing water from reaching it you would be allowed to perform Tayammum instead of Wudu or Ghusl.

For further information in this regards, please read the following answers:

Index:  Impermissibility of making Wudu after Ghusl, answer 035.

Index: The validity of Ghusl even a barrier finds out after a week, answer 031.

Index: Number of things which invalidate Wudu (ablution), answer 556.

[1] . Adopted from answer 4530 IQ.

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Istibra: liquid which comes out of body after Istibra is treated as pure

Question142: Sometimes while traveling a liquid comes out of my body, in which I am not able to recognize. What should I treat the liquid as?

Answer 142: If you performed Istibra after each urination, the liquid which comes out of your body afterward, is treated as pure.
Istibra is a recommended act for men after urinating. Its objective is to ensure that no urine is left in the urethra. There are certain ways of performing Istibra. The best way is after the passing of urine, if the anus also becomes najis, it is made clean first. Thereafter, the part between the anus and the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, and the forefinger below it, pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be jerked three times

It is also considered as pure if you are doubtful whether or not it is urine, semen or other najas things.

Otherwise, if you didn’t perform Istibra or you are sure it is a kind of najas thing (such as semen or urine and etc.) it is regarded as impure.[1]

[1] . The official website of the office of Sayyid Sistani (ha).

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Wiping performed on socks invalidates Wudu

Question 037: What is the ruling in Jafari fiqh about making wudu over socks or are we supposed to take the socks off every time we make wudu?

Answer 037: According to all maraja, wiping performed on socks or shoes is void. If one is unable to remove his socks or shoes because of severe cold, or fear of life, or a robber and the like, there would be no problem to wipe on socks or shoes, and then his wudhu is considered as valid. If there was so cold but one would have enough time to perform his wudhu later under normal condition (on time of prayer) it is impermissible to wipe on the socks and shoes.

According to most of Ahlul Sunnah, wiping on the socks and shoes is permissible, even you are under normal condition. As a result, what the reason which is behind the permissibly of wiping on the socks and shoes is on the time when you are under Taqiyyah, according to Shia scholars.

Note: Ayatollah Sistani (ha) says: according to an obligatory precaution, one can wipe on the socks or shoes, and then perform tayammum. If a person is under Taqiyyah (hiding one’s faith), it would be enough for him to wipe on his socks and shoes.[1]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael (with annotation), Sayyid Roohullah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 159, question 259, eighth edition, 1424 A.H. – For further information in this regards, please refer to: Moghniyah, Muhammad Javad, Al-Fiqh ‘ala al-Madhahib el Khamsah, Vol. 1, Pg. 37; Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Shia Pasokh Midahad (Shia Answers), Pg. 207.

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Doubts (shakk) during prayer whether wudu was performed or not

Question 036: If one gets Doubts (shakk) during the salah that wudu was not taken, should one break the salah to perform wudu?
Answer 036: If a person doubts during prayer (namaz) whether he has performed wuhu or not, his prayers is void, and he must perform wudhu and then pray. If a person is sure that he has performed wudu but doubts whether he has committed an act which invalidates it or not his wudu would be considered as valid.

If a person doubts whether his Wudhu has become void, he should treat it as valid. But, if he did not perform Istibra after urinating, and performed Wudhu, and thereafter some fluid was discharged about which he was not sure whether it was urine or something else, his Wudhu will be void.

If a person doubts whether he has performed Wudhu or not, he should perform Wudhu.

If a person is sure that he has performed Wudhu, and has also committed an act which invalidates Wudhu (e.g. urinating), but does not remember which happened first, he should act as follows: If this situation arises before his Namaz, he should perform Wudhu. If it arises during Namaz, he should break it and perform Wudhu. If it arises after Namaz, that Namaz will be valid, but for the next prayers, however, he should perform Wudhu.[1]

[1]. Tawzih al-Masael of maraja (with annotation), Sayyid Roohullah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pg. 179, question 301, eighth edition, 1424 A.H. http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2157/;  The Official Website of the Office of Sayyid Sistani, Rules regarding Wudhu.

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Imam Hasan and Hussain teach an old man how to make Wudu

Question 024: Did Imam Hasan and Hussain teach an old man how to make wudu? Did they artificially dispute with each other in order to teach the old man how to make wudu?

Answer 024:  It has been narrated in some resources that Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth), as children, taught an old man, in a good manner, how to make wudu properly, as follows:

One day an old man came to Medina. At the time of prayers he began to make wudu, but he was making his wudu incorrectly. Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth) immediately realized that the old man was not doing his wudu correctly. They wanted to correct him, but hesitated to tell him directly. Perhaps the old man would feel humiliated by two young boys correcting him, or he might even lose interest in the act of worship.

Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth) came up with a plan. They went to the old man and said, “My brother and I disagree over who amongst us performs wudu the best. Would you mind watching us make wudu and be the judge to see which one of us indeed performs wudu correctly? Could you please correct us wherever we are wrong?” The man watched carefully trying to judge who is better.

The boys performed their wudu under his supervision, one after the other. When they had finished, he realized the wudu done by the boys was methodical and correct. It was his own wudu which was incorrect. Turning to Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth), he gently said: “The wudu done by you is correct. I am grateful that you chose to guide me in such a beautiful manner.”

Imam Hasan and Imam Hussain (pbuth) neither criticized the old man, nor reproached him for his ignorance of the ruling of Islam. They did not refer to his way of performing wudu as wrong, nor did they call his action void. Rather, they performed wudu themselves and taught the old man its correct way indirectly. The result of this polite and wise criticism was that the old man confessed to his mistake explicitly, learned how to perform wudu correctly, and thanked them with kindness and pleasure.[1]

[1] . Ibn Shahrashub, Mazandarani, Manaqeb Al –e- Abi-Taleb (a.s), Vol. 3, Pg. 400, Qom, Allamah publication, first edition, 1379 AH; Majlesi, Muhammad Baqer, Biharul Anwar, Vol. 43, Pg. 319, Beirut, Dar –e- Ehya al-Torath al-Arabi, second edition, 1403 AH.

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Offering Qada Prayer if you forget to clean the dress carelessly

Question 033: I had wudu before suhoor yesterday and then I ate. After eating, my stomach was hurting so I went to the toilet and I saw light brownish marks from feces on my underwear. There wasn’t any actual feces on it, but just a faint mark. I wanted to clean it but I forgot and ended up doing wudu and praying Fajr. I only remembered when I was going to bed. I wasn’t sure whether I have to make up this prayer or not. In the morning, when I woke up, my menses started. What is the rule of Offering Qada Prayer?

Answer 033: If you were sure that the light brownish mark was from the feces and forgot to clean it, you have to make your Fajr prayer up (Qada). However, there wasn’t any actual feces on your underwear!

Otherwise, if you were not sure whether it was from feces and Najas or not your prayer is treated as valid.[1]

In Minhaj Ul Saliheen, Grand Ayatollah Sistani (ha) said, “According to an obligatory precaution, if it was due to carelessness, his prayer is treated as invalid whether he remembered after prayer or during prayer. Otherwise, if it wasn’t due to carelessness his prayer is valid.[2]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masaiel of Maraja’, Vol. 1, Pg. 85, Question 121;Ibid, Pg. 87, Question 123.

[2] . Minhaj al-Saliheen, Vol. 1, Pg.144, Question 422 & 426.

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Number of things which invalidate Wudhu (ablution)

Question 556: Can you please let us know those things that invalidate Wudhu (ablution) and their Causes?

Brief answer 556: Things that invalidate wudu are: Passing of urine. Excretion. Passing wind from the rear. A sleep, deep enough to restrict sight and hearing. However, if the eyes do not see anything, but the ears can hear, Wudhu does not become void. Things on account of which a person loses his sensibility, like insanity, intoxication or unconsciousness. Istihaza which will be dealt with later. Janabat, and, as a recommended precaution, every state which requires Ghusl.[1]

 

Detailed answer 556: There are several Unclean Things which invalidate wudu (ablution) and cause the necessity for its repetition.

 

1 & 2: Effusion of urine or what falls under its category, such as the suspected wetness coming out before istibrã’ or excretion of feces from the natural or unnatural passage, regardless whether the natural passage is blocked or not, and whether its amount is large or small, and whether it is accompanied, for example, by worms or lumps.

3: Passing out of wind from anus, if it comes out of the stomach or bowels, whether it is accompanied with sound and bad odor or not. But the wind that comes out of the front organ (vulva) of a woman, and not from the stomach or bowels is like the wind that enters from outside and then comes out. (It will not nullify ablution).

4: A sleep which overwhelms the senses of sight and hearing (as a result of which the eyes do not see, and the ears do not hear).

5: Everything which stuns human reason such as insanity, swooning, drunkenness or the like.

6: The minor or medium Istihädah (undue menstruation), rather to be more cautious, the abundant one too, though we have declared ritual bath to be obligatory in such cases.

Note: If the water of enema comes out without being accompanied by something like it would not invalidate ablution.

Likewise, if there is suspicion of the water of enema being accompanied by something, Or when some worm or lump comes out without being sullied by feces, (the ablution shall not be void)[2]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (annotated by Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pg. 188.

[2] . Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Things that invalidate Ablution & Their Causes.

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Making Wudu when you are going to bed

Question 032:  I have read two things: 1) It is recommended to be in wudu when you go to bed at night and 2) certain things invalidates wudu, including being unconscious/asleep. So, why is it recommended to go to bed in wudu when you just have to redo it when you wake up? Is there some sort of narration that says wudu protects you during sleep? If not, then what is the purpose in this practice.
Answer 032: Although, a sleep which overwhelms the senses of sight and hearing (as a result of which the eyes do not see, and the ears do not hear) invalidate wudu, but one of the reason which is behind performing wudu before going to sleep and has been recommended by the Infallibles (pbuth) is that the wudu help the soul of a believer to have a divine and positive inspirations during sleep. Unlike those who have been done bad actions during day they would dreamed the actions during night.

The following are some ahadith our Infallibles (pbuth) recommended us perform wudu:

The Prophet (saws) has said, ‘Perform ablution frequently and Allah will increase your life, and if you are able to be in a state of purity throughout the night and day, then do so, for if you die in the state of purity, you will die a martyr.[1]
The Prophet (saws) said, ‘The man sleeping in the state of purity is as the man praying and fasting.[2]

Imam Sadiq (as) said: whoever performs wudu before going to bed, the bed would be like the mosque for him. And if he remembers in the bed that didn’t perform wudu he can do tayammum on the coverlet, so if he sleeps with wudu or tayammum he likes offering prayers as long as he remembers Allah (SWT).[3]

Imam Ali (as) said: None of the Muslims are going to bed while they haven’t performed wudu and if there is no water they can do tayammum, because Angels take the soul of a believer (who sleeps) and climbs into the sky and Allah (SWT) accepts it and send blessing to it; if he is doomed to die He keeps the soul and if not the Angles return it to his body.[4]

[1] . Amali al-Mufid, p. 60, no. 5.

[2] . Kanz al-`Ummal, no. 25999.

[3] . Mahasen, Pg. 47, H. 64.

[4] . Khisal, Vol. 2, Pg. 402;  Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 10, Pg. 91.

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Number of things which invalidate the prayer

Question 547: Can you please tell us those things which invalidate the prayer?

Answer 547: There are a number of things which invalidate the prayer. They are called mubtilat, as follows:

1, The minor and major pollutions, (i.e., urine, feces, Janabat, etc.) They invalidate the prayer whenever they occur in the prayer, though at the time of reciting the letter “mim” which comes in the Salam (at the conclusion of the prayer), regardless whether it is done deliberately, erroneously or inadvertently, to the exclusion of one suffering from incontinence in urination, stool or a Mustahadah (a woman having undue menses), as has been mentioned earlier.

 2, Takfir or Takattuf, which means putting one hand over the other in the way it is done by others than ourselves (i.e. the non-Shi’ahs). It invalidates the prayers, according to the stronger opinion, if done deliberately, but not if done inadvertently, though it is more cautious to offer the prayer again. There is, however, no objection if it is done by way of Taqiyyah.

3, Turning the whole body backwards or towards the right or left or between them, in a way that the person offering the prayer would cease to be facing the Qiblah. If it is done deliberately, it would invalidate the prayer in all circumstances. Rather even if a person turns his body in a way that it ceases to be between the east and west, even if it is done inadvertently or forcibly or the like. Of course, the prayer would not be invalidated if a person turns to the right or left in a way that he continues facing the Qiblah as soon as he becomes easy; otherwise, it would be rendered disapproved. If, however, the turning is so serious that the face of the person offering prayers turns to the right or left of the Qiblah, then, according to the stronger opinion, the prayer shall be rendered void.

4, Speaking deliberately, even if the word spoken contains two meaningless letters, i.e., the person offering the prayer uses a meaningless word consisting of two letters in its kind or type, which, according to the stronger opinion, would invalidate the prayer, and even in case otherwise it would invalidate the prayer, according to the more cautious opinion.

  1. 5. Laughter even if forcibly. Of course, there is no objection if done inadvertently, as there is no objection in smiling even if intentionally

Laughter means laughing loudly when the sound revolves in the throat According to the more cautious opinion, to this is added as a rule laughing which consists of only sound, and even if it consists of the sound as well as the sound revolving in the throat supposing the person to have controlled himself from laughing when, for example, his mouth becomes full of laughter and his face turns red and he start trembling. In such case his prayer is not rendered void except when its very appearance is changed.

6, Weeping deliberately and loudly on some mundane loss, except when one starts weeping for an error in prayer, or some matter relating to Hereafter, or while asking for some mundane thing from Allah, the Exalted, particularly when the thing asked for is preferable from the point of view of Shari’at, in which the prayer shall not be rendered void. If, however, the weeping does not consist of sound, it is more cautious to offer the prayer again, though its not being rendered void is not devoid of force. If a person is overwhelmed with weeping causing invalidation of the prayer under compulsion, it is more cautious for him to offer the prayer again; rather its being obligatory is not devoid of force.

As regards permissibility of weeping on the leader of all martyrs (i.e. Imam Hussain), May our lives be sacrificed for him, there is hesitation and difficulty (in accepting it), and so caution must not be given up.

7, Every act which changes the appearance of prayers in a way that it would deprive the prayer of its name as prayer, though a little, renders the prayer void deliberately or inadvertently.

As regards an act which does not change the appearance of the prayer, if it causes failure to observe uninterrupted succession in the prayer in the usual sense, according to the more cautious opinion, it would invalidate the prayer in case it were deliberate, but not when it were unintentional.

In case the act does not cause failure to observe the uninterrupted succession, then if it were deliberate, it would not render the prayer void, not to speak of the case when it was unintentional, even if it is a great deal like moving the fingers, sign by hand or the like to call someone, or killing a snake or scorpion, carrying a baby, placing it on the ground, taking it in one’s lap, nursing it or the like which does not cause interruption in succession nor does it change the appearance of the prayer.

8, Eating and drinking, even if were in a small quantity, according to the more cautious opinion.

Of course, there is no objection in swallowing the particles of food which have remained in the mouth or between the teeth, though it is more cautious to refrain from it.

Caution must not be given up by avoiding to keep sugar in the mouth, even if in a small quantity, so that it may dissolve and may slip down the throat bit by bit, even if does not cause any change in the appearance of the prayer nor does it cause failure in the uninterrupted sequence.

There is no difference in the application of the rules mentioned whether the prayer is obligatory or supererogatory, except in turning the face from the Qiblah in offering a supererogatory prayer while walking. In case it were a non-supererogatory prayer, according to the more cautious opinion, the prayer shall be rendered void.

This is to the exclusion of the case of a thirsty person who is busy in Du’ã in a Vitr prayer who intends to keep fast the same day, if he is afraid that the day may dawn, while the water is before him and requires to take only two or three steps, it would be permissible for him to walk and drink water to his fill, even if it takes a long time, provided that he has not done anything else invalidating the prayer, though when he intends to return to his former place, he must return backward so that his back may not be towards the Qiblah.

9, Uttering the word Ameen after completing the Sürat al-Fatihah (Chapter 1 of the Quran) except by way of Taqiyyah (Dissimulation), in which case there is no objection, as is the case who does it inadvertently.

10, Doubting the number (of Rak’ats) in prayers other than those having four Rak’ats from among the daily obligatory prayers, and doubting in the first two Rak’ats (in prayers having four Rak’ats) due to the reasons to be explained, God willing, in their relevant place.

11, Reducing or adding a part in all circumstances when it were a pillar (of the prayer), and doing so deliberately in case it were other than a pillar (of the prayer).[1]

[1] . Tawzih al-Masael of maraja’ (with annotation of Imam Khomeini), Vol. 1, Pgs. 614-634;  Tahrir al-Wasilah of Imam Khomeini (ra), Vol. 1, Pgs. 212-217.