Rules Concerning Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã Prayers

Question 143: Why is the Eid prayer led by one person and the Eid qunut dua led by another person?

Answer 143: The Prayers for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are obligatory during the presence of the Imam, Peace be upon him, and when he has complete freedom of action as well as the fulfillment of other required conditions, but they are approved during the Occultation (Ghaibat) of the Imam, and it is more cautious to offer them individually during the Period of Occultation of the Imam. There is, however, no objection in offering them with Jamã’at with the hope (that it shall be desirable to Allah), and not with intention that it has come down in the Shari’at The time for offering these two prayers is from the rising of the sun to noon. It does not become due if not offered.

They consist of two Rak’ats, in each of the Rak’ats one must recite the Sürat al-Hamd (Chapter 1 of the Quran) and some other Surah of the Quran. It is, however, preferable to recite Surat al-Shams (Chapter 91 of the Quran) in the first Rak’at and Surat aI-Ghãshiyah (Chapter 88 of the Quran) in the second Rak’at, or Surat al-A’la (Chapter 87 of the Quran) in the first Rak’at and Surat al-Shams in the second Rakat. After the recitation of the Surah from the Quran in the first Rak’at, one must recite five Takbirs and five Qunuts, one Qunut being after each Takbir, and in the second Rak’at four Takbirs and four Qunuts, one Qunut being after each Takbir.

In the Qunüt, it is permissible to recite any Dhikr or Du’ã’ like other prayers, and if one recites what is usual, there is no harm; rather, it would be approved, and that is as follows (in Arabic): “Allãhummã ahlal kibriyã’i val ‘azamati va ahlal judi val jabarut va ahlal ‘afwi var rahmah va ahlat taqwâ val maghfirah As’aluka bihaqqi hadhal yowmi ladhi ja ‘altahu lil Musilmeena Eidä va lil Muhammadin sallallãhu alaihi va àlihee dhukhran vasharafan va karãmatan va mazeeda an tusalli ‘alã Muhammadin va Al-i Muhammad va an tudkhilani fi kulli khairin adkhalta feehi Muhammadan va Al-a Muhammad va an tukhrijani min kulli su’in akhrajta minhu Muhammadan va Al-a Muhammad Salawàtuka ‘alaihi va ‘alaihim Allãhummã as’aluka khaira ma sa’laka bihi ‘ibãdukas Salihun va ‘audhu bika mimmasta’ãdha minhu ‘ibãdukal mukhlisun”.

Its English translation is as follows: “O Allah, Possessor of Majesty and Greatness, Possessor of Generosity and Almightiness, Possessor of Forgiveness and Mercy, Possessor of Protection and Pardon, I ask Thee, for the sake of this Day which Thou hast set for Muslims a Day of Rejoicing, and for Muhammad, Blessing be on him and his Progeny, (a source of) treasure, honour, dignity and even more, to send Blessing to Muhammad and his Progeny, and to enter me (or my name) in every good deed, Thou hast entered in it (the names of) Muhammad and Muhammad’s Progeny, and remove me (or my name) from every evil, Thou hast removed from it (the names of) Muhammad and Muhammad’s Progeny, Thy Blessing be on him and them. O Allah, I ask Thee for every good thing asked for by Thy pious Devotees, and seek of Thee for the refuge sought for by Thy pure Devotees.”

If a group of people offers these two prayers with Jamã’at with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), the Imam shall deliver two Sermons after offering them with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah). It is permissible to give up both these prayers during the

Period of Occultation (of the Twelfth Imam). (When these prayers are offered), it is permissible to recite the words loudly by the Imam (when offered with Jamãat), or by the individual (when offered individually). It is also approved to raise the hands at the time of reciting the Takbirs, and offer it in large open spaces excepting Mecca. It is disapproved to offer these prayers under a roof.

Like all other Jama’ats, the Imam is not responsible in these prayers for anything except recitation.

If a person doubts about the number of the Takbirs or Qunuts (in these prayers), and the doubt occurs in its proper place (of compensation), he shall decide in favour of the minimum.

If a person does something entailing the performance of the prostration for error, it is more cautious to perform the prostration for error with the intention of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), though its non-obligation, when the prayer be considered to be approved, (and not obligatory), is not devoid of force. The same is the case with the compensation for a forgotten Tashahhud or prostration

In the prayers for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhà, there is neither a call for prayer (Adhãn), nor a call for standing for prayer (Iqamah). Of course, it is approved for the Muadhdhin (one who calls for prayer) to call (loudly) three times: ‘Assalat’ (i.e., The prayer is ready).[1]

According to an obligatory precaution, it is said that two sermons (khutbas) be delivered after Eid prayer (in regards to the Jummah prayer, another difference is that the khutbah is delivered before prayer and with Eid prayer the khutbah is delivered after the prayer), and it is better the sermons should explain rules regarding Zakatul Fitr.

– If you are going to offer it individually, you must recite the whole Dhikrs by yourself.

– If you want to offer it in congregation, some of its Dhikrs are recited by the Imam and others by you and the Imam simultaneously.

– When the Imam of prayer is reciting Surah al-Hamd and al-Ikhlas (or al-A’la) others just listen and don’t recite these Surahs by themselves.

– Other Dhikrs such as Takbirs, dua in Qunut, Ruku, Sujood and Tashahhod are being recited by the Imam of Prayer and all Mamomeen altogether.

– Since this prayer comes only once a year, there is often difficulties about how to offer this prayer and recite the dua in Qunut. So, a mukabbir (one who pronounces takbir) is usually recite this dua in order to help others recite this dua correctly. However, the Imam of prayer and all Mamoneen are reciting it by themselves.[2]

For further information in this regards, please refer to the following answer:

Index: Zakat of Fitrah, Zakãt al-Abdan (or Zakãt of Bodies), answer 045.

Index: Zakat and difference between Sayyid and non-Sayyid holms, answer 040.

[1] . Tahrir al-Wasiah of Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, Rules Concerning Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhã Prayers.

[2] . Tawzih al-Masail (without annotation), Roohollah al-Moosavi al-Khomeini, Vol. 1, Pgs. 824 & 825 question 1516, 1519 & 1520.